Tin-Yun Ho

China Medical University Hospital, 臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (78)186.23 Total impact

  • Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) has been used for the treatment of convulsions and epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. This study reported the major anti-convulsive signaling pathways and effective targets of UR and rhynchophylline (RP) using genomic and immunohistochemical studies. Epileptic seizure model was established by intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA) in rats. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings indicated that UR and RP improved KA-induced epileptic seizures. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and neurotrophin signaling pathways were regulated by UR in both cortex and hippocampus of KA-treated rats. KA upregulated the expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF), which were involved in TLR and neurotrophin signaling pathways, respectively. However, UR and RP downregulated the KA-induced IL-1β and BDNF gene expressions. Our findings suggested that UR and RP exhibited anti-convulsive effects in KA-induced rats via the regulation of TLR and neurotrophin signaling pathways, and the subsequent inhibition of IL-1β and BDNF gene expressions.
    Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 03/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that has a significant impact on the health care system. The reduction of glycated hemoglobin A1c is highly associated with the improvements of glycemic control and diabetic complications. In this study, we identified a traditional Chinese medicinal formula with a HbA1c-lowering potential from clinical evidences. By surveying 9,973 diabetic patients enrolled in Taiwan Diabetic Care Management Program, we found that Chu-Yeh-Shih-Kao-Tang (CYSKT) significantly reduced HbA1c values in diabetic patients. CYSKT reduced the levels of HbA1c and fasting blood glucose, and stimulated the blood glucose clearance in type 2 diabetic mice. CYSKT affected the expressions of genes associated with insulin signaling pathway, increased the amount of phosphorylated insulin receptor in cells and tissues, and stimulated the translocation of glucose transporter 4. Moreover, CYSKT affected the expressions of genes related to diabetic complications, improved the levels of renal function indexes, and increased the survival rate of diabetic mice. In conclusion, this was a translational medicine study that applied a "bedside-to-bench" approach to identify a novel HbA1c-lowering formula. Our findings suggested that oral administration of CYSKT affected insulin signaling pathway, decreased HbA1c and blood glucose levels, and consequently reduced mortality rate in type 2 diabetic mice.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e104650. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic colonic inflammation that displays symptoms like diarrhea and weight loss. Acupuncture has been widely accepted by Western countries for the treatment of pain. Here, we analyzed efficacy and mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis in mice. Mice were intrarectally administered with 250 mg/kg TNBS and electroacupunctured at Quze (PC3) and Neiguan (PC6) acupoints, which have been applied for gastrointestinal disorders. Gene expression profiles in colons and spleens were analyzed by microarray for the elucidation of mechanism of EA. Our data showed that EA at PC3 and PC6 improved macroscopic and microscopic features of colitis and the improvement displayed a frequency-dependent manner. Administration of TNBS upregulated the expression of most cytokine genes in colons, while EA downregulated the expression of TNBS-induced cytokine genes. Pathway analysis showed that EA significantly affected inflammatory pathways in colons and immunity-associated pathway in spleens. Immunohistochemical staining further showed that EA decreased the expression of interleukin-1 β and nuclear factor- κ B. In conclusion, this is the first study reporting the global gene expression profiles of EA on TNBS-induced colitis. Our findings suggested that inflammatory and immunity pathways were involved in the anti-inflammatory mechanism of EA on colitis induced by TNBS.
    Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 01/2014; 2014:942196.
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    ABSTRACT: Diarrheal disease is one of the most important worldwide health problems. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most frequently isolated enteropathogen in diarrheal diseases. In developing countries, a very large number of people, especially children, suffer from diarrhea. To combat this problem, World Health Organization has constituted the Diarrhea Diseases Control Program which guides studies on traditional medicinal practices and preventive measures. Gusuibu, a traditional folk medicine, has been claimed to heal certain types of diarrhea. However, so far no scientific study has been carried out on the anti-diarrheal mechanism of Gusiubu. The present study was performed to examine the suppressive activities of ethanol extracts of six sources of folk medicinal ferns used as Gusuibu on heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)-induced diarrhea. Inhibitory effects of six sources were evaluated on the ETEC LT subunit B (LTB) and monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GMI) interaction by GM1-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and patent mouse gut assay. Our results indicated that Drynaria fortunei had no anti-diarrheal effect, while, among the remaining five folk medicinal ferns, four belonging to family Davalliaceae had significant abilities on both the blocking of LTB and GM1 interaction and the inhibition of LT-induced diarrhea. In conclusion, these findings suggested the potential application of Gusuibu as an anti-diarrheal remedy.
    Molecules 01/2014; 19(2):2114-2120. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deer antler is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used in Asian countries for the tonic and the improvement of aging symptoms. The present study was designed to investigate the antifatigue effect and mechanism of Formosan sambar deer tip antler extract (FSDTAE). The swimming times to exhaustion of mice administered FSDTAE (8.2 mg/day) for 28 days were apparently longer than those of the vehicle-treated mice in forced swim test. However, the indicators of fatigue, such as the reduction in glucose level and the increases in blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid levels, were not significantly inhibited by FSDTAE. Therefore, microarray analysis was further used to examine the anti-fatigue mechanism of FSDTAE. We selected genes with fold changes >2 or <-2 in skeletal muscle for pathway analysis. FSDTAE-affected genes were involved in 9 different signaling pathways, such as GnRH signaling pathway and insulin signaling pathway. All of the significantly expressed genes were classified into 8 different categories by their functions. The most enriched category was muscular system, and 6 upregulated genes, such as troponin I, troponin T1, cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2, myosin heavy polypeptide 7, tropomyosin 2, and myomesin family member 3, were responsible for the development and contraction of muscle. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that FSDTAE increased troponins mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our findings suggested that FSDTAE might increase the muscle strength through the upregulation of genes responsible for muscle contraction and consequently exhibited the anti-fatigue effect in mice.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 2014:540580. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Novel and rapid technology is urgently needed to expedite screening of new antibacterial drugs for preventing and treating life-threatening bacterial infection. Purpose This study applied bioluminescent imaging to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Galla Chinensis extract (GCE) in gastrointestinal tracts of mice. Methods Bioluminescent Escherichia coli (E. coli) was constructed by transforming plasmid DNA containing TATA box-driven luciferase gene. The antibacterial activity of GCE in vitro was evaluated by mixing GCE and bioluminescent E. coli and subjecting to image; the antibacterial efficacy of GCE was evaluated in vivo by administering intragastric GCE and bioluminescent E. coli to mice and subjecting to image at 2 hours. Results GCE inhibited the growth of E. coli in a dose-dependent manner, with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 4 μg/μL and a minimal bactericidal concentration of 8 μg/μL. Intragastric administration of bioluminescent E. coli showed that a strong luminescent signal was observed in the abdominal region, while GCE treatment significantly decreased bioluminescence. Ex vivo image and bacterial count verified the decreased intensity of bioluminescence and number of viable E. coli in the intestines of GCE-treated mice. Conclusion The findings suggest: (1) GCE exhibits anti-E. coli activities in vitro and in vivo; and (2) the feasibility of bioluminescent imaging on real-time monitoring of the antibacterial effects of natural products in living mice.
    BioMedicine. 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Momordica charantia (MC) has been used as an alternative therapy for diabetes mellitus. This study analyzed and elucidated therapeutic targets contributing to the hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of MC seeds (MCSE) by transcriptomic analysis. Protein ingredients aimed at the hypoglycemic target were further identified by proteomic, docking, and receptor-binding assays. The data showed that MSCE (1 g/kg) significantly lowered the blood glucose level in normal and diabetic mice. Moreover, MCSE primarily regulated the insulin signaling pathway in muscles and adipose tissues, suggesting that MCSE might target insulin receptor (IR), stimulate the IR-downstream pathway, and subsequently display hypoglycemic activity in mice. It was further revealed that inhibitor against trypsin (TI) of MC directly docked into IR and activated the kinase activity of IR in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the findings suggested that MCSE regulated glucose metabolism mainly via the insulin signaling pathway. Moreover, TI was newly identified as a novel IR-binding protein of MC that triggered the insulin signaling pathway via binding to IR.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2013; · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of a nutritious vegetable Toona sinensis (leaf extracts, TS) and its major bioactive compound gallic acid (GA) by analysing LPS-induced NF-κB activation in transgenic mice, using bioluminescence imaging. Mice were challenged intraperitoneally with LPS (1mg/kg) and treated orally with TS or GA (100 or 5mg/kg, respectively). In vivo and ex vivo imaging showed that LPS increased NF-κB luminescence in the abdominal region, which was significantly inhibited by TS or GA. Immunohistochemical and ELISA analyses confirmed that TS and GA inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB, interleukin-1β, and tumour necrosis factor-α expression. Microarray analysis revealed that biological pathways associated with metabolism and the immune responses were affected by TS or GA. Particularly, LPS-induced thioredoxin-like 4B (TXNL4B) 2 expression in the small intestine, and TXNL4B, iNOS, and COX-2 expression in RAW 264.7 cells were significantly inhibited by TS or GA. Thus, the anti-inflammatory potential of TS was mediated by the downregulation of NF-κB pathway.
    Food Chemistry 01/2013; 136(2):426-34. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ginger is a commonly used spice with anti-inflammatory potential. Colitis is the common pathological lesion of inflammatory bowel diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of ginger and its component zingerone in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Ginger and zingerone ameliorated TNBS-induced colonic injury in a dose-dependent manner. Pathway analysis of ginger- and zingerone-regulated gene expression profiles showed that ginger and zingerone significantly regulated cytokine-related pathways. Network analysis showed that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were key molecules involved in the expression of ginger- and zingerone-affected genes. Ex vivo imaging and immunohistochemical staining further verified that ginger and zingerone suppressed TNBS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β protein level in the colon. In conclusion, ginger improved TNBS-induced colitis via modulation of NF-κB activity and IL-1β signalling pathway. Moreover, zingerone might be the active component of ginger responsible for the amelioration of colitis induced by TNBS.
    Food Chemistry 01/2013; 136(1):170-7. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genipin is a natural blue colorant in food industry. Inflammation is correlated with human disorders, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is the critical molecule involved in inflammation. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of genipin on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute systemic inflammation in mice was evaluated by NF-κB bioluminescence-guided transcriptomic analysis. Transgenic mice carrying the NF-κB-driven luciferase genes were administered intraperitoneally with LPS and various amounts of genipin. Bioluminescent imaging showed that genipin significantly suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB-dependent luminescence in vivo. The suppression of LPS-induced acute inflammation by genipin was further evidenced by the reductions of cytokine levels in sera and organs. Microarray analysis of these organs showed that the transcripts of 79 genes were differentially expressed in both LPS and LPS/genipin groups, and one third of these genes belonged to chemokine ligand, chemokine receptor, and interferon (IFN)-induced protein genes. Moreover, network analysis showed that NF-κB played a critical role in the regulation of genipin-affected gene expression. In conclusion, we newly identified that genipin exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in a model of LPS-induced acute systemic inflammation via downregulation of chemokine ligand, chemokine receptor, and IFN-induced protein productions.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 06/2012; 50(9):2978-86. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify the genes induced early in murine oral carcinogenesis. Murine tongue tumors induced by the carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO), and paired non-tumor tissues were subjected to microarray analysis. Hierarchical clustering of upregulated genes in the tumor tissues revealed an association of induced genes with inflammation. Cytokines/cytokine receptors induced early were subsequently identified, clearly indicating their involvement in oral carcinogenesis. Hierarchical clustering also showed that cytokine-mediated inflammation was possibly linked with Mapk6. Cox2 exhibited the greatest extent (9-18 fold) of induction in the microarray data, and its early induction was observed in a 2h painting experiment by RT-PCR. MetaCore analysis showed that overexpressed Cox2 may interact with p53 and transcriptionally inhibit expression of several downstream genes. A painting experiment in transgenic mice also demonstrated that NF-κB activates early independently of Cox2 induction. MetaCore analysis revealed the most striking metabolic alterations in tumor tissues, especially in lipid metabolism resulting from the reduction of Pparα and Rxrg. Reduced expression of Mapk12 was noted, and MetaCore analysis established its relationship with decreased efficiency of Pparα phosphorylation. In conclusion, in addition to cytokines/cytokine receptors, the early induction of Cox2 and NF-κB activation is involved in murine oral carcinogenesis.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 04/2012; 262(2):107-16. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chinese herbal medicines have been used for the treatment of various diseases for centuries. Although several herbal formulas and herbal components have shown therapeutic potential, the active components and the molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of said formulas remain to be discovered. Microarray analysis has become a widely used tool for the generation of gene expression data on a genome-wide scale. This paper discusses the application of whole genome expression profiling as a tool to investigate the molecular mechanisms governing the therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine. This review also highlights how data derived from DNA microarray analysis can be used to screen for drug targets of various herbal drugs, to predict the therapeutic potential of herbal drugs, to analyze the safety of drugs in the preclinical stage of drug development, and to establish a modern definition of traditional Chinese medicine.
    BioMedicine. 03/2012; 2(1):10–16.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we applied bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis to evaluate and identify the therapeutic potentials and novel mechanisms of silymarin on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis. Transgenic mice, carrying the luciferase genes driven by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), were given with CCl(4) and/or silymarin. In vivo NF-κB activity was evaluated by bioluminescent imaging, liver fibrosis was judged by Sirius red staining and immunohistochemistry, and gene expression profiles of silymarin-treated livers were analyzed by DNA microarray. CCl(4) enhanced the NF-κB-dependent hepatic luminescence and induced hepatic fibrosis, while silymarin reduced the CCl(4)-induced hepatic luminescence and improved CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis. Microarray analysis showed that silymarin altered the transforming growth factor-β-mediated pathways, which play pivotal roles in the progression of liver fibrosis. Moreover, we newly identified that silymarin downregulated the expression levels of cytoskeleton organization genes and mitochondrion electron-transfer chain genes, such as cytochrome c oxidase Cox6a2, Cox7a1, and Cox8b genes. In conclusion, the correlation of NF-κB-dependent luminescence and liver fibrosis suggested the feasibility of NF-κB bioluminescent imaging for the evaluation of liver fibrosis progression and therapeutic potentials. Moreover, our findings suggested that silymarin might exhibit anti-fibrotic effects in vivo via altering the expression of genes involved in cytoskeleton organization and mitochondrion electron-transfer chain.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 02/2012; 50(5):1568-75. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People's Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using "microarray" and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine.
    Journal of traditional and complementary medicine. 01/2012; 2(2):105-114.
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    ABSTRACT: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a commonly used drug for the treatment of malignant cancers. However, approximately 80% of patients undergoing 5-FU treatment suffer from gastrointestinal mucositis. The aim of this report was to identify the drug target for the 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis was established by intraperitoneally administering mice with 100 mg/kg 5-FU. Network analysis of gene expression profile and bioluminescent imaging were applied to identify the critical molecule associated with 5-FU-induced mucositis. Our data showed that 5-FU induced inflammation in the small intestine, characterized by the increased intestinal wall thickness and crypt length, the decreased villus height, and the increased myeloperoxidase activity in tissues and proinflammatory cytokine production in sera. Network analysis of 5-FU-affected genes by transcriptomic tool showed that the expression of genes was regulated by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and NF-κB was the central molecule in the 5-FU-regulated biological network. NF-κB activity was activated by 5-FU in the intestine, which was judged by in vivo bioluminescence imaging and immunohistochemical staining. However, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) inhibited 5-FU-induced NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Moreover, 5-FU-induced histological changes were improved by 5-ASA. In conclusion, our findings suggested that NF-κB was the critical molecule associated with the pathogenesis of 5-FU-induced mucositis, and inhibition of NF-κB activity ameliorated the mucosal damage caused by 5-FU.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e31808. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chitosan has been widely used in food industry as a weight-loss aid and a cholesterol-lowering agent. Previous studies have shown that chitosan affects metabolic responses and contributes to anti-diabetic, hypocholesteremic, and blood glucose-lowering effects; however, the in vivo targeting sites and mechanisms of chitosan remain to be clarified. In this study, we constructed transgenic mice, which carried the luciferase genes driven by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), a key regulator of fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Bioluminescent imaging of PPAR transgenic mice was applied to report the organs that chitosan acted on, and gene expression profiles of chitosan-targeted organs were further analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of chitosan. Bioluminescent imaging showed that constitutive PPAR activities were detected in brain and gastrointestinal tract. Administration of chitosan significantly activated the PPAR activities in brain and stomach. Microarray analysis of brain and stomach showed that several pathways involved in lipid and glucose metabolism were regulated by chitosan. Moreover, the expression levels of metabolism-associated genes like apolipoprotein B (apoB) and ghrelin genes were down-regulated by chitosan. In conclusion, these findings suggested the feasibility of PPAR bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis on the evaluation of chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo. Moreover, we newly identified that downregulated expression of apoB and ghrelin genes were novel mechanisms for chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34969. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral tissue inflammation initiates hyperalgesia accompanied by tissue acidosis, nociceptor activation, and inflammation mediators. Recent studies have suggested a significantly increased expression of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) in both carrageenan- and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation. This study tested the hypothesis that acupuncture is curative for mechanical hyperalgesia induced by peripheral inflammation. Here we used mechanical stimuli to assess behavioral responses in paw and muscle inflammation induced by carrageenan or CFA. We also used immunohistochemistry staining and western blot methodology to evaluate the expression of ASIC3 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. In comparison with the control, the inflammation group showed significant mechanical hyperalgesia with both intraplantar carrageenan and CFA-induced inflammation. Interestingly, both carrageenan- and CFA-induced hyperalgesia were accompanied by ASIC3 up-regulation in DRG neurons. Furthermore, electroacupuncture (EA) at the ST36 rescued mechanical hyperalgesia through down-regulation of ASIC3 overexpression in both carrageenan- and CFA-induced inflammation. In addition, electrical stimulation at the ST36 acupoint can relieve mechanical hyperalgesia by attenuating ASIC3 overexpression.
    Journal of Biomedical Science 11/2011; 18:82. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in nerve repair technology have focused on finding more biocompatible, non-toxic materials to imitate natural peripheral nerve components. In this study, casein protein cross-linked with naturally occurring genipin (genipin-cross-linked casein (GCC)) was used for the first time to make a biodegradable conduit for peripheral nerve repair. The GCC conduit was dark blue in appearance with a concentric and round lumen. Water uptake, contact angle and mechanical tests indicated that the conduit had a high stability in water and did not collapse and cramped with a sufficiently high level of mechanical properties. Cytotoxic testing and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling assay showed that the GCC was non-toxic and non-apoptotic, which could maintain the survival and outgrowth of Schwann cells. Non-invasive real-time nuclear factor-κB bioluminescence imaging accompanied by histochemical assessment showed that the GCC was highly biocompatible after subcutaneous implantation in transgenic mice. Effectiveness of the GCC conduit as a guidance channel was examined as it was used to repair a 10 mm gap in the rat sciatic nerve. Electrophysiology, labelling of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the lumbar spinal cord, and histology analysis all showed a rapid morphological and functional recovery for the disrupted nerves. Therefore, we conclude that the GCC can offer great nerve regeneration characteristics and can be a promising material for the successful repair of peripheral nerve defects.
    Journal of The Royal Society Interface 04/2011; 8(64):1622-34. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zuo-Jin-Wan (ZJW) has been used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia. This study was to determine whether ZJW and its components blocked activator protein 1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activities as well as tumor promotion in hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. ZJW and its components, Coptis chinensis and Evodia rutaecarpa, inhibited AP-1 and NF-κB activities, and suppressed anchorage-independent growth of HepG2 cells. The major alkaloidal ingredients, berberine and evodiamine, inhibited AP-1 activities and/or NF-κB activation, and further suppressed hepatocellular transformation. In conclusion, ZJW and its constituents, berberine and evodiamine, suppressed tumor promotion primarily through AP-1 and/or NF-κB pathways in HepG2 cells.
    Fitoterapia 02/2011; 82(4):696-703. · 2.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

684 Citations
186.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • China Medical University Hospital
      • Department of Radiology
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2011–2012
    • Far Eastern Memorial Hospital
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2004–2005
    • China Medical University (ROC)
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 1996–1998
    • National Chung Hsing University
      • Department of Veterinary Medicine
      Taichung, Taiwan, Taiwan