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Publications (6)13.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Apple extract powders from three different manufacturers were investigated for their anti-inflammatory activity, their total phenolic content, and their chemical composition. The samples represented two production batches for two products and a single batch of a third. The samples showed similar, but clearly different, anti-inflammatory activities, and had substantially different total phenolic contents, and different chemical compositions. Differences in chemical composition for batches of the same product were significant, although not as great as differences between products. The samples were fractionated into chemical classes. The most active fractions were those that contained epicatechin, catechin with phloridzin and quercetin glycosides, or those that contained procyanidin polymers. It was not possible to link activity to the presence of individual components or combinations of these. If fruit extracts are to be reliably linked to validated health benefits, then the source materials, the extraction processes, and the final composition of such products need to be more clearly defined than at present.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 05/2009; 60 Suppl 7:188-205. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cytoprotective effects of five flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, catechin, kaempferol and morin) and four hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, ferulic, sinapic and chlorogenic acids) were evaluated by the degree of protection they provided against H2O2-induced damage to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. All compounds exhibited protection against H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity in a dose dependent manner. The concentration required to give a 50% reduction in cell death (EC50 value) were derived from their dose–response relationships. The cytoprotective activities of these phenolic compounds in the order of quercetin > caffeic acid > rutin > chlorogenic acid > catechin > ferulic acid > sinapic acid > morin > kaempferol. The EC50 values of the phenolic compounds were strongly related to their chemical structures. The EC50 values were compared with the antioxidant activities as determined by five different chemically based antioxidant assays [2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (LPIC)]. The ability of these phenolic compounds to protect from H2O2-induced SH-SY5Y cell death correlated (r 2 = 0.85) with their determined LPIC values and weakly (r 2 = 0.44) with their ABTS activities. There was no correlation between EC50 values and ORAC, FRAP or DPPH activities. The cytoprotection assay is a more biologically relevant measurement than the chemically defined antioxidant activity assays because it uses human cells as a substrate and therefore accounts for some aspects of uptake, metabolism and location of antioxidant compounds within cells.
    European Food Research and Technology 01/2008; 228(1):123-131. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study modeled, in vitro, the potential effect of conjugative (phase II) metabolism on the cytoprotective capacity of fruit flavonoids against oxidative stress. Flavonoid aglycones were compared with their corresponding isomeric mixtures of glucuronides for their ability to enhance the survival of cultured human Jurkat T and neuroblastoma cells stressed with hydrogen peroxide. Various polyphenolic compounds were tested as substrates in vitro for an ovine liver glucuronyl transferase preparation. Flavonoids and their glycoside derivatives were found to be good substrates, whereas phenolic acids were either poor or nonsubstrates. Five common flavonoids were glucuronidated to prepare mixtures for bioassay testing. Glucuronidation generally weakened the cytoprotective capacities of flavonoids (in the presence of H(2)O(2)), but some compounds were weakened much more than others. The concentration that halved cell death was well below 0.5 microM for most flavonoids tested, but glucuronidation increased median effective concentration values to a range of 1-16 microM. This compares with the generally accepted physiological range (0.1-10 microM) for circulating dietary polyphenolics detected in the body. Therefore, some flavonoids may retain a reduced cytoprotective capacity in vitro, after glucuronidation, whereas others may be effectively inactivated.
    In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal 01/2008; 44(3-4):73-80. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The free radical scavenging activities of three flavonoids (quercetin, rutin and catechin) and four hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, and chlorogenic acids) were evaluated using both oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (LPIC) assays. The cytoprotective effects of these compounds were also measured by the degree of protection against H(2)O(2)-induced damage of human Jurkat cells. All compounds exhibited protection against H(2)O(2)-mediated cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The concentrations required to result in a 50% reduction in cell death (EC(50) value) were calculated from their dose-response curves. These ranged from 0.15-2.65 microM. Overall, the four hydroxycinnamic acids tested were less effective than the three flavonoids, and of all compounds tested, quercetin offered the strongest protection against H(2)O(2)-induced cell death. A comparison of the results showed that the ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids in a liposomal system (LPIC) correlated well with the cytoprotective activities (EC(50)), but not with the ability to protect an aqueous fluorescent substrate in the ORAC assays. The results suggest that the behavior of antioxidants in a liposomal membrane is to some extent similar to the mechanism involved in the protection of living cells from oxidative damage.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 12/2006; 50(11):996-1005. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several polyphenolic compounds, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, were compared with their per-methylated forms in both chemical and cell-based assays for antioxidant capacity. Methylation largely eliminated "chemical" antioxidant capacity, according to ferric reducing antioxidant power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. Methylation, however, only moderately reduced protection of human Jurkat cells in culture, from hydrogen peroxide-mediated cytotoxicity, at physiologically relevant concentrations. Neither methylated nor un-methylated compounds were detectably metabolized by the cells. It appears that the protective mechanism of polyphenolic antioxidants against high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in human cells may be largely unrelated to chemical antioxidant capacity.
    FEBS Letters 11/2006; 580(22):5247-50. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing interest both from consumers and researchers in the role that berries play in human health. The objective of this study was to investigate whether anthocyanins and other phenolics present in boysenberries and blackcurrants are effective in protecting cells against the oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The concentrations of polyphenols used were within the human physiological range. The data showed that SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were protected against H2O2-induced toxicity by the anthocyanins and phenolic fractions. The concurrent addition of either fractions of these berries with H2O2 significantly inhibited the increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Pre-incubation of cells with the same concentrations had no effect on the ROS level—a result that may be due to the metabolic conversion to inactive compounds. Anthocyanins and phenolic fractions of blackcurrant were better at protecting DNA of HL-60 human promyelocytic cells from damage than similar fractions from boysenberry. The phenolic extract of blackcurrant demonstrated the highest protective effect against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and DNA damage and may be a good candidate for inclusion into a processed functional food. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 04/2006; 86(5):678 - 686. · 1.76 Impact Factor