[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), Kallmann syndrome (KS), and septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) are genetically related conditions caused by abnormal development of the anterior midline in the forebrain. Although mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene have been implicated in the development of IHH, KS, and SOD, the relevance of FGFR1 abnormalities to CPHD remains to be elucidated. Here, we report a Japanese female patient with CPHD and FGFR1 haploinsufficiency. The patient was identified through copy-number analyses and direct sequencing of FGFR1 performed for 69 patients with CPHD. The patient presented with a combined deficiency of GH, LH and FSH, and multiple neurological abnormalities. In addition, normal TSH values along with a low free T4 level indicated the presence of central hypothyroidism. Molecular analyses identified a heterozygous ~8.5 Mb deletion involving 56 genes and pseudogenes. None of these genes except FGFR1 have been associated with brain development. No FGFR1 abnormalities were identified in the remaining 68 patients, although two patients carried nucleotide substitutions (p.V102I and p.S107L) that were assessed as benign polymorphism by in vitro functional assays. These results indicate a possible role of FGFR1 in anterior pituitary function and the rarity of FGFR1 abnormalities in patients with CPHD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of multiple transcription factor genes involved in pituitary development have been identified in a minor portion of patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). However, copy number aberrations involving such genes have been poorly investigated in patients with CPHD.
We aimed to report the results of mutation and gene copy number analyses in patients with CPHD.
Seventy-one Japanese patients with CPHD were examined for mutations and gene copy number aberrations affecting POU1F1, PROP1, HESX1, LHX3, LHX4, and SOX3 by PCR-direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. When a deletion was indicated, it was further studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization, oligoarray comparative genomic hybridization, and serial sequencing for long PCR products encompassing the deletion junction.
We identified a de novo heterozygous 522,009-bp deletion involving LHX4 in a patient with CPHD (GH, TSH, PRL, LH, and FSH deficiencies), anterior pituitary hypoplasia, ectopic posterior pituitary, and underdeveloped sella turcica. We also identified five novel heterozygous missense substitutions (p.V201I and p.H387P in LHX4, p.T63M and p.A322T in LHX3, and p.V53L in SOX3) that were assessed as rare variants by sequencing analyses for control subjects and available parents and by functional studies and in silico analyses.
The results imply the rarity of abnormalities affecting the six genes in patients with CPHD and the significance of the gene copy number analysis in such patients.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2010; 95(8):4043-7. DOI:10.1210/jc.2010-0150 · 6.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Although recent studies have suggested a positive role of OTX2 in pituitary as well as ocular development and function, detailed pituitary phenotypes in OTX2 mutations and OTX2 target genes for pituitary function other than HESX1 and POU1F1 remain to be determined. Objective: We aimed to examine such unresolved issues. Subjects: We studied 94 Japanese patients with various ocular or pituitary abnormalities. Results: We identified heterozygous p.K74fsX103 in case 1, p.A72fsX86 in case 2, p.G188X in two unrelated cases (3 and 4), and a 2,860,561-bp microdeletion involving OTX2 in case 5. Clinical studies revealed isolated GH deficiency in cases 1 and 5; combined pituitary hormone deficiency in case 3; abnormal pituitary structures in cases 1, 3, and 5; and apparently normal pituitary function in cases 2 and 4, together with ocular anomalies in cases 1-5. The wild-type Orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) protein transactivated the GNRH1 promoter as well as the HESX1, POU1F1, and IRBP (interstitial retinoid-binding protein) promoters, whereas the p.K74fsX103-OTX2 and p.A72fsX86-OTX2 proteins had no transactivation functions and the p.G188X-OTX2 protein had reduced ( approximately 50%) transactivation functions for the four promoters, with no dominant-negative effect. cDNA screening identified positive OTX2 expression in the hypothalamus. Conclusions: The results imply that OTX2 mutations are associated with variable pituitary phenotype, with no genotype-phenotype correlations, and that OTX2 can transactivate GNRH1 as well as HESX1 and POU1F1.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 12/2009; 95(2):756-64. DOI:10.1210/jc.2009-1334 · 6.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the remission of primary gastric lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type in two immunocompromised pediatric patients. Patient 1, a 14-year-old boy in an immunocompromised state of unknown cause, complained of repeated abdominal pain. Examinations revealed gastric MALT with local invasion and lymph node involvement. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) antibody was positive. H pylori eradication was abandoned due to its adverse effects. The MALT lesion spontaneously regressed over the next 24 months without any treatment for lymphoma. Patient 2, a 6-year-old boy, underwent cord blood transplantation for the treatment of adrenoleukodystrophy. He was administered immunosuppressants for graft-versus-host disease after transplantation. Nausea and hematochezia appeared and further examinations revealed gastric MALT with H pylori gastritis. Treatment consisting of medication for the H pylori infection alone eradicated the H pylori and completely resolved the patient's MALT lesion, as well. Patients 1 and 2 were followed up over periods of 10 years and 3 years, respectively, without any signs of relapse. In conclusion, gastric lymphoma of the MALT type can be cured by conservative treatment even in immunocompromised pediatric patients.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2006; 12(16):2625-8. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is sometimes complicated by hypophosphatemia and abnormally low levels of 1,25(OH)(2)D in the presence of hypophosphatemia. Recently, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) was reported as a phosphaturic and a causal factor of abnormal vitamin D metabolism. This abnormal phosphate and vitamin D metabolism is well known to be found in oncogenic and X-linked hypophosphatemia. We furthermore reported increased circulating plasma FGF-23 levels in patients with oncogenic and X-linked hypophosphatemia. To determine whether FGF-23 may be involved in the pathogenesis of MAS, we measured plasma FGF-23 levels in six MAS patients. As a control for hypophosphatemia, we also investigated the plasma FGF-23 levels in two patients with hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH). We also investigated the correlation of plasma FGF-23 levels with serum phosphate and 1,25(OH)(2)D levels after short-term pamidronate therapy in three MAS patients. Plasma FGF-23 levels were significantly increased in patients with MAS compared to normal controls, whereas they were not increased in HHRH patients. Serum phosphate levels of the MAS patients were significantly lower than those observed in normal controls. Plasma FGF-23 levels showed significant negative correlation with serum phosphate concentrations. In three MAS patients, pamidronate therapy decreased plasma FGF-23 levels, which showed significant negative correlation with serum 1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations. These data suggested that FGF-23 is a possible causal factor for hypophosphatemia and abnormal vitamin D metabolism in MAS.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 02/2005; 23(3):231-7. DOI:10.1007/s00774-004-0589-9 · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on PTPN11 (protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 11) mutation analysis and clinical assessment in 45 patients with Noonan syndrome. Sequence analysis was performed for all of the coding exons 1-15 of PTPN11, revealing a novel 3-bp deletion mutation and 10 recurrent missense mutations in 18 patients. Clinical assessment showed that 1) the growth pattern was similar in mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients, with no significant difference in birth length [-0.6 +/- 2.2 sd (n = 10) vs. -0.6 +/- 1.4 sd (n = 21); P = 0.95], childhood height [-2.6 +/- 1.1 sd (n = 14) vs. -2.1 +/- 1.6 sd (n = 23); P = 0.28], or target height [-0.4 +/- 0.9 sd (n = 14) vs. -0.2 +/- 0.7 sd (n = 17); P = 0.52]; 2) pulmonary valve stenosis was more frequent in mutation-positive patients than in mutation-negative patients (10 of 18 vs. 6 of 27; P = 0.02), as was atrial septal defect (10 of 18 vs. 4 of 27; P = 0.005), whereas hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was present in five mutation-negative patients only; and 3) other features were grossly similar in the prevalence between mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients, but hematological abnormalities, such as bleeding diathesis and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, were exclusively present in mutation-positive patients (5 of 18 vs. 0 of 27; P = 0.007). The results suggest that PTPN11 mutations account for approximately 40% of Noonan syndrome patients, as has been reported previously. Furthermore, assessment of clinical features, in conjunction with data reported previously, implies that the type of cardiovascular lesions and the occurrence of hematological abnormalities are different in mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients, whereas the remaining findings are similar in the two groups of patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a previously undescribed syndrome characterized by generalized skeletal alterations and overgrowth in three unrelated individuals: a boy who died at age 16 years, a 16-year-old girl, and a 15-month-old boy. The skeletal changes included bony overgrowth of the skull base, spondylar dysplasia, and undermodeling of the tubular bones. Bone age was accelerated in early childhood. Overgrowth, which was independent of GH-IGF axis, was of prenatal onset in the two boys, but postnatal in the girl. In the two adolescents, growth rate did not decline with age, and high-dose estrogen therapy failed to induce physeal fusion. Their adolescent height reached +4 approximately +7 SD of the mean. Delayed puberty in the girl and cryptorchidism and hypospadias in the younger boy raised the possibility that hypogonadism is a syndromic constituent. Molecular analysis of IGF2, GPC3, and FGFR3 in the older boy yielded no abnormalities.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 07/2004; 128A(2):204-8. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.30030 · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a 3-year-old boy with circumferential skin creases as seen in Michelin tire baby syndrome (MTBS), hearing impairment, undescended testes, short stature, and mental handicap. Skin biopsy from the inguinal region showed degenerative collagen, which has never been found in MTBS. Similar clinical manifestations shared by our patient and a boy reported previously suggest a new clinical entity, in which degenerative collagen is etiologically involved. We propose an acronym to designate it: hearing impairment, undescended testis, circumferential skin creases, and mental handicap (HITCH) syndrome.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 03/2004; 125A(3):290-2. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.20461 · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A previously healthy boy developed persistent hepatitis without fever or lymphoproliferative disorder. Although serologic tests were not indicative, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome and transcripts were detected from the liver tissue, and real time PCR detected extremely high levels of EBV viremia. EBV infection should be included in the differential diagnoses of hepatitis of unknown etiology, even with unremarkable serologic data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a 2 years and 9 months old Japanese boy with adrenal hypoplasia and mental retardation (MR) (developmental quotient approximately 60) which occurred in the absence of severe adrenal crisis and resultant brain damage. Cytogenetic and molecular studies were performed in this boy and his parents with normal phenotype, showing that the boy had a maternally derived approximately 2 Mb interstitial Xp deletion involving DAX1 (DSS-AHC critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1) for adrenal hypoplasia congenita and disrupting IL1RAPL (interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like) for non-specific MR. The results explain the development of MR in this boy in terms of contiguous gene syndrome, and suggest the importance of IL1RAPL analysis in patients with adrenal hypoplasia and MR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to estimate the mortality in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) diagnosed after the introduction of a newborn screening program in Japan, a questionnaire was sent to all members of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology. Three hundred and eighty two out of 960 questionnaires were available for the analysis. Twelve deaths were reported. Two died in an early neonatal period, and 10 patients were on maintenance therapy. This suggests that mortality is estimated to be one in 25-80 21OHD patients on maintenance therapy in childhood. It was speculated that cortisol deficiency somewhat contributed to their deaths. Of note, 4 died during a gastrointestinal infection. The need to increase hydrocortisone doses, and the importance of parenteral hydrocortisone administration during stress or illnesses should be repeatedly informed to carers and their physicians.