Mervi Kanerva

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland

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Publications (39)121.24 Total impact

  • Läkartidningen 01/2015; 112(6):C6RD. · 0.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Microbiologic causes of facial palsy in children were investigated. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Forty-six children aged 0 to 16 years with peripheral facial palsy. INTERVENTIONS: Paired serum samples and cerebrospinal fluid were tested to find indications of microbes associated with facial palsy. The microbes tested were herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus, human herpesvirus-6, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Borrelia burgdorferi, influenza A and B virus, picorna, cytomegalovirus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coxsackie B5 virus, adenovirus, and enterovirus, Chlamydia psittaci, and Toxoplasma gondii. Besides the routine tests in clinical practice, serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were tested with a highly sensitive microarray assay for DNA of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2; human herpes virus 6A, 6B, and 7; Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and varicella zoster virus. RESULTS: Incidence for facial palsy was 8.6/100,000/children/year. Cause was highly plausible in 67% and probable in an additional 11% of cases. Borrelia burgdorferi caused facial palsy in 14 patients (30%), varicella zoster virus in 5 (11%) (one with concomitant adenovirus), influenza A in 3 (6%), herpes simplex virus 1 in 2 (4%) (one with concomitant enterovirus), otitis media in 2 (4%), and human herpesvirus 6 in 2 (4%). Mycoplasma pneumoniae, neurofibromatosis, and neonatal age facial palsy affected 1 child (2%) each. CONCLUSION: Microbiologic etiology association of pediatric facial palsy could frequently be confirmed. Borreliosis was the single most common cause; hence, cerebrospinal fluid sampling is recommended for all pediatric cases in endemic areas. Varicella zoster virus accounted for 11% of the cases, being the second most common factor.
    Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 05/2013; DOI:10.1097/MAO.0b013e318289844c · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In January 2008, laboratory-based surveillance of Clostridium difficile was initiated as a part of the Finnish National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR) and enhanced surveillance of hospitalized patients with C. difficile-associated infections (CDI) by the Finnish Hospital Infection Programme (SIRO). AIM: To present data from the first three years. METHODS: All laboratories reported C. difficile findings positive for toxin production from stools to NIDR. Surveillance of hospitalized patients with CDI was conducted using the interim case definitions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for CDI, origin and severe case of CDI. In all, 16 acute care hospitals from 10 of the 21 healthcare districts (HDs) participated in SIRO during 2008-2010. Clinical microbiology laboratories were asked to send isolates from severe cases and persistent outbreaks to the national reference laboratory for genotyping. FINDINGS: The annual incidence rate of CDIs decreased by 24%, from 119 per 100,000 population in 2008 to 90 per 100,000 in 2010. The decrease occurred in 13/21 (62%) HDs (range of decrease by HD: 2-51%). The nosocomial rate decreased 26%, from 0.31 to 0.23 per 1000 patient-days, and occurred in about half of the hospitals that participated in SIRO. During 2008-2010, 17 HDs sent C. difficile specimens for typing. Ribotype 027 was found in eight HDs, all showing values above the mean or increasing population-based incidence rates of CDIs. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based surveillance of CDIs and enhanced surveillance of nosocomial cases showed reduction in CDIs, but success in controlling the disease varied between regions.
    The Journal of hospital infection 11/2012; 83(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jhin.2012.09.021 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    Value in Health 11/2012; 15(7):A390. DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2012.08.1096 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyse the Finnish European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) nursing home (NH) point prevalence surveys' (PPSs) data in detail, i.e. to evaluate the variability in the prevalence of antimicrobial prescription between NHs and its relationship to resident characteristics. METHODS: All residents present in NHs for ≥24 h and receiving systemic antimicrobials on the day of the survey were included. Data on antimicrobials and their indications (prophylaxis or treatment, type of infection) were collected. RESULTS: Three PPSs were performed: eight NHs participated in April and November 2009 and nine in May-September 2010. In total, there were 5,691 eligible residents (range by survey, 1,706-2,320; range by NH, 60-688), 716 (12.6 %; range by NH, 3.2-33.3 %) of which received at least one antimicrobial and 40 residents received two. The most common indication was prophylaxis (487/5,691, 8.6 %), mainly for urinary tract infection (UTI) (460/487, 94.5 %). Of the residents, 269/5,691 (4.7 %, range by NH, 1.5-6.0 %) were on antimicrobial treatment. UTI (119/269; 44.2 %) was the most common indication for treatment. Methenamine (306/756, 40.5 %) was the most commonly used antimicrobial, followed by trimethoprim (13.6 %) and pivmecillinam (11.0 %). In the eight NHs participating in all three surveys, the prevalence of residents receiving antimicrobials decreased from 16.6 to 9.7 %. CONCLUSIONS: Antimicrobial use was common in NHs in Finland and most were used for UTI prophylaxis and treatment. The usage, however, varied among NHs and tended to decrease during the surveys. NHs may benefit from antimicrobial stewardship interventions focused on UTI.
    Infection 09/2012; 41(2). DOI:10.1007/s15010-012-0331-9 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the treatment effect of prednisolone and/or valaciclovir in Bell's palsy patients with different baseline severity of palsy. Patient data were collected from the Scandinavian Bell's Palsy Study, a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centre trial. Sixteen otorhinolaryngological centres in Sweden and one in Finland. Altogether, 829 patients aged 18-75 years were treated within 72 h of palsy onset. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with prednisolone plus placebo (n = 210), valaciclovir plus placebo (n = 207), prednisolone plus valaciclovir (n = 206), placebo plus placebo (n = 206). Follow-up was 12 months. Facial function was assessed using the Sunnybrook grading scale at baseline and at 12 months. Complete recovery was defined as Sunnybrook score = 100. All patients, regardless of baseline severity, showed significantly higher complete recovery rates if treated with prednisolone compared with no prednisolone. In patients with severe palsy, recovery at 12 months was 51% with prednisolone treatment versus 31% without prednisolone (P = 0.02). Corresponding results were 68%versus 51% (P = 0.004) for moderate, and 83%versus 73% (P = 0.02) for mild palsy. In patient groups with moderate and mild palsy at baseline, significantly fewer prednisolone-treated patients had synkinesis at 12 months (P = 0.04 and P < 0.0001, respectively). For patients with severe palsy at baseline, prednisolone versus no prednisolone made no significant difference regarding synkinesis at 12 months. Valaciclovir did not add any significant effect to prednisolone regarding recovery rate or synkinesis at 12 months. Prednisolone treatment resulted in higher complete recovery rates, regardless of severity at baseline. Prednisolone treatment should be considered in all patients irrespective of degree of palsy.
    Clinical otolaryngology: official journal of ENT-UK; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery 07/2012; 37(4):283-90. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-4486.2012.02526.x · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study whether prednisolone reduces sequelae in Bell's palsy. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial with 12 months of follow-up. Seventeen referral centers. In all, 829 patients aged 18 to 75 years. Randomization within 72 hours in a factorial fashion to placebo plus placebo (n = 206); prednisolone, 60 mg/d for 5 days, with the dosage then tapered for 5 days, plus placebo (n = 210); valacyclovir hydrochloride, 1000 mg 3 times daily for 7 days, plus placebo (n = 207); or prednisolone plus valacyclovir (n = 206). Facial function at 12 months assessed with the Sunnybrook and House-Brackmann grading systems. In 184 of the 829 patients, the Sunnybrook score was less than 90 at 12 months; 71 had been treated with prednisolone and 113 had not (P < .001). In 98 patients, the Sunnybrook score was less than 70; 33 had received prednisolone and 65 had not (P < .001). The difference between patients who received prednisolone and who did not in House-Brackmann gradings higher than I and higher than II was also significant (P < .001 and P = .01, respectively). No significant difference was found between patients who received prednisolone and those who did not in Sunnybrook scores less than 50 (P = .10) or House-Brackmann grades higher than III (P = .80). Synkinesis was assessed with the Sunnybrook score in 743 patients. Ninety-six patients had a synkinesis score more than 2, of whom 33 had received prednisolone and 63 had not (P = .001). Sixty patients had a synkinesis score more than 4, of whom 22 had received prednisolone and 38 had not (P = .005). Prednisolone significantly reduces mild and moderate sequelae in Bell's palsy. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00510263.
    Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery 05/2012; 138(5):445-9. DOI:10.1001/archoto.2012.513 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the correlation between Sunnybrook and House-Brackmann facial grading systems at different time points during the course of peripheral facial palsy. Prospective multicenter trial. Seventeen otorhinolaryngological centers. Data are part of the Scandinavian Bell's palsy study. The facial function of 1920 patients with peripheral facial palsy was assessed 5397 times with both Sunnybrook and House-Brackmann (H-B) facial grading systems. Grading was done at initial visit, at days 11 to 17 of palsy onset, and at 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Statistical evaluation was by Spearman correlation coefficient and box plot analysis. Spearman correlation coefficient varied from -0.81 to -0.96, with the weakest correlation found at initial visit. Box plot analysis for all assessments revealed that Sunnybrook scores were widely spread over different H-B grades. With 50% of the results closest to the median, Sunnybrook composite scores varied in H-B grades as follows: H-B I, 100; H-B II, 71 to 90; H-B III, 43 to 62; H-B IV, 26 to 43; H-B V, 13 to 25; and H-B VI, 5 to 14. Gradings correlated better in follow-up assessments than at initial visit. As shown by the wide overlap of the grading results, subjective grading systems are only approximate. However, a conversion table for Sunnybrook and H-B gradings was obtained and is included in the article. It can be used for further development of facial grading systems.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 04/2011; 144(4):570-4. DOI:10.1177/0194599810397497 · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among the ailments of the ocular region, the use of botulin has become established in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm in Finland. Botulin has also been used successfully after peripheral facial palsy to improve facial symmetry, reduce lachrymal flow, treat dribbling of saliva as well as spasmodic dysphonia of laryngeal muscles. It may be effective in dysphagia caused by tightness of the upper esophageal sphincter or in several dyshidroses. Gastroenterologic indications include anal fissure and spasm and achalasia of the lower esophageal sphincter. In urology, botulin is effective in overactive bladder and incomplete voiding.
    Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja 01/2011; 127(22):2431-43.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate if treatment start and age are related to the outcome in Bell's palsy patients treated with prednisolone. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Sixteen otorhinolaryngologic centers in Sweden and 1 in Finland. Data were collected from the Scandinavian Bell's palsy study. A total of 829 patients were treated within 72 hours of onset of palsy. Follow-up was 12 months. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with placebo plus placebo (n = 206), prednisolone plus placebo (n = 210), valacyclovir plus placebo (n = 207), or prednisolone plus valacyclovir (n = 206). Facial function was assessed with the Sunnybrook grading system, and complete recovery was defined as Sunnybrook = 100. Time from onset of palsy to treatment start was registered. Patients treated with prednisolone within 24 hours and 25 to 48 hours had significantly higher complete recovery rates, 66% (103/156) and 76% (128/168), than patients given no prednisolone, 51% (77/152) and 58% (102/177) (p = 0.008 and p = 0.0003, respectively). For patients treated within 49 to 72 hours of palsy onset, there were no significant differences. Patients aged 40 years or older had significantly higher complete recovery rates if treated with prednisolone, whereas patients aged younger than 40 years did not differ with respect to prednisolone treatment. However, synkinesis was significantly less in patients younger than 40 years given prednisolone (p = 0.002). Treatment with prednisolone within 48 hours of onset of palsy resulted in significantly higher complete recovery rates and less synkinesis compared with no prednisolone.
    Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 01/2011; 32(1):141-6. DOI:10.1097/MAO.0b013e3182009f35 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A prevalence survey is a time-saving and useful tool for obtaining an overview of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) either in a single hospital or nationally. Direct comparison of prevalence rates is difficult. We evaluated the impact of case-mix adjustment on hospital-specific prevalences. All five tertiary care, all 15 secondary care and 10 (25% of 40) other acute care hospitals took part in the first national prevalence survey in Finland in 2005. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria served to define HCAI. The information collected included demographic characteristics, severity of the underlying disease, use of catheters and a respirator, and previous surgery. Patients with HCAI related to another hospital were excluded. Case-mix-adjusted HCAI prevalences were calculated by using a multivariate logistic regression model for HCAI risk and an indirect standardisation method. Altogether, 587 (7.2%) of 8118 adult patients had at least one infection; hospital-specific prevalences ranged between 1.9% and 12.6%. Risk factors for HCAI that were previously known or identified by univariate analysis (age, male gender, intensive care, high Charlson comorbidity and McCabe indices, respirator, central venous or urinary catheters, and surgery during stay) were included in the multivariate analysis for standardisation. Case-mix-adjusted prevalences varied between 2.6% and 17.0%, and ranked the hospitals differently from the observed rates. In 11 (38%) hospitals, the observed prevalence rank was lower than predicted by the case-mix-adjusted figure. Case-mix should be taken into consideration in the interhospital comparison of prevalence rates.
    The Journal of hospital infection 10/2010; 76(2):135-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jhin.2010.05.017 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Puumala virus (PUUV) causes mild haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, a rodent-borne zoonosis. To evaluate the disease burden of PUUV infections in Finland, we analysed data reported by laboratories to the National Infectious Disease Registry during 1995-2008 and compared these with data from other national registries (death, 1998-2007; hospital discharge, 1996-2007; occupational diseases, 1995-2006). A total of 22,681 cases were reported (average annual incidence 31/100,000 population); 85% were in persons aged 20-64 years and 62% were males. There was an increasing trend in incidence, and the rates varied widely by season and region. We observed 13 deaths attributable to PUUV infection (case-fatality proportion 0.08%). Of all cases, 9599 (52%) were hospitalized. Only 590 cases (3%) were registered as occupational disease, of which most were related to farming and forestry. The wide seasonal and geographical variation is probably related to rodent density and human behaviour.
    Epidemiology and Infection 10/2010; 138(10):1484-92. DOI:10.1017/S0950268810000087 · 2.49 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hospital Infection 10/2010; 76. DOI:10.1016/S0195-6701(10)60034-5 · 2.78 Impact Factor
  • The Lancet Neurology 07/2009; 8(6):509-10. DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(09)70115-2 · 21.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of prednisolone and valacyclovir on ipsilateral pain around the ear and in the face or neck in Bell's palsy. The incidence and intensity of pain during the first 2 months of palsy and its prognostic value were also assessed. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Sixteen tertiary referral centers in Sweden and 1 in Finland. Data are part of the Scandinavian Bell's palsy study; 829 patients aged 18 to 75 years with onset of palsy within 72 hours were included. Follow-up time was 12 months. Patients were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment arms in a factorial fashion: placebo plus placebo; prednisolone 60 mg daily for 5 days, then tapering for 5 days, plus placebo; valacyclovir 1,000 mg 3 times daily for 7 days plus placebo; or prednisolone plus valacyclovir. Pain was registered on a visual analog scale within 72 hours, at Days 11 to 17, 1 month, and 2 months. Facial function was assessed with the Sunnybrook and House-Brackmann systems. Prednisolone and/or valacyclovir did not significantly affect the incidence or intensity of pain during the first 2 months. Pain was registered in 542 (65%) of 829 patients. At 2 months, 53 (8%) of 637 patients still reported pain. Subjects with pain at Days 11 to 17 had lower facial recovery rates at 12 months than those with no pain (p < 0.0001). Prednisolone and/or valacyclovir did not affect the incidence or intensity of ipsilateral pain in Bell's palsy. The incidence of pain was similar during the first 2 weeks and then decreased. Presence of pain at Days 11 to 17 indicated a worse prognosis for facial recovery.
    Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 06/2009; 30(6):842-6. DOI:10.1097/MAO.0b013e3181ab31c8 · 1.60 Impact Factor
  • Clinical otolaryngology: official journal of ENT-UK; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery 02/2009; 34(1):59-59. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-4486.2008.01873.x · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Norovirus outbreaks are difficult to control in hospitals. Cohorting and contact isolation, disinfective surface cleaning and hand hygiene are key elements in outbreak control. A new norovirus variant, GII.4.-2006b, spreading across many continents, caused an exceptionally long epidemic period in Finland, from November 2006 to June 2007. Here, we describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of a norovirus outbreak in a large tertiary care hospital in Finland. Altogether 240 (18%) patients and 205 (19%) healthcare workers fell ill in the 504 bedded main building of Helsinki University Central Hospital during December 2006 to May 2007. The epidemic curve had three peaks in January, February and April, and different wards were affected each time. During the outbreak, 502 patient stool specimens were tested for norovirus RNA, 181 (36%) of which were positive. Molecular analysis of 48 positive specimens revealed three main subvariants of GII.4.-2006b circulating temporally within distinct wards. Of all microbiologically confirmed cases, 121 (67%) were nosocomial and nine (5%) died within 30 days of diagnosis. Molecular analysis suggested that the three main GII.4-2006b subvariants entered the hospital with gastroenteritis patients, and the nosocomial spread within wards coincided with the epidemic peaks. Active control measures, including temporary closure of the wards, ultimately confined the single-ward outbreaks. A prolonged outbreak in the community was probably the source for the prolonged outbreak period in the hospital.
    Journal of Hospital Infection 02/2009; 71(3):206-13. DOI:10.1016/j.jhin.2008.11.016 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous trials of corticosteroid or antiviral treatments for Bell's palsy have been underpowered or have had insufficient follow-up. The aim of this study was to compare the short-term and long-term effects of prednisolone and valaciclovir in the recovery of the affected facial nerve in a large number of patients. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial, patients aged 18 to 75 years who sought care directly or were referred from emergency departments or general practitioners within 72 h of onset of acute, unilateral, peripheral facial palsy, between May, 2001, and September, 2006, were assessed. Patients were randomly assigned in permuted blocks of eight to receive placebo plus placebo; 60 mg prednisolone per day for 5 days then reduced by 10 mg per day (for a total treatment time of 10 days) plus placebo; 1000 mg valaciclovir three times per day for 7 days plus placebo; or prednisolone (10 days) plus valaciclovir (7 days). Follow-up was for 12 months. The primary outcome event was time to complete recovery of facial function, as assessed with a regional Sunnybrook scale score of 100 points. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00510263. Of 839 patients who were randomly assigned, 829 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis: 206 received placebo plus placebo, 210 prednisolone plus placebo, 207 valaciclovir plus placebo, and 206 prednisolone plus valaciclovir. Time to recovery was significantly shorter in the 416 patients who received prednisolone compared with the 413 patients who did not (hazard ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.64; p<0.0001). There was no difference in time to recovery between the 413 patients treated with valaciclovir and the 416 patients who did not receive valaciclovir (1.01, 0.85 to 1.19; p=0.90). The number of patients with adverse events was similar in all treatment arms. Prednisolone shortened the time to complete recovery in patients with Bell's palsy, whereas valaciclovir did not affect facial recovery.
    The Lancet Neurology 10/2008; 7(11):993-1000. DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70221-7 · 21.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated risk factors for death among hospitalised patients with healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) using the McCabe classification and Charlson index to predict mortality. The study consisted of a cohort of 703 patients with HCAIs and 7531 patients without HCAI in acute care hospitals participating in the Finnish national prevalence survey in 2005. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions for HCAIs and recorded the McCabe classification for comorbidity. We used the date from the prevalence survey and the patient's national identity code in order to retrieve data from the National Hospital Discharge Registry on discharge diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases-10 codes) for the Charlson index and the dates of death from the National Population Information System. Of all inpatients, 425 (5.2%) died within 28 days from the prevalence survey date; the death rate was higher in HCAI patients than in those without HCAI (9.8% vs 4.7%, P<0.001). In the multivariate regression analysis age >65 years, intensive care, McCabe classification and Charlson index, gastrointestinal system infection and pneumonia/other lower respiratory tract infections were independent predictors for death. The survival analysis, when adjusted by McCabe class or Charlson index, showed that HCAI reduced survival only among patients without severe underlying diseases. Certain types of HCAI increased the risk of death. The McCabe classification had advantages over the Charlson index as a predictor of death, because it was easier to collect from a prevalence survey.
    Journal of Hospital Infection 10/2008; 70(4):353-60. DOI:10.1016/j.jhin.2008.08.009 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of the first national prevalence survey on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in Finland were to assess the extent of HAI, distribution of HAI types, causative organisms, prevalence of predisposing factors and use of antimicrobial agents. The voluntary survey was performed during February-March 2005 in 30 hospitals, including tertiary and secondary care hospitals and 10 (25%) other acute care hospitals in the country. The overall prevalence of HAI was 8.5% (703/8234). Surgical site infection was the most common HAI (29%), followed by urinary tract infection (19%) and primary bloodstream infection or clinical sepsis (17%). HAI prevalence was higher in males, among intensive care and surgical patients, and increased with age and severity of underlying illness. The most common causative organisms, identified in 56% (398/703) of patients with HAIs, were Escherichia coli (13%), Staphylococcus aureus (10%) and Enterococcus faecalis (9%). HAIs caused by multi-resistant microbes were rare (N = 6). A total of 122 patients were treated in contact isolation due to the carriage of multi-resistant microbes. At the time of the survey, 19% of patients had a urinary catheter, 6% central venous line and 1% were ventilated. Antimicrobial treatment was given to 39% of patients. These results can be used for prioritising infection control measures and planning more detailed incidence surveillance of HAI. The survey was a useful tool to increase the awareness of HAI in participating hospitals and to train infection control staff in diagnosing HAIs.
    Journal of Hospital Infection 08/2008; 69(3):288-94. DOI:10.1016/j.jhin.2008.03.005 · 2.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

805 Citations
121.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2013
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Department of Otorhinolaryngology
      • • Department of Virology
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2003–2012
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      • • Department of Otorhinolaryngology
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2010
    • National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland
      • Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2006
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland