[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation with morphologic anomalies. Maternal uniparental disomy 7 has been reported in some SRS patients. PEG1/MEST is an imprinted gene on chromosome 7q32 that is expressed only from the paternal allele and is a candidate gene for SRS. To clarify its biological function and role in SRS, we screened PEG1/MEST abnormalities in 15 SRS patients from various standpoints. In the lymphocytes of SRS patients, no aberrant expression patterns of two splice variants (alpha and beta) of PEG1/MEST were detected when they were compared with normal samples. Direct sequence analysis failed to detect any mutations in the PEG1/MEST alpha coding region, and there were no significant mutations in the 5'-flanking upstream region containing the predicted promoter and the highly conserved human/mouse genomic region. Differential methylation patterns of the CpG island for PEG1/MEST alpha were normally maintained and resulted in the same pattern as in the normal control, suggesting that there was no loss of imprinting. These findings suggest that PEG1/MEST can be excluded as a major determinant of SRS.
American Journal of Medical Genetics 01/2002; 104(3):225-31. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha; gene symbol TCF1) cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3), a form of diabetes mellitus characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, early onset, and pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. Recent genetic studies, however, also found mutations in patients diagnosed with idiopathic (non-autoimmune based) type 1 diabetes. We identified a novel frameshift mutation (142delG) in the TCF1 gene in a family with a strong family history of type 1 diabetes and examined the functional properties of the mutant HNF 1alpha. The expression of the mutant protein was not detected in COS-7 cells by Western blot analysis after transfection of the mutant cDNA. This is the first case of an unstable mutant HNF-1alpha protein. Reporter gene analysis indicated that the mutant HNF-1alpha had no transactivation activity in HeLa and MIN6 cells. Haploinsufficiency for HNF-1alpha may lead to severe forms of diabetes like type 1 diabetes.
Human Mutation 11/2001; 18(4):345-51. · 5.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a 30-year-old female with adrenal unresponsiveness to ACTH. Her clinical features included no adrenal crisis despite poor drug compliance, poor pubic hair development (Tanner stage 2), well-developed breasts (Tanner stage 5), and regular menstrual cycles. Endocrinological data included blood ACTH 1500 pmol/l, cortisol 18 nmol/l, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate below 0.26 micromol/l, activated renin 0.37 pmol/l, and aldosterone 3.4 nmol/l. Direct sequencing and allele-specific amplification revealed two novel mutations in the ACTH receptor gene. One was transition from guanine to adenine at nucleotide position 1002, resulting in substitution of aspartate for asparagine at codon 103, and the other was transition from cytosine to thymine at nucleotide 1104, leading to substitution of arginine for tryptophan at codon 137. The present findings lend additional credence to the notions that adrenal androgens play an important role in female pubic hair development and that ovarian development takes place independently of adrenarche.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) type II is a disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Three mutations at the donor splice site of intron 3 of the GH-I gene have been identified in five families. In this report, we describe a novel mutation also at the donor splice site of intron 3 in patients with IGHD type II.
Five individuals diagnosed as IGHD: two sporadic cases and one family with three affected individuals (two siblings and their father).
Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral mononuclear cells. All the exons and introns of the GH-I gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subjected to sequence analysis.
A guanine to adenine transition at the fifth base of intron 3 (mutE), which has not been reported, was identified in the familial case but not in unaffected members of the family including the paternal grandparents. In the other two families with sporadic cases, a guanine to adenine transition at the first base of intron 3 (mutA) was identified in the affected subjects but not in other members of the families.
MutE has not been previously reported and is the fourth mutation associated with IGHD type II. The guanine residue mutated in mutA was the second nucleotide of a CpG dinucleotide, which is regarded as a hot spot for mutations by a methylation-deamination mechanism. Since mutA has previously been identified in three type II IGHD kindreds belonging to different ethnic backgrounds, this appears to be the most frequent GH-I gene mutation in IGHD with a dominant inheritance. Because de novo mutations appeared to have occurred in all three families analyzed in the present study and the presence or absence of these mutations can easily be tested by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, not only the familial cases but also sporadic cases with IGHD should be examined for a possible mutation at the donor splice site of intron 3 in the GH-1 gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on deletion mapping and X inactivation analysis of a gene for X linked non-specific mental retardation (MRX) at Xp21.3-Xp22.11, on the basis of molecular studies in two families with Xp microdeletions involving the DAX-1 gene. In family A, mental retardation (MR) was profound in the older brother with an episode of adrenal crisis, severe in the younger brother with no episode of adrenal crisis, and mild to moderate in the sister and the mother with no signs of adrenal hypoplasia. In family B, MR was absent in the male patient with adrenal hypoplasia. Polymerase chain reaction for 16 loci in the middle of Xp showed that the brothers of family A had a small Xp deletion between DXS7182 and DXS1022, and that the patient of family B had a tiny Xp deletion between DXS319 and DXS1022. Microsatellite analysis for tetranucleotide repeats in the promoter region of the DAX-1 gene and Southern blotting for DAX-1 and DXS28 showed that the sister and the mother of family A were heterozygous for the interstitial deletion. X inactivation analysis for the methylation status of the AR gene and the HPRT gene indicated that the normal X and the deleted X chromosome underwent random X inactivation in both the sister and the mother. The results imply that an MRX gene subject to X inactivation is present in a roughly 4 Mb region between DXS7182 and DAX-1, and that reduced expression of the normal MRX gene caused by random X inactivation results in MR in carrier females.
Journal of Medical Genetics 04/1999; 36(3):187-91. · 5.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormality of the DAX-1 gene accounts for many instances of congenital adrenal hypoplasia. In the present study, we performed molecular genetic analysis of DAX-1 in 4 unrelated Japanese patients with adrenal hypoplasia congenita and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. A double-point mutation for V126M and W171X was identified in 1 family and a complex de novo insertion-deletion mutation was identified in a second. The DAX-1 gene was entirely deleted in a 3rd patient as well as in a 4th with the additional feature of glycerol kinase deficiency.
Hormone Research 02/1997; 48(1):29-34. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Males with classical 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) deficiency manifest appropriate secondary sexual maturation with an elevation in serum testosterone levels at pubertal age. To define the origin of serum testosterone, we evaluated a male patient with classical 3 beta-HSD who showed pubertal development. High values of testosterone and a ratio of delta(5) to delta(4) steroids in the spermatic vein indicated direct production of considerable amounts of testosterone and a persistent defect of 3 beta-HSD activity in the gonad. Immunohistochemical analysis showed distinct immunoreactivity in the Leydig cells of the patient. The patient was homozygous for a nonsense mutation in the type-II 3 beta-HSD gene. We propose that gonadal type-I 3 beta-HSD could be expressed by gonadotropin stimulation at pubertal age, and delta(4)-steroid precursors would convert to testosterone.
Hormone Research 02/1997; 48(2):83-7. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11βOHD) is derived from mutations in the P45011β gene (CYP11B1) and inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. In the present study, we have performed a molecular genetic analysis of CYP11B1 in a Japanese patient clinically diagnosed as classic 11βOHD. Nucleotide sequencing of the PCR-amplified exons from the patient′s genomic DNA reveals a unique C→G transversion that converts codon 384 CGA (arginine) to GGA (glycine) in exon 7. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) data demonstrate that the patient is homozygous for this mutation. When the full-length cDNA corresponding to CYP11B1 of the patient is transfected into COS-7 cells, no steroid 11 beta-hydroxylase activity is detectable in mitochondria of the cells. These results indicate that this point mutation completely abolishes P45011β activity and causes the classic 11βOHD.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/1995; 216(2):723-728. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Steroid 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency (11 beta OHD) is derived from mutations in the P45011 beta gene (CYP11B1) and inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. In the present study, we have performed a molecular genetic analysis of CYP11B1 in a Japanese patient clinically diagnosed as classic 11 beta OHD. Nucleotide sequencing of the PCR-amplified exons from the patient's genomic DNA reveals a unique C-->G transversion that converts codon 384 CGA (arginine) to GGA (glycine) in exon 7. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) data demonstrate that the patient is homozygous for this mutation. When the full-length cDNA corresponding to CYP11B1 of the patient is transfected into COS-7 cells, no steroid 11 beta-hydroxylase activity is detectable in mitochondria of the cells. These results indicate that this point mutation completely abolishes P45011 beta activity and causes the classic 11 beta OHD.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/1995; 216(2):723-8. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We described a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome associated with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Karyotypes of peripheral lymphocytes and RMS cells were normal. DNA analyses showed maternal loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 11p15 region in RMS but not in RCC. The insulin-like growth factor II gene (IGF2) was found to be expressed at a moderate level in RMS but not in RCC by in situ hybridization. Each of parental allele-derived IGF2 transcript was detected in RCC, while maternal allele-derived transcript was weak in RMS because of maternal LOH. These results suggest that (1) loss of imprinting (LOI) of IGF2 might be responsible for BWS, (2) on the other hand, LOI itself might not induce tumor occurrence in tissues where the control of tissue-specific expression of IGF2 is maintained, (3) increased expression of IGF2 due to maternal loss of a putative controller gene for IGF2 at 11p15 might predispose to sustaining tumorigenic mutations and tumor progression, (4) loss of a putative onco-suppressor gene at 11p15 might induce RMS occurrence. The cause of RCC was thought to be different from that of RMS.
The Japanese journal of human genetics 07/1994; 39(2):225-34.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The r(15) syndrome is characterized by mental retardation, microcephaly, peculiar facies and growth deficiency. The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR) gene is known to be localized at 15q26-qter. To evaluate the causal relationship between the loss of IGFIR gene and growth deficiency, we studied DMA analysis of IGFIR gene and a receptor assay of IGFIR in two unrelated female patients with r(15). Karyotypes were 46, XX, r(15)(p12q26.3), and 46, XX, r(15)(p11q26.3), respectively. Except for clinical features consistent with the r(15) syndrome, both patients had severe short stature. Values of serum growth hormone by conventional stimulation tests and IGFI were within the normal range. A density of the band of Southern blots for IGFIR gene was reduced in both patients. The signal for IGFIR gene in fluorescence in situ hybridization was seen only on a normal chromosome 15. The IGFI receptor assay using fibroblastes (performed in one patient) showed decreased number of IGFI receptor. These results suggested that decrease of IGFIR due to a loss of IGFIR gene is related to severe growth deficiency in r(15) patients.
Pediatric Research 05/1993; 33. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is the major transport protein of thyroid hormones in human serum. In this communication, we present a sequence abnormality of the TBG-gene in a Japanese family manifesting partial TBG deficiency (TBG-PDJ). The propositus was a male with a reduced concentration of TBG (3.2 micrograms/ml). Thyroid function tests suggested that the inheritance of this TBG abnormality was X-linked. The TBG exhibited increased heat-lability compared with the common type TBG (TBG-C). The isoelectric focusing pattern of this TBG molecule was indistinguishable from TBG-C. Genomic DNAs from white blood cells of four members of a TBG-PDJ family were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the products were sequenced. The sequencing of the entire coding exons and exon/intron junctions of TBG allele of the propositus revealed a single nucleotide substitution: CCT (proline) to CTT (leucine) at amino acid 363 of the TBG-C. The heterozygosity as revealed by the direct sequencing of the PCR product correlated with the TBG concentration in serum. The proline to leucine substitution may cause a change in the TBG tertiary structure and result in decreased heat stability, resulting in decreased TBG levels in the affected subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we evaluated the pituitary-hypothalamic abnormalities of "idiopathic growth hormone (GH) deficiency" as demonstrated by MR imaging. Twenty-four patients were examined with a 1.5-T unit using spin echo T-1 weighted images. The patients were divided into two groups according to MR findings: those with ectopic posterior pituitary glands (12 patients), and those with normal posterior pituitary glands (12 patients). Ten patients in the former group and four in the latter group had small anterior pituitary glands. All patients in the former group but only four in the latter group had severe GH deficiencies. Multiple hormone deficiencies were found in eight patients in the former group, but in only two in the latter group. Among the 12 patients with posterior pituitary ectopia, 11 were males, 10 had been born by breech delivery, and four had a history of asphyxia. It is speculated that perinatal abnormalities can cause posterior pituitary ectopia and that there is a close correlation between breech delivery and the male disadvantage of posterior pituitary ectopia. Half of our patients with "idiopathic GH deficiency" had ectopic posterior pituitaries. GH deficiency with posterior pituitary ectopia should no longer be considered idiopathic because organic lesions can now be identified during life.