[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation have been suggested to play a role in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Although chemicals have been shown to be a risk factor contributing to the carcinogenesis of NPC, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We demonstrated recently that N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) enhances the genomic instability and tumorigenicity of NPC cells via induction of EBV reactivation. However, the mechanisms that trigger EBV reactivation from latency remain unclear. Here, we address the role of ROS in induction of EBV reactivation under MNNG treatment. EBV reactivation was induced in over 70% of EBV-positive NA cells and the promoter of Rta (Rp) was activated after MNNG treatment. Inhibitor experiments revealed ATM, p38 MAPK and JNK were activated by ROS and involved in MNNG-induced EBV reactivation. Significantly, ROS scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), catalase and reduced glutathione inhibited EBV reactivation under MNNG and H2O2 treatment, suggesting ROS mediate EBV reactivation. The p53 was essential for EBV reactivation and the Rp activation by MNNG. Moreover, the p53 was phosphorylated, translocated into nucleus, and bound to Rp following ROS stimulation. The results suggest ROS play an important role in initiation of EBV reactivation by MNNG through a p53-dependent mechanism. Our findings demonstrate novel signaling mechanisms used by NOCs to induce EBV reactivation and provide a novel insight into NOCs link the EBV reactivation in the contribution to the development of NPC. Notably, this study indicates that antioxidants might be effective for inhibiting N-nitroso compound-induced EBV reactivation and therefore could be promising preventive and therapeutic agents for EBV reactivation-associated malignancies.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e84919. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seroepidemiological studies imply a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). N-nitroso compounds, phorbols, and butyrates are chemicals found in food and herb samples collected from NPC high-risk areas. These chemicals have been reported to be risk factors contributing to the development of NPC, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have demonstrated previously that low dose N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, 0.1 µg/ml) had a synergistic effect with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and sodium butyrate (SB) in enhancing EBV reactivation and genome instability in NPC cells harboring EBV. Considering that residents in NPC high-risk areas may contact regularly with these chemical carcinogens, it is vital to elucidate the relation between chemicals and EBV and their contributions to the carcinogenesis of NPC. In this study, we constructed a cell culture model to show that genome instability, alterations of cancer hallmark gene expression, and tumorigenicity were increased after recurrent EBV reactivation in NPC cells following combined treatment of TPA/SB and MNNG. NPC cells latently infected with EBV, NA, and the corresponding EBV-negative cell, NPC-TW01, were periodically treated with MNNG, TPA/SB, or TPA/SB combined with MNNG. With chemically-induced recurrent reactivation of EBV, the degree of genome instability was significantly enhanced in NA cells treated with a combination of TPA/SB and MNNG than those treated individually. The Matrigel invasiveness, as well as the tumorigenicity in mouse, was also enhanced in NA cells after recurrent EBV reactivation. Expression profile analysis by microarray indicates that many carcinogenesis-related genes were altered after recurrent EBV reactivation, and several aberrations observed in cell lines correspond to alterations in NPC lesions. These results indicate that cooperation between chemical carcinogens can enhance the reactivation of EBV and, over recurrent reactivations, lead to alteration of cancer hallmark gene expression with resultant enhancement of tumorigenesis in NPC.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e44810. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seroepidemiological studies implicate a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Moreover, N-nitroso compounds are known chemical carcinogens in preserved foodstuffs and cigarettes and have been implicated as risk factors contributing to the development of NPC. Here, NPC cell lines latently infected with EBV, NA and HA, and the corresponding EBV-negative NPC cell lines, NPC-TW01 and HONE-1, were used as the model system in this study. We demonstrate that the reactivation of EBV increases with increasing concentrations of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). MNNG at a single non-toxic concentration (0.1μg/ml) did not induce discernible reactivation of EBV, but repeated treatment with this concentration of MNNG significantly induced viral reactivation. Furthermore, low dose MNNG (0.1μg/ml) had a synergistic effect with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-1,3-acetate (TPA)/sodium butyrate (SB) (10ng/ml and 0.75mM, respectively) on EBV reactivation. Through promoter activity assay, MNNG was found to enhance the transcriptional activity of Rta on Rta and Zta promoters. Using siZta to block EBV reactivation, the concomitant induction of genome instability was diminished indicating that reactivation is critical for enhancing genome instability. Co-treatment with TPA/SB and MNNG markedly increased the levels of γH2AX and ROS formation in NPC cells, which may be responsible for the increase of genome instability. Our findings offer a possible mechanism by which N-nitroso compounds induce reactivation of EBV and contribute to malignant progression by enhancing genome instability in NPC cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNase (BGLF5) is an alkaline nuclease and has been suggested to be important in the viral life cycle. However, its effect on host cells remains unknown. Serological and histopathological studies implied that EBV DNase seems to be correlated with carcinogenesis. Therefore, we investigate the effect of EBV DNase on epithelial cells. Here, we report that expression of EBV DNase induces increased formation of micronucleus, an indicator of genomic instability, in human epithelial cells. We also demonstrate, using gammaH2AX formation and comet assay, that EBV DNase induces DNA damage. Furthermore, using host cell reactivation assay, we find that EBV DNase expression repressed damaged DNA repair in various epithelial cells. Western blot and quantitative PCR analyses reveal that expression of repair-related genes is reduced significantly in cells expressing EBV DNase. Host shut-off mutants eliminate shut-off expression of repair genes and repress damaged DNA repair, suggesting that shut-off function of BGLF5 contributes to repression of DNA repair. In addition, EBV DNase caused chromosomal aberrations and increased the microsatellite instability (MSI) and frequency of genetic mutation in human epithelial cells. Together, we propose that EBV DNase induces genomic instability in epithelial cells, which may be through induction of DNA damage and also repression of DNA repair, subsequently increases MSI and genetic mutations, and may contribute consequently to the carcinogenesis of human epithelial cells.
Nucleic Acids Research 04/2010; 38(6):1932-49. · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is an epithelial malignancy with a remarkable racial and geographic distribution. Previous cytogenetic studies have shown nasopharyngeal carcinoma to be characterized by gross genomic aberrations. However, identification of susceptible gene loci in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been poorly discussed.
A genome-wide survey of gene copy number changes was initiated with two nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines by array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis. These alterations were confirmed by a parallel analysis with the data from the gene expression microarray and were validated by quantitative PCR. Clinical association of the defined target genes was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization on 48 metastatic tumors.
A high percentage of genes were consistently altered in dosage and expression levels with gain on 3q26.2-q26.32 and losses on 3p12.3-p14.2 and 9p21.3-p23. Six candidate genes, GPR160 (3q26.2-q27), SKIL (3q26), ADAMTS9 (3p14.2-p14.3), LRIG1 (3p14), MPDZ (9p22-p24), and ADFP (9p22.1) were validated by quantitative PCR. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies revealed amplification of GPR160 (in 25% of cases) and SKIL (33%); and deletion of ADAMTS9 (30%), LRIG1 (35%), MPDZ (15%), and ADFP (15%). Clinical association analyses indicated a poor survival rate with genetic alterations at the defined 3p deletion (P = 0.0012) and the 3q amplification regions (P = 0.0114).
The combined microarray technologies suggested novel candidate oncogenes, amplification of GPR160 and SKIL at 3q26.2-q26.32, and deletion of tumor suppressor genes ADAMTS9 and LRIG1 at 3p12.3-p14.2. Altered expression of these genes may be responsible for malignant progression and could be used as potential markers for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an endemic malignancy prevalent in South East Asia. Epidemiological studies have associated this disease closely with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Previous studies also showed that EBV reactivation is implicated in the progression of NPC. Thus, we proposed that recurrent reactivations of EBV may be important for its pathogenic role. In this study, NPC cell lines latently infected with EBV, NA and HA, and the corresponding EBV-negative NPC cell lines, NPC-TW01 (TW01) and HONE-1, were treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and sodium n-butyrate (SB) for lytic cycle induction. A single treatment with TPA/SB revealed that DNA double-strand breaks and formation of micronuclei (a marker for genome instability) were associated with EBV reactivation in NA and HA cells. Examination of EBV early genes had identified several lytic proteins, particularly EBV DNase, as potent activators that induced DNA double-strand breaks and contribute to genome instability. Recurrent reactivations of EBV in NA and HA cells resulted in a marked increase of genome instability. In addition, the degree of chromosomal aberrations, as shown by chromosome structural variants and DNA copy-number alterations, is proportional to the frequency of TPA/SB-induced EBV reactivation. Whereas these DNA abnormalities were limited in EBV-negative TW01 cells with mock or TPA/SB treatment, and were few in mock-treated NA cells. The invasiveness and tumorigenesis assays also revealed a profound increase in both characteristics of the repeatedly reactivated NA cells. These results suggest that recurrent EBV reactivations may result in accumulation of genome instability and promote the tumor progression of NPC.
International Journal of Cancer 12/2008; 124(9):2016-25. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and exposure to environmental carcinogens. In this study, an inducible Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation NPC cell line, NA, was used to investigate the impact of recurrent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-sodium n-butyrate (TPA/SB) treatment and EBV reactivation on chromosomal abnormalities utilizing array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). It was observed that most copy-number aberrations (CNA) were progressively nonrandomly clustered on chromosomes 3, 8, and 9, as the frequency of TPA/SB treatment and EBV reactivation increased. All of the prominent amplicons detected (including 3p14.1, 3p13, 3p12.3, 3p12.2, 3q26.2, 3q26.31, and 3q26.32) were located on chromosome 3, with multiple oncogenes assigned to these sites. The amplification patterns of 3p12.3 and 3q26.2 were validated using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Subsequent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detected increasing expression of ROBO1 and SKIL oncogenes in NA cells harboring higher frequency of TPA/SB treatment and EBV reactivation, consistent with copy-number amplification of these loci. These findings demonstrate that a high incidence of TPA/SB induced-EBV reactivation has a profound influence on the carcinogenesis of NPC through altered DNA copy number.
Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 08/2008; 185(1):1-10. · 1.54 Impact Factor