Z Khaleeli

University College London, London, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (24)122.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether (1) there were differences between HLA-DRB1*15-positive and -negative patients at baseline, and (2) HLA-DRB1*15-positive patients showed a greater development of brain and spinal cord damage, as assessed by MRI, and greater progression of disability, during a 5-year follow-up, compared with HLA-DRB1*15-negative patients.
    Neurology 10/2014; · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN: From eight MAGNIMS (MAGNetic resonance Imaging in MS) centres, we retrospectively included 261 MS patients with MR imaging at baseline and after 1-2 years, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scoring at baseline and after 10 years. Annualised whole brain atrophy, central brain atrophy rates and T2 lesion volumes were calculated. Patients were categorised by baseline diagnosis as primary progressive MS (n=77), clinically isolated syndromes (n=18), relapsing-remitting MS (n=97) and secondary progressive MS (n=69). Relapse onset patients were classified as minimally impaired (EDSS=0-3.5, n=111) or moderately impaired (EDSS=4-6, n=55) according to their baseline disability (and regardless of disease type). Linear regression models tested whether whole brain and central atrophy, lesion volumes at baseline, follow-up and lesion volume change predicted 10 year EDSS and MS Severity Scale scores. RESULTS: In the whole patient group, whole brain and central atrophy predicted EDSS at 10 years, corrected for imaging protocol, baseline EDSS and disease modifying treatment. The combined model with central atrophy and lesion volume change as MRI predictors predicted 10 year EDSS with R(2)=0.74 in the whole group and R(2)=0.72 in the relapse onset group. In subgroups, central atrophy was predictive in the minimally impaired relapse onset patients (R(2)=0.68), lesion volumes in moderately impaired relapse onset patients (R(2)=0.21) and whole brain atrophy in primary progressive MS (R(2)=0.34). CONCLUSIONS: This large multicentre study points to the complementary predictive value of atrophy and lesion volumes for predicting long term disability in MS.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 03/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aim to identify specific areas of white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM), which predict disability progression and cognitive dysfunction after five years in patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). Thirty-two patients with early PPMS were assessed at baseline and after five years on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and EDSS step-changes were calculated. At year five, a subgroup of 25 patients and 31 healthy controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Baseline imaging consisted of dual-echo (proton density and T2-weighted), T1-weighted volumetric, and diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were created, and fed into tract-based spatial statistics. To compensate for the potential bias introduced by WM lesions, the T1 volumes underwent a lesion-filling procedure before entering a voxel-based morphometry protocol. To investigate whether FA and GM volume predicted EDSS step-changes over five years and neuropsychological tests scores at five years, voxelwise linear regression analyses were performed. Lower FA in the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC) predicted a greater progression of disability over the follow-up. Lower FA along the entire CC predicted worse verbal memory, attention and speed of information processing, and executive function at five years. GM baseline volume did not predict any clinical variable. Our findings highlight the importance of damage to the interhemispheric callosal pathways in determining physical and cognitive disability in PPMS. Disruption of these pathways, which interconnect motor and cognitive networks between the two hemispheres, may result in a disconnection syndrome that contributes to long-term physical and cognitive disability. Hum Brain Mapp, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 02/2012; · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify associations between cognitive impairment and imaging measures in a cross-sectional study of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). Neuropsychological tests were administered to 27 patients with PPMS and 31 controls. Patients underwent brain conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, volumetric scans and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging; MT ratio (MTR) parameters, grey matter (GM) and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) volumes, and WM T2 lesion load (T2LL) were obtained. In patients, multiple linear regression models identified the imaging measure associated with the abnormal cognitive tests independently from the other imaging variables. Partial correlation coefficients (PCC) were reported. Patients performed worse on tests of attention/speed of visual information processing, delayed verbal memory, and executive function, and had a worse overall cognitive performance index, when compared with controls. In patients, a lower GM peak location MTR was associated with worse overall cognitive performance (p < 0.001, PCC = 0.77). GM mean and peak height MTR showed the strongest association with the estimated verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) decline (p < 0.001, PCC = -0.62), and executive function (p < 0.001, PCC = 0.79). NAWM volume was associated with attention/speed of visual information processing (p < 0.001, PCC = 0.74), while T2LL was associated with delayed verbal memory (p = 0.007, PCC = -0.55). The finding of strong associations between GM MTR, NAWM volume and T2LL and specific cognitive impairments suggests that models that predict cognitive impairment in PPMS should include comprehensive MRI assessments of both GM and WM. However, GM MTR appears to be the main correlate of overall cognitive dysfunction, underlining the role of abnormal GM integrity in determining cognitive impairment in PPMS.
    Multiple Sclerosis 07/2011; 17(11):1324-32. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prediction of long term clinical outcome in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) using imaging has important clinical implications, but remains challenging. We aimed to determine whether spatial location of T2 and T1 brain lesions predicts clinical progression during a 10-year follow-up in PPMS. Lesion probability maps of the T2 and T1 brain lesions were generated using the baseline scans of 80 patients with PPMS who were clinically assessed at baseline and then after 1, 2, 5 and 10 years. For each patient, the time (in years) taken before bilateral support was required to walk (time to event (TTE)) was used as a measure of progression rate. The probability of each voxel being 'lesional' was correlated with TTE, adjusting for age, gender, disease duration, centre and spinal cord cross sectional area, using a multiple linear regression model. To identify the best, independent predictor of progression, a Cox regression model was used. A significant correlation between a shorter TTE and a higher probability of a voxel being lesional on T2 scans was found in the bilateral corticospinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus, and in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (p<0.05). The best predictor of progression rate was the T2 lesion load measured along the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (p=0.016, hazard ratio 1.00652, 95% CI 1.00121 to 1.01186). Our results suggest that the location of T2 brain lesions in the motor and associative tracts is an important contributor to the progression of disability in PPMS, and is independent of spinal cord involvement.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 01/2011; 82(1):72-7. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether T2 lesion load and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and grey matter (GM) at study entry are independent predictors of progression and whether their changes correlate with the accrual of disability, over 5 years in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). Forty-seven patients with early PPMS and 18 healthy controls were recruited at baseline and invited to attend clinical 6-monthly assessments for 3 years, and after 5 years. Patients were scored on the Expanded Disability Status Scale and multiple sclerosis functional composite subtests (25-foot timed walk test (TWT), nine-hole peg test and paced auditory serial addition test). At each time point, all subjects underwent brain MRI including T2-weighted, magnetisation transfer and volumetric sequences. T2 lesion load (T2LL), MTR histogram parameters and volumes for NAWM and GM were calculated. Statistical analyses identified predictors of progression and correlations between MRI changes and clinical changes over time. Baseline T2LL and GM peak location and peak height MTR were independent predictors of progression, as measured by TWT; a model including these three predictors explained 91% of the variance of the progression on TWT, a significantly higher percentage than that obtained when the predictors were modelled individually (80%, 74% and 68%, respectively). A greater progression rate correlated with a steeper increase in T2LL and a faster decline in GM mean and peak location MTR. The combined assessment of both visible white matter damage and GM involvement is useful in predicting progression in PPMS.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 10/2010; 82(4):423-8. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelination and neuroaxonal damage are seen in the hippocampus, and MRI has revealed hippocampal atrophy. To investigate and compare hippocampal volume loss in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS) using manual volumetry, and explore its association with memory dysfunction. Hippocampi were manually delineated on volumetric MRI of 34 patients with RRMS, 23 patients with PPMS and 18 controls. Patients underwent neuropsychological tests of verbal and visuospatial recall memory. Linear regression was used to compare hippocampal volumes between subject groups, and to assess the association with memory function. Hippocampal volumes were smaller in MS patients compared with controls, and were similar in patients with RRMS and PPMS. The mean decrease in hippocampal volume in MS patients was 317 mm(3) (9.4%; 95% CI 86 to 549; p = 0.008) on the right and 284 mm(3) (8.9%; 95% CI 61 to 508; p = 0.013) on the left. A borderline association of hippocampal volume with memory performance was observed only in patients with PPMS. Hippocampal atrophy occurs in patients with RRMS and PPMS. Factors additional to hippocampal atrophy may impact on memory performance.
    Multiple Sclerosis 09/2010; 16(9):1083-90. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For the Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW) and 9-Hole Peg Test (9HPT), components of the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC), cut-off points of 20% change have previously been defined as meaningful endpoints of functional decline. Recently, however, a 15% change of MSFC components was introduced. The objective of this study was to determine optimal cut-offs for all MSFC components to indicate clinical disease progression in a primary progressive (PP) multiple sclerosis (MS) population. T25FW, 9HPT and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) were performed in 161 patients with PPMS with a 2-year interval. Absolute and relative differences in test scores were calculated. For each cut-off point of relative change, proportions of patients who progressed (deterioration beyond cut-off value) and improved (improvement beyond cut-off value) were calculated. Further, we calculated the ratio of 'improved' versus 'progressed' patients. Line graphs were created indicating: percentage progressed patients, percentage improved patients, and ratio of improved versus progressed patients. The optimal cut-off was determined by searching the cut-off point with the lowest ratio of improved versus progressed patients, while at the same time capturing a substantial amount of progression. For both T25FW and 9HPT, the ratio between patients that improved and worsened clearly decreased between the cut-offs of 15% and 20%. For the PASAT, the ratio between patients improved and worsened was persistently poor. In conclusion, a cut-off of 20% for both T25FW and 9HPT has a better signal-to-noise ratio than lower values (e.g. 15%) and is therefore preferable for the assessment of disease progression. No satisfactory cut-off point for the PASAT could be determined.
    Multiple Sclerosis 07/2010; 16(7):862-7. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fewer gadolinium-enhancing lesions are seen in established primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) compared with other subtypes. Previously, we found unexpectedly high enhancement levels in early PPMS (42%), suggesting an early inflammatory phase. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this level of enhancement was maintained, and whether it influenced clinical progression, over 5 years. Forty-five patients with PPMS, within 5 years of onset, were scored on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) and its subtests (including the timed walk test [TWT]) 6-monthly for 3 years, and at 5 years. T1-weighted brain and spinal cord images after triple dose gadolinium-DTPA, and T2-weighted brain sequences were also acquired. A mixed effect logistic model evaluated change in the percentage of patients with enhancing lesions. Ordinal logistic and multiple linear regression models identified predictors of progression, adjusted for T2 lesion load. The percentage of patients with enhancing lesions in the brain and spinal cord declined over 5 years (p = 0.03). Among patients with enhancement, more enhancing lesions at baseline predicted greater decline in mobility on the TWT over 5 years (p = 0.02). In conclusion, a proportion of patients with PPMS may undergo an early inflammatory phase, which has some impact on subsequent mobility.
    Multiple Sclerosis 03/2010; 16(3):317-24. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) is common and correlates modestly with contemporary lesion burden and brain volume. Using a cohort/case control methodology, we explore the ability of MRI abnormalities, including those in the normal-appearing brain tissue, to predict future cognitive dysfunction in PPMS. Thirty-one patients recruited into a longitudinal study within 5 years of onset of PPMS were assessed neuropsychologically on average 5.5 years later along with 31 matched healthy controls. MRI data obtained at entry into the study (lesion metrics, brain volumes, magnetization transfer ratio histogram metrics, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolite concentrations) were used to predict cognitive impairment at follow-up. Twenty-nine percent of patients were categorized as cognitively impaired. T2 lesion volume was the best MRI predictor of overall cognitive function and performance on tests of verbal memory and attention/speed of information processing. Low gray matter magnetization transfer ratio was the best predictor of poor performance on a further test of attention/speed of information processing and an executive function test. Low gray and white matter volumes were independent predictors of poor performance on a second test of executive function. MRI abnormalities observed in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis can predict cognitive impairment 5 years later. While focal damage disrupting white matter tracts appears to be the most important predictor of subsequent cognitive dysfunction, gray matter pathology also plays a role.
    Neurology 02/2010; 74(7):545-52. · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnostic criteria used in primary progressive (PP) and relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) show substantial differences. This introduces complexity in the diagnosis of MS which could be resolved if these criteria could be unified in terms of the requirements for dissemination in space (DIS). The aim of this study was to assess whether a single algorithm may be used to demonstrate DIS in all forms of MS. Five sets of RRMS criteria for DIS were applied to a cohort of 145 patients with established PPMS (mean disease duration: 11 years - PPMS-1): C1: Barkhof-Tintoré (as in 2005 McDonald's criteria); C2: Swanton et al. (as in JNNP 2006); C3: presence of oligoclonal bands plus two lesions (as in McDonald's criteria); C4 and C5: a two-step approach was also followed (patients not fulfilling C1 or C2 were then assessed for C3). Two sets of PPMS criteria for DIS were applied: C6: Thompson et al. (as in 2001 McDonald's criteria); C7: 2005 McDonald criteria. A second sample of 55 patients with less than 5 years of disease duration (PPMS-2) was also analysed using an identical approach. For PPMS-1/PPMS-2, fulfilment was: C1:73.8%/66.7%; C2:72.1%/59.3%; C3:89%/79.2%; C4:96%/92.3%; C5:96%/85.7%; C6:85.8%/78.7%; C7:91%/80.4%. Levels of fulfilment suggest that the use of a single set of criteria for DIS in RRMS and PPMS might be feasible, and reinforce the added value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings to increase fulfilment in PPMS. Unification of the DIS criteria for both RRMS and PPMS could be considered in further revisions of the MS diagnostic criteria.
    Multiple Sclerosis 12/2009; 15(12):1459-65. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a role in triggering or perpetuating disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated 100 subjects (50 clinically isolated syndrome [CIS], 25 relapsing-remitting [RR] MS, 25 primary progressive [PP] MS) for 1) evidence of EBV reactivation and 2) disease activity as indicated by serial gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced MRIs over a 5-year period. EBV DNA in blood was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR and EBV serology for anti-Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) immunoglobulin G (IgG), anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG, and anti-EBV IgM. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis, analysis of variance, and logistic regression analysis. All subjects had serologic evidence of previous EBV infection, but no lytic reactivation was detected. Significant differences in EBNA-1 IgG titers were found between subgroups, highest in the RRMS cohort compared with PPMS (p < 0.001) and CIS (p < 0.001). Gd-enhancing lesions on MRI correlated with EBNA-1 IgG (r = 0.33, p < 0.001) and EBNA-1:VCA IgG ratio (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). EBNA-1 IgG also correlated with change in T2 lesion volume (r = 0.27, p = 0.044) and Expanded Disability Status Scale score (r = 0.3, p = 0.035). The correlation between elevated Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and gadolinium-enhancing lesions suggests an association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity. The heightened immune response to EBV in MS is specifically related to EBNA-1 IgG, a marker of the latent phase of the virus. The lack of association between acute viral reactivation in the peripheral blood and Gd(+) lesions suggests a limited role of the former in driving disease activity.
    Neurology 06/2009; 73(1):32-8. · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) combining scores of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) with data from Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW) and 9-Hole Peg Test (9HPT) would produce a clinical endpoint that has a higher event rate than EDSS alone. In a group of 161 PPMS patients, EDSS, T25FW, and 9HPT were performed at three time points over 2 years. We calculated how many patients showed clinically meaningful deterioration (or improvement) on individual and combined scales. We defined improvements on one scale with deterioration on the other as "opposing changes." We investigated the possible effect of baseline disability on the definition of our endpoint by dividing the population into two subsets of patients determined by baseline EDSS level. On individual scales, event rates were highest on T25FW: 34% and 46% 1 year and 2 years after baseline. On a combination of two scales, at 1 year the event rate was highest on T25FW/9HPT (46%; with a high rate of opposing changes) and at 2 years on T25FW/EDSS (57%; with a lower rate of opposing changes). In both subsets, event rates were highest on T25FW and (at 2 years) on the combination of T25FW/EDSS. T25FW has the highest event rate as a single scale, independent of baseline disability level. A term of 2 years turned out to be more meaningful to observe than 1 year. "Worsening on either T25FW or EDSS" is the most appropriate composite endpoint in this patient group.
    Multiple Sclerosis 05/2009; 15(6):715-20. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship between the damage occurring in the brain normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and in the gray matter (GM) in patients with early Primary Progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach. Thirty-five patients with early PPMS underwent diffusion tensor and conventional imaging and were clinically assessed. TBSS and VBM were employed to localize regions of lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and lower GM volume in patients compared with controls. Areas of anatomical and quantitative correlation between NAWM and GM damage were detected. Multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate whether NAWM FA or GM volume of regions correlated with clinical scores independently from the other and from age and gender. In patients, we found 11 brain regions that showed an anatomical correspondence between reduced NAWM FA and GM atrophy; of these, four showed a quantitative correlation (i.e., the right sensory motor region with the adjacent corticospinal tract, the left and right thalamus with the corresponding thalamic radiations and the left insula with the adjacent WM). Either the NAWM FA or the GM volume in each of these regions correlated with disability. These results demonstrate a link between the pathological processes occurring in the NAWM and in the GM in PPMS in specific, clinically relevant brain areas. Longitudinal studies will determine whether the GM atrophy precedes or follows the NAWM damage. The methodology that we described may be useful to investigate other neurological disorders affecting both the WM and the GM.
    Human Brain Mapping 02/2009; 30(9):2852-61. · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetization transfer imaging has the potential to provide a surrogate marker for progression in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). To investigate whether brain magnetization transfer imaging, T2 lesion load, and atrophy changes over 3 years reflect concurrent clinical changes, and which baseline imaging measure best predicts progression over 3 years in early PPMS. Prospective study. National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and the Institute of Neurology, London, England. Forty-seven patients with PPMS (of whom 43 completed the study) and 18 control subjects. Brain magnetization transfer imaging (including T2-weighted images) and volume sequences every 6 months for 3 years. Changes in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score and associations with rate of change in imaging variables. More rapid decline in gray matter mean and peak location magnetization transfer ratio and T2 lesion load increase were associated with greater rates of progression on the EDSS. Baseline gray matter peak height magnetization transfer ratio best predicted progression over 3 years. Gray matter magnetization transfer ratio meets many of the criteria for a surrogate marker of progression in early PPMS.
    Archives of neurology 12/2008; 65(11):1454-9. · 7.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rates of progression vary widely in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. This multicenter study aimed to identify predictors of progression over 10 years. A total of 101 patients who had been imaged at baseline and 2 years were scored on the expanded disability status scale after 10 years. Ordinal logistic regression identified the following independent variables that predicted progression: male sex, shorter disease duration, and slower timed walk test at baseline (best overall predictor), and deterioration in expanded disability status scale score and reduction in brain volume over 2 years. These predictors of long-term disability provide some insight into disease progression.
    Annals of Neurology 07/2008; 63(6):790-3. · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • T M Jenkins, Z Khaleeli, A J Thompson
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    ABSTRACT: Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The most common presentation is with a spastic paraparesis, which may be asymmetrical. In contrast to relapsing remitting MS, discrete attacks are not a characteristic feature and the temporal course is of gradual symptomatic deterioration. The current diagnostic criteria are based on this clinical phenotype, with supportive evidence from magnetic resonance imaging, and examination of cerebrospinal fluid and visual evoked potentials in some cases. At present, there is no effective disease modifying therapy, but a wide range of symptomatic treatments are available. These may be of great benefit to individual patients and include pharmacological measures, multidisciplinary therapist input and neurorehabilitation. New treatments which target neurodegeneration and promote brain repair are required, and research in these areas offers hope for the future.
    Minerva medica 05/2008; 99(2):141-55. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of disability in primary progressive (PP) multiple sclerosis (MS) are still unclear, a major role seems to be played by 'occult' tissue damage. We investigated whether conventional and magnetization transfer (MT) MRI may provide complementary information for the assessment of PPMS severity. Conventional and MT MRI scans from 226 PPMS patients and 84 healthy controls were collected for centralized analysis. The expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score was rated at the time of MRI acquisition. T2 lesion volume, normalized brain volume (NBV) and cervical cord cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histograms from whole brain tissue, normal-appearing white matter and grey matter (NAGM) were also obtained. Mean NBV, CSA and MTR histogram-derived metrics showed significant inter-centre heterogeneity. After correcting for the acquisition centre, pooled average MTR and histogram peak height values were different between PPMS patients and controls for all tissue classes (P-values between 0.03 and 0.0001). More severe brain and cord atrophy and MT MRI-detectable NAGM damage were found in patients who required walking aids than in those who did not (P-values: 0.03, 0.001 and 0.016). A composite score of NBV, CSA, whole brain and NAGM MTR histogram peak height z-scores was correlated with patients' EDSS (r = 0.37, P 0.001). Magnetization transfer MRI might provide information complementary to that given by conventional MRI when assessing PPMS severity. Sequence-related variability of measurements makes the standardization of MT MRI acquisition essential for the design of multicentre studies.
    Multiple Sclerosis 02/2008; 14(4):455-64. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progression rates in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) vary widely and brain magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI) has potential as an early prognostic indicator. We investigated the predictive value of MTI and the longitudinal changes developing over 1 year in early PPMS. To determine (1) whether baseline brain MTI parameters in early PPMS predict clinical changes over 1 year, independent of brain volume and (2) whether a change in magnetisation transfer (MT) parameters occurs over 1 year, independent of atrophy. 30 patients with PPMS within 5 years of symptom onset and 15 controls underwent MT and volumetric imaging studies, at baseline and at 1 year. Patients underwent clinical assessment using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC), including the timed walk subtest (TWT). Normalised MT histograms were generated for whole brain, normal appearing brain tissue (NABT) and normal appearing white and grey matter (NAWM and NAGM) segments. Multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate whether baseline MTR parameters predicted clinical change over 1 year, adjusting for baseline brain volume. MTR changes over 1 year were assessed using paired t tests. In patients, lower baseline NAWM MTR predicted greater deterioration in EDSS and MSFC, particularly in walking ability measured by the TWT, independent of NAWM baseline volume (p = 0.001). NAGM MTR mean (p<0.001), and to a lesser extent NAWM mean (p = 0.011) and lesion MTR (p = 0.03), decreased over 1 year. NAWM MTR may provide information on short term clinical prognosis in early PPMS. MTI is sensitive to brain tissue changes over 1 year in early PPMS, which were primarily seen in the NAGM.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 11/2007; 78(10):1076-82. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disability in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) has been correlated with damage to the normal appearing brain tissues. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and volume changes indicate that much of this damage occurs in the normal appearing grey matter, but the clinical significance of this remains uncertain. We aimed to localize these changes to distinct grey matter regions, and investigate the clinical impact of the MTR changes. 46 patients with early PPMS and 23 controls underwent MT and high-resolution T1-weighted imaging. Patients were scored on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and subtests (Nine-Hole Peg Test, Timed Walk Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test [PASAT]). Grey matter volume and MTR were compared between patients and controls, adjusting for age. Mean MTR for significant regions within the motor network and in areas relevant to PASAT performance were correlated with appropriate clinical scores, adjusting for grey matter volume. Patients showed reduced MTR and atrophy in the right pre- and left post-central gyri, right middle frontal gyrus, left insula, and thalamus bilaterally. Reduced MTR without significant atrophy occurred in the left pre-central gyrus, left superior frontal gyri, bilateral superior temporal gyri, right insula and visual cortex. Higher EDSS correlated with lower MTR in the right primary motor cortex (BA 4). In conclusion, localized grey matter damage occurs in early PPMS, and MTR change is more widespread than atrophy. Damage demonstrated by reduced MTR is clinically eloquent.
    NeuroImage 09/2007; 37(1):253-61. · 6.25 Impact Factor