[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronavirus membrane (M) proteins are capable of interacting with nucleocapsid (N) and envelope (E) proteins. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) M co-expression with either N or E is sufficient for producing virus-like particles (VLPs), although at a lower level compared to M, N and E co-expression. Whether E can release from cells or E/N interaction exists so as to contribute to enhanced VLP production is unknown. It also remains to be determined whether E palmitoylation or disulfide bond formation plays a role in SARS-CoV virus assembly.
SARS-CoV N is released from cells through an association with E protein-containing vesicles. Further analysis suggests that domains involved in E/N interaction are largely located in both carboxyl-terminal regions. Changing all three E cysteine residues to alanines did not exert negative effects on E release, E association with N, or E enhancement of VLP production, suggesting that E palmitoylation modification or disulfide bond formation is not required for SARS-CoV virus assembly. We found that removal of the last E carboxyl-terminal residue markedly affected E release, N association, and VLP incorporation, but did not significantly compromise the contribution of E to efficient VLP production.
The independence of the SARS-CoV E enhancement effect on VLP production from its viral packaging capacity suggests a distinct SARS-CoV E role in virus assembly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2), an interferon-inducible antiviral factor, has been shown to block the release of various enveloped viruses from cells. It has also been identified as an innate immune system component. Most enveloped viruses subject to BST2 restriction bud at the plasma membrane. Here we report our findings that (a) the production of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) progeny viruses, whose budding occurs at the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), markedly decreases in the presence of BST2; and (b) BST2 knockdown expression results in enhanced HCoV-229E virion production. Electron microscopy analyses indicate that HCoV-229E virions are tethered to cell surfaces or intracellular membranes by BST2. Our results suggest that BST2 exerts a broad blocking effect against enveloped virus release, regardless of whether budding occurs at the plasma membrane or intracellular compartments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) membrane (M) proteins are capable of self-assembly and release in the form of membrane-enveloped vesicles, and of forming virus-like particles (VLPs) when coexpressed with SARS-CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein. According to previous deletion analyses, M self-assembly involves multiple M sequence regions. To identify important M amino acid residues for VLP assembly, we coexpressed N with multiple M mutants containing substitution mutations at the amino-terminal ectodomain, carboxyl-terminal endodomain, or transmembrane segments. Our results indicate that a dileucine motif in the endodomain tail (218LL219) is required for efficient N packaging into VLPs. Results from cross-linking VLP analyses suggest that the cysteine residues 63, 85 and 158 are not in close proximity to the M dimer interface. We noted a significant reduction in M secretion due to serine replacement for C158, but not for C63 or C85. Further analysis suggests that C158 is involved in M-N interaction. In addition to mutations of the highly conserved 107-SWWSFNPE-114 motif, substitutions at codons W19, W57, P58, W91, Y94 or F95 all resulted in significantly reduced VLP yields, largely due to defective M secretion. VLP production was not significantly affected by a tryptophan replacement of Y94 or F95 or a phenylalanine replacement of W19, W57 or W91. Combined, these results indicate the involvement of specific M amino acids during SARS-CoV virus assembly, and suggest that aromatic residue retention at specific positions is critical for M function in terms of directing virus assembly.
PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e64013. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064013 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The coronavirus (CoV) N protein oligomerizes via its carboxyl terminus. However, the oligomerization mechanism of the C-terminal domains (CTD) of CoV N proteins remains unclear. Based on the protein disorder prediction system, a comprehensive series of HCoV-229E N protein mutants with truncated CTD was generated and systematically investigated by biophysical and biochemical analyses to clarify the role of the C-terminal tail of the HCoV-229E N protein in oligomerization. These results indicate that the last C-terminal tail plays an important role in dimer-dimer association. The C-terminal tail peptide is able to interfere with the oligomerization of the CTD of HCoV-229E N protein and performs the inhibitory effect on viral titre of HCoV-229E. This study may assist the development of anti-viral drugs against HCoV. STRUCTURED SUMMARY OF PROTEIN INTERACTIONS: N and C-terminal tail peptidebind by cosedimentation in solution (View interaction) N and Nbind by cosedimentation in solution (View Interaction: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) C-terminal tail peptide and Nbindby fluorescence technology (View interaction) N and Nbind by cross-linking study (View interaction) N and Nbind by cross-linking study (View Interaction: 1, 2, 3, 4).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural HIV-1 protease (PR) is homodimeric. Some researchers believe that interactions between HIV-1 Gag-Pol molecules trigger the activation of embedded PR (which mediates Gag and Gag-Pol cleavage), and that Gag-Pol assembly domains outside of PR may contribute to PR activation by influencing PR dimer interaction in a Gag-Pol context. To determine if the enhancement of PR dimer interaction facilitates PR activation, we placed single or tandem repeat leucine zippers (LZ) at the PR C-terminus, and looked for a correlation between enhanced Gag processing efficiency and increased Gag-PR-LZ multimerization capacity. We found significant reductions in virus-like particles (VLPs) produced by HIV-1 mutants, with LZ fused to the end of PR as a result of enhanced Gag cleavage efficiency. Since VLP production can be restored to wt levels following PR activity inhibition, this assembly defect is considered PR activity-dependent. We also found a correlation between the LZ enhancement effect on Gag cleavage and enhanced Gag-PR multimerization. The results suggest that PR dimer interactions facilitated by forced Gag-PR multimerization lead to premature Gag cleavage, likely a result of premature PR activation. Our conclusion is that placement of a heterologous dimerization domain downstream of PR enhances PR-mediated Gag cleavage efficiency, implying that structural conformation, rather than the primary sequence outside of PR, is a major determinant of HIV-1 PR activation.
PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e32845. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0032845 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronavirus membrane (M) protein can form virus-like particles (VLPs) when coexpressed with nucleocapsid (N) or envelope (E) proteins, suggesting a pivotal role for M in virion assembly. Here we demonstrate the self-assembly and release of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) M protein in medium in the form of membrane-enveloped vesicles with densities lower than those of VLPs formed by M plus N. Although efficient N-N interactions require the presence of RNA, we found that M-M interactions were RNA-independent. SARS-CoV M was observed in both the Golgi area and plasma membranes of a variety of cells. Blocking M glycosylation does not appear to significantly affect M plasma membrane labeling intensity, M-containing vesicle release, or VLP formation. Results from a genetic analysis indicate involvement of the third transmembrane domain of M in plasma membrane-targeting signal. Fusion proteins containing M amino-terminal 50 residues encompassing the first transmembrane domain were found to be sufficient for membrane binding, multimerization, and Golgi retention. Surprisingly, we found that fusion proteins lacking all three transmembrane domains were still capable of membrane binding, Golgi retention, and interacting with M. The data suggest that multiple SARS-CoV M regions are involved in M self-assembly and subcellular localization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 protease (PR) mediates the proteolytic processing of virus particles during or after virus budding. PR activation is thought to be triggered by appropriate Gag-Pol/Gag-Pol interaction; factors affecting this interaction either enhance or reduce PR-mediated cleavage efficiency, resulting in markedly reduced virion production or the release of inadequately processed virions. We previously showed that a Gag-Pol deletion mutation involving the reverse transcriptase tryptophan (Trp) repeat motif markedly impairs PR-mediated virus maturation and that an alanine substitution at W401 (W401A) or at both W401 and W402 (W401A/W402A) partially or almost completely negates the enhancement effect of efavirenz (a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) on PR-mediated virus processing efficiency. These data suggest that the Trp repeat motif may contribute to the PR activation process. Here we demonstrate that due to enhanced Gag cleavage efficiency, W402 alanine or leucine substitution significantly reduces virus production. However, W402 replacement with phenylalanine does not significantly affect virus particle assembly or processing, but it does markedly impair viral infectivity in a single-cycle infection assay. Our results demonstrate that a single amino acid substitution at HIV-1 RT can radically affect virus assembly by enhancing Gag cleavage efficiency, suggesting that in addition to contributing to RT biological function during the early stages of virus replication, the HIV-1 RT tryptophan repeat motif in a Gag-Pol context may play an important role in suppressing the premature activation of PR during late-stage virus replication.
Journal of Virology 11/2009; 84(2):976-82. DOI:10.1128/JVI.01532-09 · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 virus particle processing is mediated by protease (PR), with enzymatic activation triggered by Gag–Pol/Gag–Pol interaction. We previously reported that truncation mutations at the reverse transcriptase (RT) connection subdomain markedly impair virus particle processing, suggesting an important role for the RT subdomain in PR-mediated virus processing. A highly conserved tryptophan (Trp) repeat motif of the HIV-1 RT connection subdomain is involved in RT dimerization. Our goal in this study was to determine whether mutations at the Trp repeat motif have any effect on PR-mediated virus processing. Our results indicate that even though alanine substitutions at W401 (W401A) or at both W401 and W402 (W401A/W402A) have no major effect on steady-state virus processing, the combined W401A/W402A mutations partially negate and the W401A mutation almost completely negates an efavirenz (EFV)-imposed barrier to virus production. The combination of RT instability and poor enzymatic activity reflects a RT dimerization defect incurred by the mutations. We also found that an artificial p66RT carrying the W401A or W401A/W402A mutations was packaged into virions more efficiently than wild-type p66RT, and that the viral incorporation of p66RT is significantly reduced by EFV, implying a novel effect of EFV on RT–Gag interaction. Our results suggest that the Trp repeat motif may play a role in the Gag–Pol/Gag–Pol interaction that contributes to subsequent PR activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 matrix (MA) protein is similar to nucleocapsid (NC) proteins in its propensity for self-interaction and association with RNA. Here we report on our finding that replacing MA with NC results in the production of wild type (wt)-level RNA and virus-like particles (VLPs). In contrast, constructs containing MA as a substitute for NC are markedly defective in VLP production and form virions with lower densities than wt, even though their RNA content is over 50% that of wt level. We also noted that a DeltaMN mutant lacking both MA and NC produces a relatively higher amount of VLPs than those in which MA was substituted for NC. Although DeltaMN contains approximately 30% the RNA of wt, it still exhibits virion densities equal (or very similar) to those of wt. The data suggest that neither NC nor RNA are major virion density determinants. Furthermore, we noted that NC(ZIP)--a NC replacement with a leucine zipper dimerization motif--produces VLPs as efficiently as wt. However, the markedly reduced assembly efficiency of NC(ZIP) is associated with the formation of VLPs with densities slightly lower than those of wt following MA removal, suggesting that (a) MA is required to help the inserted leucine zipper motif perform efficient Gag multimerization, and (b) MA plays a role in the virus assembly process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We introduced mutations into the HIV-1 major homology region (MHR; capsids 153-172) and adjacent C-terminal region to analyze their effects on virus-like particle (VLP) assembly, membrane affinity, and the multimerization of the Gag structural protein. Results indicate that alanine substitutions at K158, F168 or E175 significantly diminished VLP production. All assembly-defective Gag mutants had markedly reduced membrane-binding capacities, but results from a velocity sedimentation analysis suggest that most of the membrane-bound Gag proteins were present, primarily in a higher-order multimerized form. The membrane-binding capacity of the K158A, F168A, and E175A Gag proteins increased sharply upon removal of the MA globular domain. While demonstrating improved multimerization capability, the two MA-deleted versions of F168A and E175A did not show marked improvement in VLP production, presumably due to a defect in association with the raft-like membrane domain. However, K158A bound to detergent-resistant raft-like membrane; this was accompanied by noticeably improved VLP production following MA removal. Our results suggest that the HIV-1 MHR and adjacent downstream region facilitate multimerization and tight Gag packing. Enhanced Gag multimerization may help expose the membrane-binding domain and thus improve Gag membrane binding, thereby promoting Gag multimerization into higher-order assembly products.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that a genetically engineered human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) composed mainly of p66 or p51 subunits can be incorporated into virus-like particles (VLPs) when coexpressed with HIV-1 Pr55(gag). VLP-associated RT exhibited a detergent-resistant association with immature cores during sucrose gradient equilibrium centrifugation, suggesting that RT is incorporated into VLPs. However, RT that retains downstream integrase (IN) is severely inhibited in terms of incorporation into VLPs. Results from immunofluorescence tests reveal that RT-IN is primarily localized at the perinuclear area and exhibits poor colocalization with Gag. IN removal leads to a redistribution of RT throughout the cytoplasm and improved RT incorporation into VLPs. Similar results were observed for RT-IN in which alanine was substituted for 186-Lys-Arg-Lys-188 residues of the IN putative nuclear localization signal, suggesting that IN karyophilic properties may partly account for the inhibitory effect of IN on RT incorporation. Although the membrane-binding capacity of RT was markedly reduced compared to that of wild-type Gag or Gag-Pol, the correlation of membrane-binding ability with particle incorporation efficiency was incomplete. Furthermore, we observed that membrane-binding-defective myristylation-minus RT can be packaged into VLPs at the same level as its normal myristylated counterpart. This suggests that the incorporation of RT into VLPs is independent of membrane affinity but very dependent on RT-Gag interaction. Results from a genetic analysis suggest that the Gag-interacting regions of RT mainly reside in the thumb subdomain and that the RT-binding domains of Gag are located in the matrix (MA) and p6 regions.
Journal of Virology 06/2007; 81(10):5155-65. DOI:10.1128/JVI.01796-06 · 4.65 Impact Factor