[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic variations of co-stimulatory molecules can affect the extent of T cell activity during T-cell mediated immunity, especially in transplant patients. This study aimed to investigate the association of programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1) and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PDCD1LG1) gene polymorphisms with clinical outcome of kidney transplantation.
A total of 122 patients with a kidney transplant were included in this retrospective study. Patients were classified into two groups of biopsy-proven acute allograft rejection (AAR) and stable graft function (SGF) during the 5-year follow-up period. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms in PDCD1 and PDCD1LG1 were determined in the groups of patients as well as in 208 healthy control individuals.
The frequencies of PD-1.3 (+7146 G>A), PD-1.9 (+7625 C>T), PD-L1 (8923 A>C), and PD-L1 (+6777 C>G) genotypes and alleles were not significantly different between the AAR and SGF groups. In comparison with healthy controls, PD-1.9 (+7625 C>T) genotype and T allele were significantly more frequent in all of the patients and in those with SGF. Overall, 27 of 122 kidney allograft recipients experienced delayed graft function, and a higher frequency of PD-1.9 (+7625 C>T) genotype and T allele was observed in this group versus those without delayed graft function. Similarly, a significant high frequency of this genotype was found among the AAR subgroup of patients with delayed graft function.
Our results indicate that potentially functional genetic variation in PDCD1 can influence the outcome of kidney transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this report, we explain a case of true aneurysm of the internal iliac artery in a previously transplanted kidney, which was reconstructed successfully by interposing saphenous vein graft, using double balloon shunt to prevent renal ischemia as a new approach. The case was a 26 year old female with a 4 × 4 cm aneurysm at the anastomotic site of the transplanted renal artery detected by ultrasonographic evaluation and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging technique. This rare complication was managed successfully through an open surgical arterial reconstruction using reversed saphenous vein graft. According to our findings, double balloon shunt seems feasible and safe in open surgical repair of transplanted renal artery and internal iliac artery aneurysms and can prevent renal ischemia during reconstruction.
Archives of Iranian medicine 12/2014; 17(12):844-6. · 1.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the predictive power of anti-HLA antibodies, sCD30 levels and IgA-anti-Fab autoantibody before and early after transplantation in relation to long-term kidney allograft survival. Pre- and post-transplant sera samples of 59 living-unrelated donor kidney recipients were tested for above risk factors by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Fifteen out of 59 cases experienced rejection episodes (failure group). Pre- and post-transplant high sCD30 levels were significantly associated with graft failure (P=0.02 and P=0.004) and decreased 4-year graft survival (P=0.009 and P=0.001). Higher frequency of post-transplant HLA class-II antibody in the absence of class-I antibody was observed in failure group (P=0.007). Patients with post-transplant HLA class-I and class-II antibodies either alone or in combination showed significant lower 4-year graft survival. Recipients with high sCD30 levels in the presence of HLA class-I or class-II antibodies within 2 weeks post-transplant had poor graft survival (P=0.004 and P=0.002 respectively). High levels of post-transplant IgA-anti-Fab antibody was more frequent in functioning-graft patients (P=0.00001), correlated with decreased serum creatinine levels (P=0.01) and associated with improved graft survival (P=0.008). Our findings indicate the deleterious effect of early post-transplant HLA antibodies and increased sCD30 levels dependently and protective effect of IgA-anti-Fab antibodies on long-term renal graft outcomes.
Human immunology 09/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.humimm.2013.09.010 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to compare laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair with or without mesh fixation regarding recurrence rate and duration of operation time. A sample of 73 patients who underwent laparoscopic transabdominal pre-peritoneal (TAPP) inguinal hernia repair from January 2002 to January 2010 were derived from the medical records of university hospitals including Ekbatan, Beasat, and Shaheed Beheshti, as well as private hospitals. MERSILENE™ Mesh (Johnson & Johnson Medical GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany) fixation was performed for 23 cases and polypropylene mesh without fixation for the rest. The recurrence rate was followed in both groups for two years. The patients ages were from 7 to 64 years, 70 patients (95%) were male. Operation time for mesh fixation and nonfixation was 68.09 and 21.10 minutes, respectively (P < 0.001). Two recurrences occurred in the mesh fixation group versus no recurrence in the nonfixation group (P = 0.096). The results of this study revealed that laparoscopic TAPP inguinal hernia repair without mesh fixation is safe and feasible with no increase in recurrence rate. In addition, it offers a significantly shorter operation time than TAPP mesh fixation. However, we need more evidence based on randomized clinical trials to compare the benefits and harm of the two methods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: A growing body of evidence demonstrated an immune etiology as well as nonimmune mechanisms for episodes of clinical acute rejection and long-term allograft dysfunction.
Objective: To investigate the correlation of IFN-γ-producing cells and TGF-β with incidence of clinical acute rejection in living-related and unrelated kidney allogarft recipients during the first post-transplant year.
Methods: This multi-center study was performed on 57 kidney allograft recipients from living-related (n=20) and unrelated (n=37) donors between April 2011 and September 2012 and who were followed prospectively for a mean period of one year. Peripheral blood samples were collected from all patients pre-transplantation and at days 14, 30 and 90 after transplantation; PBMCs were used as responding cells in enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay to measure the frequency of IFN-γ-producing cells after stimulation with donor lymphocytes. Additionally, TGF-β levels were measured in cell culture supernatants of ELISPOT assay.
Results: During the follow-up period, 45 (79%) patients were diagnosed with stable graft function (group A); 12 (21%) experienced clinical acute rejection episodes (group B). The frequency of IFN-γ-producing cells was significantly (p<0.001) higher in the rejection group in all three times after transplantation. Also, post-transplantation comparison for TGF-β showed a significantly (p<0.001) higher contents in group A vs. group B. Comparing the post-transplantation levels of TGF-β and mean numbers of IFN-γ- producing cells between groups A and B demonstrated a continuous increment in TGF-β and decreasing frequencies of IFN-γ-producing cells in group A vs. group B.
Conclusion: Serial post-transplantation monitoring of IFN-γ-producing donor reactive cells during the first months is a clinically feasible approach for identification of kidney allogarft recipients at risk for ongoing immune-mediated graft damage and later graft loss.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: During the month of Ramadan, millions of Muslims abstain from food and drink daily from dawn to sunset and people actually experience repeated cycles of fasting and refeeding. Menstruation is a normal physiological process that its regularity is controlled by hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Etiology of menstrual dysfunction includes weight loss, hypoleptinemia, abnormal eating behaviors, exercise, and psychological stressors. Objective: To investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on menstrual cycles. Materials and Methods: This analytic cross-sectional study was performed on 80 female college students resident in a dormitory of Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics and menstrual calendar was filled by all participants. All analyses were performed using the statistical software SPSS for Windows version 11.5. Results: We found 11.3%, 30%, and 16.3% of participates had abnormal menstrual pattern three months before, during and three months after Ramadan, respectively. In participates who fast more than 15 days, menstrual period had significantly more abnormality than participants who fast less than 15 days. Considering our results we demonstrated that menstrual abnormalities during Ramadan month reach to their peak and three months after Ramadan reduce but do not return to previous condition. Conclusion: This study confirms that menstrual abnormalities including oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea and hypermenorrhea increased during Ramadan especially in participates with more than 15 days of fasting.
Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine 02/2013; 11(2):145-50. · 0.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most common anatomic variant seen in the donor kidneys for renal transplantation is multiple renal arteries (MRA), which can cause an increased risk of complications. We describe the long-term outcomes of 16 years of experience in 76 kidney transplantations with MRAs. In a new reconstruction technique, we remove arterial clamps after anastomosing the donor to the recipient's main renal vessels, which cause backflow from accessory arteries to prevent thrombosis. By this technique, we reduce the ischemic times as well as the operating times. Both in live or cadaver donor kidneys, lower polar arteries were anastomosed to the inferior epigastric artery and upper polar arteries were anastomosed to the superior epigastric arteries. Injection of Papaverine and ablation of sympathic nerves of these arteries dilate and prevent them from post-operative spasm. Follow-up DTPA renal scan in all patients showed good perfusion and function of the transplanted kidney, except two cases of polar arterial thrombosis. Mean creatinine levels during at least two years of follow-up remained acceptable. Patient and graft survival were excellent. No cases of ATN, hypertension, rejection and urologic complications were found. In conclusion, this technique can be safely and successfully utilized for renal transplantation with kidneys having MRAs, and may be associated with a lower complication rate and better graft function compared with the existing techniques.
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 01/2013; 24(2):247-53. DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.109565
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Despite several studies conducted to detect predisposing factors of graft rejection, results are inconsistent and limited. This study was performed to estimate long-term survival rate of kidney transplantation and to detect associated prognostic factors. Material and Methods This retrospective cohort study was conducted in Hamadan Province, in western Iran, enrolling 475 patients who had undergone kidney transplantation from 1994 to 2011. Data were extracted from patients' medical records using a checklist. Chronic nonreversible graft rejection was considered as the event of interest. The duration of time between kidney transplantation and rejection was considered as the survival time. Life table, Kaplan-Meier curve, log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model were used for data analysis. Results Out of 475 transplantations, 55 episodes of rejection occurred. One-, 5-, 10-, 15-, and 18-year survival rates of transplantation were 97.1%, 92.3%, 86.2%, 77.6%, and 60.3%, respectively. The hazard ratio of graft rejection per 1-year increase in recipient age was 0.92 (P=0.001). The hazard ratio of graft rejection was 5.47 for grafts from deceased donors compared to grafts from living donors (P=0.025), and 3.54 (P=0.025) and 47.99 (P=0.001) in patients with episode of acute and hyperacute rejection compared to those without rejection episode, respectively. Conclusions Rejection of kidney transplantation is shaped by several prognostic factors, the most important of which are recipient age, type of donor (living vs. deceased), and episode of post-transplantation acute and hyperacute rejection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The most frequent physical finding in infertile men is varicocele, in which one of the mechanisms that can affect seminal parameters is oxidative stress.
Objective: Our study aimed, for the first time, to compare the efficacy of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) on sperm parameters and fertility after varicocelectomy.
Materials and Methods: 113 infertile men with varicocele were divided into four groups. Group A received HCG 5000 IU weekly, group B received HMG 75 IU three times a week, group C received rhFSH 75 IU three times a week and group D received no medical treatment after varicocelectomy.
Results: After three months, in group A sperm morphology improved (p=0.007), causing a 32% pregnancy rate. In group B, sperm motility (p=0.023) and morphology (p=0.014) improved, causing a 57% pregnancy rate. In group C, all of the investigated semen parameters increased (p<0.05), causing a 62.5% pregnancy rate. Only rhFSH improved sperm concentrations to >20×106 mL (p=0.027). In group D, sperm morphology increased (p=0.038), but other parameters remained unchanged and no pregnancies occurred.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that drugs can reduce induction time for spermatogenesis and fertility in comparison with varicocelectomy alone. For these purposes, rhFSH is more effective than other drugs.
Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine 09/2012; 10(5):441-52. · 0.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokine storm generated by an alloimmune response after transplantation can lead to either graft survival or rejection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and interferon (IFN)-γ and expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in renal allograft recipients with or without donor bone marrow cell infusion (DBMI).
We retrospectively followed 28 living unrelated kidney recipients, including 14 with and 14 without DBMI infusion for 2 years. Also, 14 healthy subjects were included as a normal control group. PBMC gene expression analysis for mRNA levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 cytokines relative to β-actin as a reference gene was performed using quantitative fluorescence real-time polymerase chain reaction at the end of 2 years posttransplantation. Also, serum levels of IL-10, TGF-β1, IFN-γ, and IL-17 in the 3 groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the same time.
Both patient groups showed increased gene expression and serum content of IL-10 compared with normal controls. The expression levels were only significant between control patients and normal subjects (P=.02). Serum levels of IFN-γ and IL-17 were higher in untreated patients compared with normal controls (P=.03 and P=.07, respectively). DBMI patients showed significantly lower levels of serum TGF-β1 and IL-17 compared with normal subjects (P=.05 and P=.06, respectively). Also, infused patients showed a positive correlation between circulating levels of IL-17 and IL-10 (r=0.692; P=.006), and an inverse correlation between serum creatinine and TGF-β1 levels (r=-0.580; P=.03).
The decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines besides IL-10 with increased TGF-β1 levels and better allograft function with improved clinical outcomes were observed among infused patients, possibly indicating immunomodulatory effects of this approach in kidney allograft patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to assess the long-term toxic effects of sulphur mustard (SM) on the testis and male fertility two decades after exposure. A historical cohort study was conducted in 2005. Sixty-four SM-exposed and 64 matched SM-unexposed casualties of the Iraq-Iran conflict were enrolled. Fecundity status, semen indices, hormonal assay results and testis histopathology were evaluated. Male factor infertility was diagnosed in 23 and 5% of married exposed and unexposed casualties, respectively (p < 0.01). All semen indices declined over the 15 years since 1990 among the exposed group. Furthermore, all indices with the exception of sperm motility were significantly lower in the exposed than in unexposed men. The follicle-stimulating hormone level was higher in the infertile than in fertile exposed men (p < 0.001). Testis histopathology of the azoospermic men showed complete absence of spermatogenesis with only Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. SM can be gonadotoxic and its chronic toxicity may be permanent. Germ cells are probably the most susceptible gonadal cells to SM.
International Journal of Andrology 08/2009; 32(4):411-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2009.00938.x · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a systematic disease which accounts for 10-15% of patients receiving dialysis or renal transplantation. It has a statistically significant association with malignancy in renal transplant recipients. We report a 47-year-old ADPKD female who developed a large renal tumor in the right kidney 12 years after kidney transplantation. During the follow-up, her ultrasound and laboratory tests were within normal limits. Bilateral nephrectomy of the native kidneys was performed, and followed by radiotherapy on the right side because pathology of the tumor suggested non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 10/2007; 18(3):419-21.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite advances in immunosuppressive therapy in the past decade, allograft rejection remains the primary cause for kidney graft failure. Cytokines are known to be important mediators in renal allograft outcome. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta cytokine gene polymorphisms contributed to kidney graft outcome. We evaluated single nucleotide polymorphism in IL-4 (-1098G/T, -590C/T, -33C/T), IL-10 (-1082A/G, -819C/T, -592A/C), and TGF-beta (codon 10 and 25) in 100 renal transplant recipients and 139 normal healthy control using polymerase chain reactions based on sequence-specific primers. Recipients were clinically characterized as rejection episode (RE) versus stable graft function (SGF). The results showed the frequencies of IL-4 -33 T allele in the RE, SGF, and control group to be 7%, 73%, and 28%, respectively. IL-10 -592 A allele frequency was 39% in RE, 26% in SGF, and 28% in the control group. TGF-beta codon 10 T allele was 39% in RE, 35% in SGF, and 53% in control group. In conclusion, this study suggested that some cytokine gene alleles reflected SGF among kidney transplant recipients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for complex calculi within malformed kidneys can be challenging because of the abnormal anatomy. We present our 7-year experience with PCNL in such patients.
We performed PCNL on 16 patients with complex calculi and anomalous kidneys, including 7 with horseshoe kidneys, 5 with rotation anomalies, 3 with ectopic kidneys, and 1 with a small kidney. After appropriate preoperative evaluation, the procedure was performed by choosing either anterior or posterior approaches depending on the kidney anomaly. When required, ultrasonography, laparoscopy, or both were used, as well as fluoroscopy to control the procedures.
A single-stage PCNL resulted in complete clearance in 13 patients (81%). A second-look procedure, alone or followed by shockwave lithotripsy, conferred stone clearance in one patient with a malrotated kidney and two with staghorn calculi in horseshoe kidneys. More than one tract was needed in two patients. The procedure was guided by laparoscopy in two patients with calculi in ectopic left kidneys. Serious complications were not encountered.
Patients with malformed kidneys and complex calculi can be managed safely and effectively with PCNL when they are properly selected and appropriately assessed before operation.
Journal of Endourology 06/2007; 21(5):520-4. DOI:10.1089/end.2006.0349 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to describe our experience in administering an innovative surgical technique to treat pediatric cases of exstrophy-epispadias complex.
Between 1995 and 2004, seven consecutive patients (six males) with exstrophy-epispadias complex were treated using ileocecal segment for bladder augmentation and appendix for urethral reconstruction. In a single-stage operation, the exstrophied bladder was dissected- and a segment of cecum, ascending colon, terminal ileum, and the corresponding appendix were isolated. Using the opened colon to augment the bladder, the ileal segment was fashioned to skin as temporary stoma, and the appendix was laid in the urethral lumen as the neourethra following urethral demucosation. This technique was used as a secondary surgery in one case and as a primary surgery in six neonates. Evaluation of the urinary tract status was performed by cystograms and ultrasonograms.
Renal function was saved in all cases and continence was achieved by clean intermittent catheterization every two hours either via the neourethra (n = 6) or through the temporary stoma (n = 1). The patients did not experience any metabolic complications in their follow-ups. Moreover, no one had vesicourethral reflux, dehiscence, or fistula.
The technique was deemed safe with acceptable outcomes even when secondary repair of previously failed operation was intended. Experiencing the technique in larger cohorts as well as longer follow-ups might be necessary to assess probable long-term complications.
International Urology and Nephrology 02/2007; 39(3):779-85. DOI:10.1007/s11255-006-9143-0 · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An extremely rare form of genitourinary tract tuberculosis (TB) is TB of the glans penis. Here, we report on two men with TB of the glans, both occurring secondary to their wives having genital TB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this nature from Iran. One case is a 48 year-old blind male with an asymptomatic papulo-pustular eruption over the glans and, the other is a 51 year-old male who had kidney transplantation in March 2004, and was referred to our transplantation clinic nine months later with papulonecrotic ulcer on the glans which did not respond to antibiotic therapy. Both patients responded well to anti-TB treatment. Our cases suggest that every papulonecrotic lesion on the glans must raise the suspicion of TB, and an underlying active or healed focus of TB should be thoroughly searched. Also, it is very important, particularly in endemic areas, that prior to transplanting a male patient, his female partner must be examined for TB of the genitalia.
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 07/2006; 17(2):213-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pretransplant cytokine profile of donor and recipient blood and tissues may be associated with transplant outcome. A Th1 response is generally associated with transplant rejection, while a Th2 response may lead to tolerance and stable graft survival. A total of 56 (37 male and 19 female) patients of mean 36 +/- 5 years were candidates for living unrelated kidney transplantation. Serum samples were collected 24 hours pretransplantation as well as at 1 and 2 weeks posttransplantation. Immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine, prednisolone, and mycophenolate mofetil. Among the transplanted patients, 19 (33.9%) individuals experienced an acute rejection episode, as proven by biopsy, as well as an increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, within 14 days after transplantation. We determined serum concentrations of interleukin (IL) 2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma for Th1 and IL4 and IL10 for Th2 by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (Bender med system kits, Germany). Among Th1 cytokines, the mean concentration levels for groups with versus without acute rejection were: IL-2 pretransplant 15 pg/mL vs 6.8 pg/mL, respectively (P = .005); IL-2 at 1 week, 19 pg/mL vs 4.85 pg/mL, respectively (P = .001); IL-2 at 2 weeks, 21.1 pg/mL vs 4.65 pg/mL, respectively (P = .0001); IFN-gamma pretransplant 161.1 pg/mL vs 65.2 pg/mL, respectively (P = .001); IFN-gamma at 1 week, 175.6 pg/mL vs 66.5 pg/mL, respectively (P = .001); and IFN-gamma at 2 weeks, 173.7 pg/mL vs 77.1 pg/mL (P = .001). IL-2 and IFN-gamma levels were significantly higher in the group with acute rejection versus those without acute rejection. In conclusion, these data suggest that cytokine analysis, especially of Th1 cytokines, might be a valuable prognotic index of kidney transplant outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) of the transplanted kidney is rare. In Iran, until 2004, 15000 kidney transplantations were performed, mostly from living donors. We report the first case of renal cell carcinoma in transplanted kidney, four years after transplantation, which was treated with nephron sparing or partial nephrectomy.
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 01/2004; 15(4):494-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PC), in Iran, is the third most frequently diagnosed visceral cancer among men and the seventh most common underlying cause of cancer mortality. We evaluated the relation between speculated factors and PC risk using data from a multicentric case-control study conducted in Iran from 2005 to 2007 on 130 cases of incident, clinicopathologically confirmed PC, and 75 controls admitted to the same network of hospitals without any malignant disease. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. The risk of PC was increased with aging (OR: 5.35, 95% CI: 2.17-13.19; P<0.0001), and with the number of sexual intercourse >or=2 times/week (OR: 3.14, 95% CI: 1.2-8.2; P=0.02). One unit elevation in serum estradiol and testosterone concentration was related to increase (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06; P=0.006) and decrease (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.64-0.96; P=0.02) of PC risk, respectively. Cases were less likely to have a history of diabetes (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12-0.98; P=0.04). Increasing in dietary consumption of lycopene and fat was associated with declined (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.09-2.12) and increased (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 0.29-19.4) PC development, respectively. Other factors including educational level, marriage status, dietary meat consumption, vasectomy and smoking have not been shown to affect PC risk in the Iranian population. Our study adds further information on the potential risk factors of PC and is the first epidemiologic report from Iran. However, justification of these results requires more well-designed studies with a larger number of participants.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 8(3):422-8. · 1.50 Impact Factor