Helmut Friess

Technische Universität München, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (527)2367.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The optimal strategy for abdominal wall closure has been an issue of ongoing debate. Available studies do not specifically enroll patients who undergo emergency laparotomy and thus do not consider the distinct biological characteristics of these patients. The present randomized controlled trial evaluates the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Methods/design The CONTINT trial is a multicenter, open label, randomized controlled trial with a twogroup parallel design. Patients undergoing a primary emergency midline laparotomy are enrolled in the trial. The two most commonly applied strategies of abdominal wall closure after midline laparotomy are compared: the continuous, all-layer suture technique using slowly absorbable monofilament material (two Monoplus(R) loops) and the interrupted suture technique using rapidly absorbable braided material (Vicryl(R) sutures). The primary endpoint within the CONTINT trial is an incisional hernia within 12 months or a burst abdomen within 30 days after surgery. As reliable data on this primary endpoint is not available for patients undergoing emergency surgery, an adaptive interim analysis will be conducted after the inclusion of 80 patients, allowing early termination of the trial if necessary or modification of design characteristics such as recalculation of sample size. DISCUSSION: This is a randomized controlled multicenter trial with a two-group parallel design to assess the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Trial registration NCT00544583.
    Trials 05/2012; 13(1):72. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Postoperative surgical site infections cause substantial morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, costs and even mortality and remain one of the most frequent surgical complications. Approximately 14% to 30% of all patients undergoing elective open abdominal surgery are affected and methods to reduce surgical site infection rates warrant further investigation and evaluation in randomized controlled trials. METHODS: To investigate whether the application of a circular plastic wound protector reduces the rate of surgical site infections in general and visceral surgical patients that undergo midline or transverse laparotomy by 50%. BaFO is a randomized, controlled, patient-blinded and observer-blinded multicenter clinical trial with two parallel surgical groups. The primary outcome measure will be the rate of surgical site infections within 45 days postoperative assessed according to the definition of the Center for Disease Control. Statistical analysis of the primary endpoint will be based on the intention-to-treat population. The global level of significance is set at 5% (2 sided) and sample size (n = 258 per group) is determined to assure a power of 80% with a planned interim analysis for the primary endpoint after the inclusion of 340 patients. DISCUSSION: The BaFO trial will explore if the rate of surgical site infections can be reduced by a single, simple, inexpensive intervention in patients undergoing open elective abdominal surgery. Its pragmatic design guarantees high external validity and clinical relevance. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01181206. Date of registration: 11 August 2010; date of first patient randomized: 8 September 2010.
    Trials 05/2012; 13(1):57. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Predicting the clinical outcome of cancer patients based on the expression of marker genes in their tumors has received increasing interest in the past decade. Accurate predictors of outcome and response to therapy could be used to personalize and thereby improve therapy. However, state of the art methods used so far often found marker genes with limited prediction accuracy, limited reproducibility, and unclear biological relevance. To address this problem, we developed a novel computational approach to identify genes prognostic for outcome that couples gene expression measurements from primary tumor samples with a network of known relationships between the genes. Our approach ranks genes according to their prognostic relevance using both expression and network information in a manner similar to Google's PageRank. We applied this method to gene expression profiles which we obtained from 30 patients with pancreatic cancer, and identified seven candidate marker genes prognostic for outcome. Compared to genes found with state of the art methods, such as Pearson correlation of gene expression with survival time, we improve the prediction accuracy by up to 7%. Accuracies were assessed using support vector machine classifiers and Monte Carlo cross-validation. We then validated the prognostic value of our seven candidate markers using immunohistochemistry on an independent set of 412 pancreatic cancer samples. Notably, signatures derived from our candidate markers were independently predictive of outcome and superior to established clinical prognostic factors such as grade, tumor size, and nodal status. As the amount of genomic data of individual tumors grows rapidly, our algorithm meets the need for powerful computational approaches that are key to exploit these data for personalized cancer therapies in clinical practice.
    PLoS Computational Biology 05/2012; 8(5):e1002511. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Predicting the clinical outcome of cancer patients based on the expression of marker genes in their tumors has received increasing interest in the past decade. Accurate predictors of outcome and response to therapy could be used to personalize and thereby improve therapy. However, state of the art methods used so far often found marker genes with limited prediction accuracy, limited reproducibility, and unclear biological relevance. To address this problem, we developed a novel computational approach to identify genes prognostic for outcome that couples gene expression measurements from primary tumor samples with a network of known relationships between the genes. Our approach ranks genes according to their prognostic relevance using both expression and network information in a manner similar to Google's PageRank. We applied this method to gene expression profiles which we obtained from 30 patients with pancreatic cancer, and identified seven candidate marker genes prognostic for outcome. Compared to genes found with state of the art methods, such as Pearson correlation of gene expression with survival time, we improve the prediction accuracy by up to 7%. Accuracies were assessed using support vector machine classifiers and Monte Carlo cross-validation. We then validated the prognostic value of our seven candidate markers using immunohistochemistry on an independent set of 412 pancreatic cancer samples. Notably, signatures derived from our candidate markers were independently predictive of outcome and superior to established clinical prognostic factors such as grade, tumor size, and nodal status. As the amount of genomic data of individual tumors grows rapidly, our algorithm meets the need for powerful computational approaches that are key to exploit these data for personalized cancer therapies in clinical practice.
    PLoS Computational Biology 05/2012; 8(5):e1002511. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the prevalence of HIT II in liver transplant recipients and analysed associated factors. In recipients with clinically suspected HIT II in the 4Ts pretest clinical scoring system HIPA-assay was performed. Next, 37 clinical variables were analysed retrospectively for their association with HIT II. Factors significantly correlated to our findings in univariate analysis were included in a multivariate model and binary logistic regression analysis. Among 46 recipients 21 patients were suspicious in the 4Ts pretest and 14 of them (30.4%) were diagnosed HIT-antibody positive. Patient's age (P = 0.001), postoperative dialysis (P = 0.028), and postoperative hospital stay (P = 0.035) were significantly associated with development of HIT-antibodies in univariate analysis. Postoperative dialysis and postoperative hospital stay turned out as epiphenomena of patient's age, the only independent predictor (P = 0.021). Using multiple χ(2) -testing, a cut-off could be calculated, assigning patients younger than 59 years to a low risk group and patients of 59 years and older to a high risk group. High incidence of peri-operative HIT II seroconversion in liver transplant recipients is not associated with factors known to induce thrombocyte activation, like blood products or cell-saver. Only patients' age was identified as independent predictor.
    Transplant International 04/2012; 25(7):739-47. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The chemokine fractalkine/CX3CL1 and its highly selective receptor CX3CR1 mediate critical physiological events during inflammatory responses. The fractalkine/CX3CR1 axis has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis and the progression of a large number of diseases in which imbalance of the immune response is frequently seen. Since our last review published in early 2010, the fractalkine/CX3CR1 axis has gained vast attention as a potential therapeutic target in the scientific community, which can be clearly seen in the large number of studies that have been published on this issue since then. AREAS COVERED: A Medline/PubMed search was performed to detect all recently published studies on the role of the fractalkine/CX3CR1 axis as a therapeutic target in a wide range of clinical diseases. EXPERT OPINION: Recently published studies further underline the high potential of the fractalkine/CX3CR1 axis as a major target for future treatment of pain, inflammation and cancer. However, no clinical trials on novel therapeutics targeting fractalkine or CX3CR1 have been initiated so far, so that the fractalkine/CX3CR1 axis does still not find application in daily clinical practice.
    Expert opinion on therapeutic targets 04/2012; 16(6):613-8. · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Following the first successful gastric resection for gastric cancer by Theodor Billroth in 1881 surgery has made tremendous progress leading to improved surgical mortality and morbidity. However, while treatment of early gastric cancer is frequently curative, 5-year survival rates for advanced gastric cancer remain dismal despite the application of perioperative multimodal treatment concepts. In this article we will outline key clinical trials that have lead to an improvement in treatment of gastric cancer patients with specific emphasis on the last 20 years. We will then outline recent concepts and key clinical trials that are currently being conducted in the field. Finally we will outline open questions that remain to be elucidated in the future. J. Surg. Oncol © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 04/2012; · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have identified syndecan-2 as a protein potentially involved in perineural invasion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Syndecan-2 (SDC-2) expression was analyzed in human normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and PDAC tissues. Functional in vitro assays were carried out to determine its role in invasion, migration and signaling. SDC-2 was expressed in the majority of the tested pancreatic cancer cell lines while it was upregulated in nerve-invasive PDAC cell clones. There were 2 distinct expression patterns of SDC-2 in PDAC tissue samples: SDC-2 positivity in the cancer cell cytoplasm and a peritumoral expression. Though SDC-2 silencing (using specific siRNA oligonucleotides) did not affect anchorage-dependent growth, it significantly reduced cell motility and invasiveness in the pancreatic cancer cell lines T3M4 and Su8686. On the transcriptional level, migration-and invasion-associated genes were down-regulated following SDC-2 RNAi. Furthermore, SDC-2 silencing reduced K-ras activity, phosphorylation of Src and--further downstream--phosphorylation of ERK2 while levels of the putative SDC-2 signal transducer p120GAP remained unaltered. SDC-2 is a novel (perineural) invasion-associated gene in PDAC which cooperates with K-ras to induce a more invasive phenotype.
    Molecular Cancer 04/2012; 11:19. · 5.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review outlines the important multimodal treatment issues associated with locally advanced rectal cancer. Changes to chemotherapy and radiation schema, as well as modern surgical approaches, have led to a revolution in the management of this disease but the morbidity and mortality remains high. Adequate treatment is dependent on precise preoperative staging modalities. Advances in staging via endorectal ultrasound, computed tomography, MRI and PET have improved pretreatment triage and management. Important prognostic factors and their impact for this disease are under investigation. Here we discuss the different treatment options including modern tumor-related surgical approaches, neoadjuvant as well as adjuvant therapies. Further clinical progress will largely depend on the broader implementation of multidisciplinary treatment strategies following the principles of evidence-based medicine.
    Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 04/2012; 12(4):481-94. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0394-3
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    ABSTRACT: Regional lymph node metastasis negatively affects prognosis in colon cancer patients. The molecular processes leading to regional lymph node metastasis are only partially understood and proteomic markers for metastasis are still scarce. Therefore, a tissue-based proteomic approach was undertaken for identifying proteins associated with regional lymph node metastasis. Two complementary tissue-based proteomic methods have been employed. MALDI imaging was used for identifying small proteins (≤25 kDa) in situ and label-free quantitative proteomics was used for identifying larger proteins. A tissue cohort comprising primary colon tumours without metastasis (UICC II, pN0, n = 21) and with lymph node metastasis (UICC III, pN2, n = 33) was analysed. Subsequent validation of identified proteins was done by immunohistochemical staining on an independent tissue cohort consisting of primary colon tumour specimens (n = 168). MALDI imaging yielded ten discriminating m/z species, and label-free quantitative proteomics 28 proteins. Two MALDI imaging-derived candidate proteins (FXYD3 and S100A11) and one from the label-free quantitative proteomics (GSTM3) were validated on the independent tissue cohort. All three markers correlated significantly with regional lymph node metastasis: FXYD3 (p = 0.0110), S100A11 (p = 0.0071), and GSTM3 (p = 0.0173). FXYD3 and S100A11 were more highly expressed in UICC II patient tumour tissues. GSTM3 was more highly expressed in UICC III patient tumour tissues. By our tissue-based proteomic approach, we could identify a large panel of proteins which are associated with regional lymph node metastasis and which have not been described so far. Here we show that novel markers for regional lymph metastasis can be identified by MALDI imaging or label-free quantitative proteomics and subsequently validated on an independent tissue cohort. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    The Journal of Pathology 03/2012; · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In clinical diagnostics, it is of outmost importance to correctly identify the source of a metastatic tumor, especially if no apparent primary tumor is present. Tissue-based proteomics might allow correct tumor classification. As a result, we performed MALDI imaging to generate proteomic signatures for different tumors. These signatures were used to classify common cancer types. At first, a cohort comprised of tissue samples from six adenocarcinoma entities located at different organ sites (esophagus, breast, colon, liver, stomach, thyroid gland, n = 171) was classified using two algorithms for a training and test set. For the test set, Support Vector Machine and Random Forest yielded overall accuracies of 82.74 and 81.18%, respectively. Then, colon cancer liver metastasis samples (n = 19) were introduced into the classification. The liver metastasis samples could be discriminated with high accuracy from primary tumors of colon cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Additionally, colon cancer liver metastasis samples could be successfully classified by using colon cancer primary tumor samples for the training of the classifier. These findings demonstrate that MALDI imaging-derived proteomic classifiers can discriminate between different tumor types at different organ sites and in the same site.
    Journal of Proteome Research 03/2012; 11(3):1996-2003. · 5.06 Impact Factor
  • Pancreas 03/2012; 41(2):325-7. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0000-3
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    ABSTRACT: Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a new surgical concept that requires training before it is introduced into clinical practice. The endoscopic–laparoscopic interdisciplinary training entity (ELITE) is a training model for NOTES interventions. The latest research has concentrated on new materials for organs with realistic optical and haptic characteristics and the possibility of high-frequency dissection. This study aimed to assess both the ELITE model in a surgical training course and the construct validity of a newly developed NOTES appendectomy scenario. The 70 attendees of the 2010 Practical Course for Visceral Surgery (Warnemuende, Germany) took part in the study and performed a NOTES appendectomy via a transsigmoidal access. The primary end point was the total time required for the appendectomy, including retrieval of the appendix. Subjective evaluation of the model was performed using a questionnaire. Subgroups were analyzed according to laparoscopic and endoscopic experience. The participants with endoscopic or laparoscopic experience completed the task significantly faster than the inexperienced participants (p = 0.009 and 0.019, respectively). Endoscopic experience was the strongest influencing factor, whereas laparoscopic experience had limited impact on the participants with previous endoscopic experience. As shown by the findings, 87.3% of the participants stated that the ELITE model was suitable for the NOTES training scenario, and 88.7% found the newly developed model anatomically realistic. This study was able to establish face and construct validity for the ELITE model with a large group of surgeons. The ELITE model seems to be well suited for the training of NOTES as a new surgical technique in an established gastrointestinal surgery skills course.
    Surgical Endoscopy 01/2012; 26(8):2376-82. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Around 95% of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer will die of their disease within 5 years, three quarters within a year. The major hurdle in improving prognosis is the lack of a therapeutic time window. Early cancerous lesions are far beneath our threshold of detection. Therefore, at the time of diagnosis even early (T1) tumors can be metastatic and resistant to conventional treatments. Several therapies targeting epithelial tumor cells-all showing impressive results in vitro and in animal experiments-have failed to show relevant effects in clinical trials. This discrepancy between experimental data and clinical reality results mostly from the inefficiency of our current experimental setups in recreating the tumor microenvironment. Forming more than 80% of the tumor mass, the fibrotic stroma of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is not a passive scaffold for the malignant cells but an active player in carcinogenesis. This component is mostly missing in the xeno-/allograft- mouse models. Although tumors are bigger if stellate cells are co-implanted, due to the disproportionate cancer/stromal cell ratio and -possibly- too rapid tumor growth, the stromal reaction is much smaller than in human pancreatic cancer. One the other hand, desmoplasia is present only in some of the genetically engineered mouse models. Clinically, stromal activity of the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has as great an impact on patient prognosis as the lymph node status of the tumor. The exact molecular mechanisms behind this observation remain obscure. However, one possible fundamental biologic explanation could be that selective pressure applied by the stroma leads to the evolution of cancer cells. Consequently, somatic evolution of invasive cancer could be viewed as a sequence of phenotypical adaptations to this barrier, highlighting the importance of the fibrotic tumor microenvironment in the behavior of pancreatic cancer. In this review, the interaction of the epithelial tumor cells with the stroma in humans and in various animal models is scrutinized, and novel therapeutic options for uncoupling cancer-stroma interactions are discussed.
    Current Molecular Medicine 01/2012; 12(3):288-303. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interaction of cancer cells with diverse cell types in the tumor stroma is today recognized to have a fate-determining role for the progression and outcome of human cancers. Despite the well-described interactions of cancer cells with several stromal components, i.e., inflammatory cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and pericytes, the investigation of their peculiar relationship with neural cells is still at its first footsteps. Pancreatic cancer (PCa) with its abundant stroma represents one of the best-studied examples of a malignant tumor with a mutually trophic interaction between cancer cells and the intratumoral nerves embedded in the desmoplastic stroma. Nerves in PCa are a rich source of neurotrophic factors like nerve growth factor (NGF), glial-cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), artemin; of neuronal chemokines like fractalkine; and of autonomic neurotransmitters like norepinephrine which can all enhance the invasiveness of PCa cells via matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) upregulation, trigger neural invasion (NI), and activate pro-survival signaling pathways. Similarly, PCa cells themselves provide intrapancreatic nerves with abundant trophic agents which entail a remarkable neuroplasticity, leading to emergence of more routes for NI and cancer spread, to augmented local neuro-surveillance, neural sensitization, and neuropathic pain. The strong correlation of NI with PCa-associated desmoplasia suggests the potential presence of a triangular relationship between nerves, PCa cells, and other stromal partners like myofibroblasts and pancreatic stellate cells which generate tumor desmoplasia. Hence, although not a classical hallmark of human cancers, nerve-cancer interactions can be considered as an indispensable sub-class of cancer-stroma interactions in PCa. The present article provides an overview of the so far known nerve-cancer interactions in PCa and illustrates their ominous role in the stromal biology of human PCa.
    Frontiers in Physiology 01/2012; 3:97.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. Many patients experience problems with sexual functioning after renal transplantation (RTx). Research on the sexual functioning of the partners of those patients and the consequences for relationship satisfaction and quality of life is lacking. This study sought to explore changes in sexual and relationship functioning from before to after RTx in patients and their partners. Material and methods. Twenty-nine patients (mean ± SD age 53.4 ± 14.2 years) and 13 partners (age 57.1 ± 11.6 years) provided data 12-15 months after RTx. They retrospectively evaluated sexual and relationship functioning as well as general life satisfaction before RTx and, in comparison, in the most recent months. Results. Among the patients, most items on sexual experience indicated deterioration in sexual functioning. Among their partners, the wish for sexual activity with the patient and the actual frequency of sexual activity decreased from before to after RTx. The rate of partners indicating high personal importance for intercourse decreased from 83.3% to 69.2%, as did the rate of partners stating high sexual satisfaction (from 63.6% to 41.7%). Despite these trends, most patients and partners reported high relationship and life satisfaction after RTx. Conclusions. Partners of patients who had received a kidney transplant seem to be affected by negative changes in the patients' sexual functioning. Nonetheless, many couples maintain high relationship and life satisfaction.
    Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. 01/2012; 46:431-436.
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    ABSTRACT: Our understanding of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is shifting away from a disease of malignant ductal cells-only, toward a complex system where tumor evolution is a result of interaction of cancer cells with their microenvironment. This change has led to intensification of research focusing on the fibrotic stroma of PDAC. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are the main fibroblastic cells of the pancreas which are responsible for producing the desmoplasia in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and PDAC. Clinically, the effect of desmoplasia is two-sided; on the negative side it is a hurdle in the diagnosis of PDAC because the fibrosis in cancer resembles that of CP. It is also believed that PSCs and pancreatic fibrosis are partially responsible for the therapy resistance in pancreatic cancer. On the positive side, a fibrotic pancreas is safer to operate on compared to a fatty and soft pancreas which is prone for postoperative pancreatic fistula. In this review the impact of pancreatic fibrosis on diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and surgical decisions are discussed from a clinical point of view.
    Frontiers in Physiology 01/2012; 3:389.
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is characterised by invasive tumour spread and early metastasis formation. During epithelial-mesenchymal transition, loss of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is frequent and can be caused by genetic or epigenetic modifications, recruitment of transcriptional activators/repressors or post-translational modifications. A study was undertaken to investigate how E-cadherin expression in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma and pancreatic cancer cell lines is regulated. In 25 human pancreatic cancer resection specimens, the coding region of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) was sequenced for somatic mutations. The tumour samples and 11 established human pancreatic cancer cell lines were analysed by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation and methylation-specific PCR. The role of specific histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) on pancreatic tumour cell migration and proliferation was studied in vitro. Neither somatic mutations nor CDH1 promoter hypermethylation were found to be responsible for downregulation of E-cadherin in pancreatic cancer. In the transcriptionally active CDH1 promoter, acetylation of histones H3 and H4 was detected whereas HDAC1 and HDAC2 were found attached only to a silent promoter. Expression of ZEB1, a transcription factor known to recruit HDACs, was seen in E-cadherin-deficient cell lines in which ZEB1/HDAC complexes were found attached to the CDH1 promoter. Moreover, knockdown of ZEB1 prevented HDAC from binding to the CDH1 promoter, resulting in histone acetylation and expression of E-cadherin. HDACi treatment attenuated tumour cell migration and proliferation. These findings imply an important role for histone deacetylation in the downregulation of E-cadherin in human pancreatic cancer. Recruitment of HDACs to the CDH1 promoter is regulated by the transcription factor ZEB1, and inhibition of HDACs may be a promising antitumour therapy for pancreatic cancer.
    Gut 12/2011; 61(3):439-48. · 10.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
2,367.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • Technische Universität München
      • Clinic and Polyclinic for Surgery
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
      Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
  • 2013
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2012
    • Helmholtz Zentrum München
      • Institut für Pathologie
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • Deutsches Herzzentrum München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2002–2012
    • Southeast University (China)
      Nan-ching-hsü, Jiangxi Sheng, China
  • 2010–2011
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2002–2011
    • Heidelberg University
      Tiffin, Ohio, United States
  • 2002–2010
    • University of Liverpool
      • Cancer Research Centre
      Liverpool, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2007–2009
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Center for Vascular Biology Research
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • German Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Functional Genome Analysis
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2002–2009
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Institute of Pathology (Mannheim)
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2004–2007
    • Dartmouth Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Hanover, New Hampshire, United States
  • 2003–2007
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Surgery
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • University of Münster
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Peking Union Medical College Hospital
      • Department of General Surgery
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2002–2005
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Surgery
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 1994–2003
    • University of California, Irvine
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Endocrinology
      Irvine, CA, United States
  • 1995–2002
    • Universität Bern
      • Visceral and Transplantation Surgery Research Group
      Bern, BE, Switzerland
  • 2001
    • Inselspital, Universitätsspital Bern
      • Department of Visceral Surgery and Medicine
      Bern, BE, Switzerland
    • General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region
      Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China
  • 1991–1996
    • Universität Ulm
      • Institute of General Medicine
      Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany