[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human linkage analyses have implicated the MS4A2-containing gene locus (encoding FcεRIβ) as a candidate for allergy susceptibility. We have identified a truncation of FcεRIβ (t-FcεRIβ) in humans that contains a putative calmodulin-binding domain and thus, we sought to identify the role of this variant in mast cell function. We determined that t-FcεRIβ is critical for microtubule formation and degranulation and that it may perform this function by trafficking adaptor molecules and kinases to the pericentrosomal and Golgi region in response to Ca(2+) signals. Mutagenesis studies suggest that calmodulin binding to t-FcεRIβ in the presence of Ca(2+) could be critical for t-FcεRIβ function. In addition, gene targeting of t-FcεRIβ attenuated microtubule formation, degranulation, and IL-8 production downstream of Ca(2+) signals. Therefore, t-FcεRIβ mediates Ca(2+)-dependent microtubule formation, which promotes degranulation and cytokine release. Because t-FcεRIβ has this critical function, it represents a therapeutic target for the downregulation of allergic inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following antigen/IgE-mediated aggregation of high affinity IgE-receptors (FcεRI), mast cells (MCs) degranulate and release inflammatory mediators leading to the induction of allergic reactions including anaphylaxis. Migration of MCs to resident tissues and sites of inflammation is regulated by tissue chemotactic factors such as stem cell factor (SCF (KIT ligand)). Despite inducing similar early signaling events to antigen, chemotactic factors, including SCF, produce minimal degranulation in the absence of other stimuli. We therefore investigated whether processes regulating MC chemotaxis are rate limiting for MC mediator release. To investigate this issue, we disrupted actin polymerization, a requirement for MC chemotaxis, with latrunculin B and cytochalasin B, then examined chemotaxis and mediator release in human (hu)MCs induced by antigen or SCF. As expected, such disruption minimally affected early signaling pathways, but attenuated SCF-induced huMC chemotaxis. In contrast, SCF, in the absence of other stimuli, induced substantial degranulation in a concentration-dependent manner following actin disassembly. It also moderately enhanced antigen-mediated huMC degranulation which was further enhanced in the presence of SCF. These observations suggest that processes regulating cell migration limit MC degranulation as a consequence of cytoskeletal reorganization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
European Journal of Immunology 04/2013; · 4.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antigen-mediated mast cell (MC) degranulation is the critical early event in the induction of allergic reactions. Transient receptor potential channels (TRPC), particularly TRPC1, are thought to contribute to such MC activation. To explore the contribution of TRPC1 in MC-driven allergic reactions, we examined antigen-mediated anaphylaxis in Trpc1(-/-) and WT mice, and TRPC1 involvement in the activation of MCs derived from the bone marrow (BMMCs) of these mice. In vivo, we observed a similar induction of passive systemic anaphylaxis in the Trpc1(-/-) mice compared to WT controls. Nevertheless, there was delayed recovery from this response in Trpc1(-/-) mice. Furthermore, contrary to expectations, Trpc1(-/-) BMMCs responded to antigen with enhanced calcium signaling but with little defect in degranulation or associated signaling. In contrast, antigen-mediated production of TNF-α, and other cytokines, was enhanced in the Trpc1(-/-) BMMCs, as were calcium-dependent events required for these responses. Additionally, circulating levels of TNF-α in response to antigen were preferentially elevated in the Trpc1(-/-) mice, and administration of an anti-TNF-α antibody blocked the delay in recovery from anaphylaxis in these mice. These data thus provide evidence that, in this model, TRPC1 promotes recovery from the anaphylactic response by repressing antigen-mediated TNF-α release from MCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of KIT, by its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), results in the initiation of signal transduction pathways that influence mast cell survival and proliferation. Activating mutations in KIT have thus been linked to clonal MC proliferation associated with systemic mastocytosis. SCF also modulates MC function by inducing MC chemotaxis and by potentiating antigen (Ag)/IgE-mediated MC degranulation. Thus, mutations in KIT also have the potential to affect these processes in allergic and other mast cell-related diseases. Studies to determine how native and mutated KIT may modulate MC chemotaxis and activation have, however, been limited due to the lack of availability of a suitable functional MC line lacking native KIT which would allow transduction of KIT constructs. Here we describe a novel mouse MC line which allows the study of normal and mutated KIT constructs. These cells originated from a bone marrow-derived mouse MC culture out of which a rapidly dividing mast cell sub-population spontaneously arose. Over time, these cells lost KIT expression while continuing to express functional high affinity receptors for IgE (FcεRI). As a consequence, these cells degranulated in response to Ag/IgE but did not migrate nor show any evidence of potentiation of Ag/IgE degranulation in response to SCF. Retroviral transduction of the cells with a human (hu)KIT construct resulted in surface expression of huKIT which responded to huSCF by potentiation of Ag/IgE-induced degranulation and chemotaxis. This cell line thus presents a novel system to delineate how MC function is modulated by native and mutated KIT and for the identification of novel inhibitors of these processes.
Journal of immunological methods 01/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein prohibitin (PHB) is implicated in diverse cellular processes, including cell signaling, transcriptional control, and mitochondrial function. We found that PHB was abundant in the intracellular granules of mast cells, which are critical for allergic responses to antigens. Thus, we investigated whether PHB played a role in signaling mediated by the high-affinity receptor for antigen-bound immunoglobulin E (IgE), FcεRI. PHB-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) inhibited antigen-mediated signaling, degranulation, and cytokine secretion by mast cells in vitro. Knockdown of PHB inhibited the antigen-dependent association of the tyrosine kinase Syk with FcεRI and inhibited the activation of Syk. Fractionation studies revealed that PHB translocated from intracellular granules to plasma membrane lipid rafts in response to antigen, and knockdown of PHB suppressed the movement of FcεRIγ and Syk into lipid rafts. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PHB by Lyn was observed early after exposure to antigen, and point mutations in PHB indicated that Tyr(114) and Tyr(259) were required for the recruitment of Syk to FcεRIγ and mast cell activation. In mice, PHB-specific siRNAs inhibited antigen-initiated mast cell degranulation, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, and passive systemic anaphylaxis. Together, these results suggest that PHB is essential for FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation and allergic responses in vivo, raising the possibility that PHB might serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-33 is elevated in afflicted tissues of patients with mast cell (MC)-dependent chronic allergic diseases. Based on its acute effects on mouse MCs, IL-33 is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease through MC activation. However, the manifestations of prolonged IL-33 exposure on human MC function, which best reflect the conditions associated with chronic allergic disease, are unknown. In this study, we found that long-term exposure of human and mouse MCs to IL-33 results in a substantial reduction of MC activation in response to Ag. This reduction required >72 h exposure to IL-33 for onset and 1-2 wk for reversion following IL-33 removal. This hyporesponsive phenotype was determined to be a consequence of MyD88-dependent attenuation of signaling processes necessary for MC activation, including Ag-mediated calcium mobilization and cytoskeletal reorganization, potentially as a consequence of downregulation of the expression of phospholipase Cγ(1) and Hck. These findings suggest that IL-33 may play a protective, rather than a causative, role in MC activation under chronic conditions and, furthermore, reveal regulated plasticity in the MC activation phenotype. The ability to downregulate MC activation in this manner may provide alternative approaches for treatment of MC-driven disease.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2012; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: DJ-1 is an antioxidant protein known to reduce levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but its presence or function in mast cells and allergic diseases is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the role and mechanism of DJ-1 in allergic responses in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: ROS and DJ-1 levels in serum or culture medium were measured with ELISA kits. The role of DJ-1 was evaluated in mast cell cultures and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in normal or DJ-1 knockout (KO) mice. The mechanism of DJ-1 action was examined by using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, RT-PCR, and other molecular biological approaches. RESULTS: Patients with atopic dermatitis had increased levels of ROS and diminished levels of DJ-1. DJ-1 KO mice exhibited enhanced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and augmented ROS levels in sera and bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Furthermore, antigen-induced degranulation and production of TNF-α and IL-4 were significantly amplified in DJ-1 KO and anti-DJ-1 small interfering RNA-transfected BMMCs compared with that seen in wild-type (WT) BMMCs. Studies with these cells and BMMCs transfected with small interfering RNAs against the phosphatases Src homology domain 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP) 1 and SHP-2 revealed that the DJ-1 KO phenotype could be attributed to suppression of SHP-1 activity and enhancement of SHP-2 activity, leading to strengthened signaling through linker for activation of T cells, phospholipase Cγ, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. CONCLUSIONS: A deficiency or constitutive activation of DJ-1 can have implications in mast cell-driven allergic diseases, such as asthma and anaphylaxis.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 11/2012; · 12.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells, activated by Ag via FcεRI, release an array of proinflammatory mediators that contribute to allergic disorders, such as asthma and anaphylaxis. The KIT ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), is critical for mast cell expansion, differentiation, and survival, and under acute conditions, it enhances mast cell activation. However, extended SCF exposure in vivo conversely protects against fatal Ag-mediated anaphylaxis. In investigating this dichotomy, we identified a novel mode of regulation of the mast cell activation phenotype through SCF-mediated programming. We found that mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells chronically exposed to SCF displayed a marked attenuation of FcεRI-mediated degranulation and cytokine production. The hyporesponsive phenotype was not a consequence of altered signals regulating calcium flux or protein kinase C, but of ineffective cytoskeletal reorganization with evidence implicating a downregulation of expression of the Src kinase Hck. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a major role for SCF in the homeostatic control of mast cell activation with potential relevance to mast cell-driven disease and the development of novel approaches for the treatment of allergic disorders.
The Journal of Immunology 04/2012; 188(11):5428-37. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, has been reported as a calorie restriction mimetic with potential antiaging and antidiabetogenic properties. It is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, but its mechanism of action remains a mystery. Here, we report that the metabolic effects of resveratrol result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases, leading to elevated cAMP levels. The resulting activation of Epac1, a cAMP effector protein, increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels and activates the CamKKβ-AMPK pathway via phospholipase C and the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+)-release channel. As a consequence, resveratrol increases NAD(+) and the activity of Sirt1. Inhibiting PDE4 with rolipram reproduces all of the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, including prevention of diet-induced obesity and an increase in mitochondrial function, physical stamina, and glucose tolerance in mice. Therefore, administration of PDE4 inhibitors may also protect against and ameliorate the symptoms of metabolic diseases associated with aging.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells are considered the primary initiators of allergic diseases as a consequence of the release of multiple inflammatory mediators on activation. Although predominately activated through antigen-mediated aggregation of IgE-occupied-FcɛRI, they can also be induced to release mediators by other receptors and environmental stimuli. Based on studies conducted in the RBL 2H3 rodent mast cell line, the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) cation channel has been implicated in the activation of mast cells in response to cold and, by inference, the development of urticaria. Here we investigated the expression and role of TRPM8 receptor, in both human and mouse non-transformed cells, with the aim of exploring the potential link between TRPM8 and the pathology of cold urticaria in humans. Although expressed in mouse mast cells, we found no evidence of TRPM8 expression in human mast cells or functional mutations in TRPM8 in cold urticaria patients. Furthermore, neither mouse nor human primary cultured mast cells degranulated in response to cold challenge or TRPM8 agonists and mast cell reactivity was unaffected in Trpm8(-/-) mice. From these data, we conclude that TRPM8 is unlikely to directly regulate mast cell activation in cold urticaria. Thus, alternative mechanisms likely exist for the pathogenesis of this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells are critical for various allergic disorders. Mast cells express Src family kinases, which relay positive and negative regulatory signals by Ag. Lyn, for example, initiates activating signaling events, but it also induces inhibitory signals. Fyn and Hck are reported to be positive regulators, but little is known about the roles of other Src kinases, including Fgr, in mast cells. In this study, we define the role of Fgr. Endogenous Fgr associates with FcεRI and promotes phosphorylation of Syk, Syk substrates, which include linkers for activation of T cells, SLP76, and Gab2, and downstream targets such as Akt and the MAPKs in Ag-stimulated mast cells. As a consequence, Fgr positively regulates degranulation, production of eicosanoids, and cytokines. Fgr and Fyn appeared to act in concert, as phosphorylation of Syk and degranulation are enhanced by overexpression of Fgr and further augmented by overexpression of Fyn but are suppressed by overexpression of Lyn. Moreover, knockdown of Fgr by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) further suppressed degranulation in Fyn-deficient bone marrow-derived mast cells. Overexpression of Fyn or Fgr restored phosphorylation of Syk and partially restored degranulation in Fyn-deficient cells. Additionally, knockdown of Fgr by siRNAs inhibited association of Syk with FcεRIγ as well as the tyrosine phosphorylation of FcεRIγ. Of note, the injection of Fgr siRNAs diminished the protein level of Fgr in mice and simultaneously inhibited IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. In conclusion, Fgr positively regulates mast cell through activation of Syk. These findings help clarify the interplay among Src family kinases and identify Fgr as a potential therapeutic target for allergic diseases.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2011; 187(4):1807-15. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reports indicate that prostaglandin (PG)E(2) markedly enhances antigen-mediated degranulation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) but not in human mast cells (HuMCs). We have examined the underlying mechanism(s) for this disparity in HuMCs derived from the peripheral blood of multiple donors in addition to mouse BMMCs. HuMCs from half of these donors failed to respond to PGE(2) and the PGE(2) EP3 receptor agonist, sulprostone. However, HuMCs from the remaining donors and the LAD2 human MC line responded to PGE(2) and sulprostone with marked enhancement of antigen-mediated degranulation and IL-8 production in a similar manner to that observed in mouse BMMCs. The EP2 agonist, butaprost, failed to modulate antigen-mediated responses in any type of MCs. These distinct phenotypes could not be explained by differences in EP2 or EP3 expression nor by differences in the ability of PGE(2) to elevate levels of cAMP, a signal recognized to down-regulate mast cell activation. Moreover, both responder and non-responder HuMC populations exhibited similar activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and MAP kinases. However, translocation of PLCγ(1) to the cell membrane and the associated calcium signal were enhanced only in the responder HuMC population indicating that the link between EP3 and PLCγ is impaired in the non-responder HuMCs. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a cautionary note for the translating of observations in the mouse to human mast cell-dependent disorders, but may also provide a basis for examining the effects of co-activating receptors in patients susceptible to allergic conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-33 is associated with atopic and autoimmune diseases and, as reported here, it interacts synergistically with Ag to markedly enhance production of inflammatory cytokines in rodent mast cells even in the absence of degranulation. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that synergy in signaling occurred at the level of TGF-β-activated kinase 1, which was then transmitted downstream through JNK, p38 MAP kinase, and AP-1. Stimulation of the Ca(2+) /calcineurin/NFAT pathway by Ag, which IL-33 did not, was critical for the synergy between Ag and IL-33. For example, selective stimulation of the NFAT pathway by thapsigargin also markedly enhanced responses to IL-33 in a calcineurin-dependent manner. As indicated by luciferase-reporter assays, IL-33 failed to stimulate the transcriptional activities of NFAT and AP-1 but augmented the activation of these transcription factors by Ag or thapsigargin. Robust stimulation of NF-κB transcriptional activity by IL-33 was also essential for the synergy. These and pharmacologic data suggested that the enhanced production of cytokines resulted in part from amplification of the activation of AP-1 and NFAT as well as co-operative interactions among transcription factors. IL-33 may retune mast cell responses to Ag toward enhanced cytokine production and thus determine the symptoms and severity of Ag-dependent allergic and autoimmune diseases.
European Journal of Immunology 03/2011; 41(3):760-72. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells are multifunctional cells that initiate not only IgE-dependent allergic diseases but also play a fundamental role in innate and adaptive immune responses to microbial infection. They are also thought to play a role in angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and tumor repression or growth. The broad scope of these physiologic and pathologic roles illustrates the flexible nature of mast cells, which is enabled in part by their phenotypic adaptability to different tissue microenvironments and their ability to generate and release a diverse array of bioactive mediators in response to multiple types of cell-surface and cytosolic receptors. There is increasing evidence from studies in cell cultures that release of these mediators can be selectively modulated depending on the types or groups of receptors activated. The intent of this review is to foster interest in the interplay among mast cell receptors to help understand the underlying mechanisms for each of the immunological and non-immunological functions attributed to mast cells. The second intent of this review is to assess the pathophysiologic roles of mast cells and their products in health and disease. Although mast cells have a sufficient repertoire of bioactive mediators to mount effective innate and adaptive defense mechanisms against invading microorganisms, these same mediators can adversely affect surrounding tissues in the host, resulting in autoimmune disease as well as allergic disorders.
Critical Reviews in Immunology 01/2011; 31(6):475-529. · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A calcium signal is essential for degranulation, generation of eicosanoids and optimal production of cytokines in mast cells in response to antigen and other stimulants. The signal is initiated by phospholipase C-mediated production of inositol1,4,5-trisphosphate resulting in release of stored Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi. Depletion of these stores activates influx of extracellular Ca(2+), usually referred to as store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), through the interaction of the Ca(2+)-sensor, stromal interacting molecule-1 (STIM1 ), in ER with Orai1(CRACM1) and transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel proteins in the plasma membrane (PM). This interaction is enabled by microtubular-directed reorganization of ER to form ER/PM contact points or "punctae" in which STIM1 and channel proteins colocalize. The ensuing influx of Ca(2+) replenishes Ca(2+) stores and sustains elevated levels of cytosolic Ca(2+) ions-the obligatory signal for mast-cell activation. In addition, the signal can acquire spatial and dynamic characteristics (e.g., calcium puffs, waves, oscillations) that encode signals for specific functional outputs. This is achieved by coordinated regulation of Ca(2+) fluxes through ATP-dependent Ca(2+)-pumps and ion exchangers in mitochondria, ER and PM. As discussed in this chapter, studies in mast cells revealed much about the mechanisms described above but little about allergic and autoimmune diseases although studies in other types of cells have exposed genetic defects that lead to aberrant calcium signaling in immune diseases. Pharmacologic agents that inhibit or activate the regulatory components of calcium signaling in mast cells are also discussed along with the prospects for development of novel SOCE inhibitors that may prove beneficial in the treatment inflammatory mast-cell related diseases.
Advances in experimental medicine and biology 01/2011; 716:62-90. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-33 is a recently described pro-inflammatory cytokine. Here we demonstrate IL-33 as a regulator of functional osteoclasts (OCs) from human CD14(+) monocytes. IL-33 stimulates formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)(+) multinuclear OCs from monocytes. This action was suppressed by anti-ST2 antibody, suggesting that IL-33 acts through its receptor ST2, but not by the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) decoy, osteoprotegerin, or anti-RANKL antibody. IL-33 stimulated activating phosphorylations of signaling molecules in monocytes that are critical for OC development. These included Syk, phospholipase Cγ2, Gab2, MAP kinases, TAK-1, and NF-κB. IL-33 also enhanced expression of OC differentiation factors including TNF-α receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, c-Fos, c-Src, cathepsin K, and calcitonin receptor. IL-33 eventually induced bone resorption. This study suggests that the osteoclastogenic property of IL-33 is mediated through TRAF6 as well as the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-dependent Syk/PLCγ pathway in human CD14(+) monocytes.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 11/2010; 67(22):3883-92. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin (PG) E(2), a potent mediator produced in inflamed tissues, can substantially influence mast cell responses including adhesion to basement membrane proteins, chemotaxis, and chemokine production. However, the signaling pathways by which PGE(2) induces mast cell chemotaxis and chemokine production remains undefined. In this study, we identified the downstream target of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), as a key regulator of these responses. In mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells, PGE(2) was found to induce activation of mTORC1 (mTOR complexed to raptor) as indicated by increased p70S6K and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, and activation of mTORC2 (mTOR complexed to rictor), as indicated by increased phosphorylation of AKT at position Ser(473). Selective inhibition of the mTORC1 cascade by rapamycin or by the use of raptor-targeted shRNA failed to decrease PGE(2)-mediated chemotaxis or chemokine generation. However, inhibition of the mTORC2 cascade through the dual mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitor Torin, or through rictor-targeted shRNA, resulted in a significant attenuation in PGE(2)-mediated chemotaxis, which was associated with a comparable decrease in actin polymerization. Furthermore, mTORC2 down-regulation decreased PGE(2)-induced production of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2), which was linked to a significant reduction in ROS production. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that activation of mTORC2, downstream of PI3K, represents a critical signaling locus for chemotaxis and chemokine release from PGE(2)-activated mast cells.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 286(1):391-402. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells infiltrate the sites of inflammation associated with chronic atopic disease and during helminth and bacterial infection. This process requires receptor-mediated cell chemotaxis across a concentration gradient of their chemotactic ligands. In vivo, mast cells are likely to be exposed to several such agents, which can cooperate in a synergistic manner to regulate mast cell homing. Here, we report that chemotaxis of mouse bone-marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) in response to the chemoattractants stem-cell factor (SCF) and prostaglandin (PG)E(2), is substantially enhanced following antigen-dependent ligation of the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI). These responses were associated with enhanced activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and downstream activation of the tyrosine protein kinase Btk, with subsequent enhanced phospholipase (PL)Cγ-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization, Rac activation and F-actin rearrangement. Antigen-induced chemotaxis, and the ability of antigen to amplify responses mediated by SCF, adenosine and PGE(2) were suppressed following inhibition of PI3K, and were impaired in BMMCs derived from Btk(-/-) mice. There were corresponding decreases in the PLCγ-mediated Ca(2+) signal, Rac activation and F-actin rearrangement, which, as they are essential for BMMC chemotaxis, accounts for the impaired migration of Btk-deficient cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that, by regulating signaling pathways that control F-actin rearrangement, Btk is crucial for the ability of antigen to amplify mast-cell chemotactic responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Initial IgE-dependent signaling events are associated with detergent-resistant membrane microdomains. Following Ag stimulation, the IgE-receptor (Fc(epsilon)RI ) accumulates within these domains. This facilitates the phosphorylation of Fc(epsilon)RI subunits by the Src kinase, Lyn, and the interaction with adaptor proteins, such as the linker for activation of T cells. Among the phospholipases (PL) subsequently activated, PLD is of interest because of its presence in lipid microdomains and the possibility that its product, phosphatidic acid, may regulate signal transduction and membrane trafficking. We find that in Ag-stimulated RBL-2H3 mast cells, the association of Fc(epsilon)RI with detergent-resistant membrane fractions is inhibited by 1-butanol, which subverts production of phosphatidic acid to the biologically inert phosphatidylbutanol. Furthermore, the knockdown of PLD2, and to a lesser extent PLD1 with small inhibitory RNAs, also suppressed the accumulation of Fc(epsilon)RI and Lyn in these fractions as well as the phosphorylation of Src kinases, Fc(epsilon)RI , linker for activation of T cells, and degranulation. These effects were accompanied by changes in distribution of the lipid microdomain component, ganglioside 1, in the plasma membrane as determined by binding of fluorescent-tagged cholera toxin B subunit and confocal microscopy in live cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that PLD activity plays an important role in promoting IgE-dependent signaling events within lipid microdomains in mast cells.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2009; 183(8):5104-12. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Just over a century ago Paul Ehrlich received the Nobel Prize for his studies of immunity. This review describes one of his legacies, the histochemical description of the mast cell, and the research that has ensued since then. After a long period of largely descriptive studies, which revealed little about the biological role of the mast cell, the field was galvanized in the 1950s by the recognition that the mast cell was the main repository of histamine and a key participant in anaphylactic reactions. Although the mast cell was long-viewed in these terms, recent research has now shown that the mast cell also plays a key role in innate and adaptive immune responses, autoimmune disease, and possibly tissue homeostasis by virtue of its expression of a diverse array of receptors and biologically active products. In addition, the responsiveness of mast cells to immunological and pathological stimulants is highly modulated by the tissue cytokine environment and by synergistic, or inhibitory, interactions among the various mast cell receptor systems. This once enigmatic cell of Paul Ehrlich has proved to be both adaptable and multifunctional.
European Journal of Immunology 02/2009; 39(1):11-25. · 4.97 Impact Factor