B Glass

Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

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Publications (98)514.46 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Salvage chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard second-line treatment for relapsed and refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the strategy is less clear in patients who require third-line treatment. Updated outcomes of 203 patients who could not proceed to scheduled ASCT in the Collaborative Trial in Relapsed Aggressive Lymphoma (CORAL) are herein reviewed. In the intent-to-treat analysis, overall response rate to third-line chemotherapy was 39%, with 27% CR or CR unconfirmed, and 12% PR. Among the 203 patients, 64 (31.5%) were eventually transplanted (ASCT 56, allogeneic SCT 8). Median overall survival (OS) of the entire population was 4.4 months. OS was significantly improved in patients with lower tertiary International Prognostic Index (IPI), patients responding to third-line treatment and patients transplanted with a 1-year OS of 41.6% compared with 16.3% for the not transplanted (P<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, IPI at relapse (hazard ratio (HR) 2.409) and transplantation (HR 0.375) independently predicted OS. Third-line salvage chemotherapy can lead to response followed by transplantation and long-term survival in DLBCL patients. However, improvement of salvage efficacy is an urgent need with new drugs.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 14 September 2015; doi:10.1038/bmt.2015.213.
    Bone marrow transplantation 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/bmt.2015.213 · 3.57 Impact Factor

  • Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 02/2015; 21(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.11.023 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prognostically-relevant risk factors in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have predominantly been evaluated in elderly populations. We tested whether previously described risk factors are also valid in younger, poor-prognosis DLBCL patients. Paraffin-embedded samples from 112 patients with de novo DLBCL, enrolled in the R-MegaCHOEP trial of the German High Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL) were investigated using immunohistochemistry (MYC, FOXP1, LMO2, GCET1, CD5, CD10, BCL2, BCL6, IRF4/MUM1) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (MYC, BCL2, BCL6). MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 breaks occurred in 14%, 21% and 31%, respectively. In the majority of cases, MYC was simultaneously rearranged with BCL2 and/or BCL6. The adverse impact of MYC rearrangements was confirmed, but the sole presence of BCL2 breaks emerged as a novel prognostic marker associated with inferior overall survival (OS) (p=0.002). Combined over-expression of MYC and BCL2 showed only limited association with inferior OS. All immunohistochemical cell of origin (COO) classifiers applied failed to predict survival time. DLBCL tumors with significant proportion of immunoblastic and/or immunoblastic-plasmacytoid cells had inferior OS, independently from from BCL2 break. Younger, poor-prognosis DLBCL patients, therefore, display different biological risk factors compared to an elderly population, with BCL2 translocations emerging as a powerful negative prognostic marker.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 17 February 2015. doi:10.1038/leu.2015.43.
    Leukemia 02/2015; 29(7). DOI:10.1038/leu.2015.43 · 10.43 Impact Factor
  • N Schmitz · H S Wu · B Glaß ·

    DMW - Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 10/2014; 139(41):2082-2085. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1387290 · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To define the role of radiotherapy and intrathecal prophylaxis in extralymphatic craniofacial involvement (ECFI) of aggressive B-cell lymphoma we analyzed 11 consecutive DSHNHL trials. ECFI occurred in 290/4155 (7.0%) patients (orbita: 31, paranasal sinuses: 93; main nasal cavity: 38, tongue: 27, remaining oral cavity: 99, salivary glands: 54). In a multivariable analysis adjusted for IPI rituximab improved EFS and OS both in patients with and without ECFI. Three-year event-free (79% vs 79%; p=0.842) and overall survival (86% vs. 88%; p=0.351) were similar in 145 patients receiving and 57 not receiving radiotherapy. Without rituximab, the 2-year cumulative rate of CNS disease was increased in 205 ECFI patients compared to 2586 non-ECFI patients (4.2% vs. 2.8%; p=0.038), while this was not observed with rituximab (1.6% in 83 ECFI vs 3.4% in 1252 non-ECFI patients; p=0.682). In 88 ECFI patients who received intrathecal prophylaxis with methotrexate, 2-year rate of CNS disease was 4.2% compared to 2.3% in 191 patients who did not (p=0.981). In conclusion, rituximab eliminates the increased risk for CNS disease in patients with ECFI. This retrospective analysis does not support intrathecal prophylaxis or radiotherapy to ECFI patients in CR/CRu. These findings should be confirmed in a prospective study.
    Blood 06/2014; 124(5). DOI:10.1182/blood-2013-10-535021 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation has had limited success for patients with refractory and relapsed aggressive B-cell or T-cell lymphoma. We investigated the effect of adding rituximab to standard prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease after transplantation and estimated overall survival when using a lymphoma-directed myeloablative conditioning regimen. We did this randomised, open-label, phase 2 study at seven German transplantation centres. We enrolled patients with aggressive B-cell or T-cell lymphoma and primary refractory disease, early relapse (<12 months after first-line treatment), or relapse after autologous transplantation. Conditioning with fludarabine (125 mg/m(2)), busulfan (12 mg/kg oral or 9·6 mg/kg intravenous), and cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) was followed by allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive rituximab (375 mg/m(2) on days 21, 28, 35, 42, 175, 182, 189, and 196) or not. Allocation was done with a centralised computer-generated procedure; patients were stratified by histological subtype (B-cell vs T-cell lymphoma) and donor match (HLA-identical vs non-identical). Neither investigators nor patients were masked to allocation. The primary endpoints were the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease grade 2-4 in each treatment group and overall survival at 1 year in both groups combined. All analyses were done for the intention-to-treat population. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00785330. Between June 16, 2004, and March 24, 2009, we screened 86 patients and enrolled 84; 42 were randomly assigned to each group. The cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease was 46% (95% CI 32-62) in the rituximab group and 42% (95% CI 29-59) in the no rituximab group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·91, 95% CI 0·52-1·60; p=0·74). Overall survival at 1 year for the whole study population was 52% (95% CI 41-62). Grade 4 haematological toxic effects and grade 3 alopecia occurred in all patients. The most common non-haematological grade 5 toxic effects were pneumonia (nine in the no rituximab group vs ten in the rituximab group) and other infections (seven vs four). The lymphoma-directed myeloablative conditioning regimen developed here is promising for patients with refractory and relapsed aggressive B-cell and T-cell lymphomas. However, the addition of rituximab did not affect the incidence of graft-versus-host disease or overall survival. Hoffmann-La Roche, Amgen, Astellas Pharma.
    The Lancet Oncology 05/2014; 15(7). DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70161-5 · 24.69 Impact Factor
  • Norbert Schmitz · Huei-Shan Wu · Bertram Glass ·
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    ABSTRACT: Except for ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and patients with limited disease, mature T- and natural killer (NK) cell lymphomas are disorders with a poor prognosis. Patients with relapsed or refractory ALK-negative ALCL, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), or peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) after allogeneic transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (alloSCT) achieve long-term survival in 35%-50% of cases. Survival in patients with less frequent subtypes (NK/T-cell lymphoma, cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, acute T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, or hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma) also seems promising. These results are significantly better than those of any other treatment modality, including the new drugs. Therefore, alloSCT should be considered in patients with relapsed/ refractory T-cell lymphoma. Because of low patient numbers and lack of comparative studies, the optimum conditioning regimen prior to transplantation as well as other details of the transplant procedure remain unknown and await further study. Studies investigating the role of alloSCT as part of first-line therapy in poor-risk T-cell lymphomas are ongoing. At present, data are not sufficient to recommend alloSCT outside of clinical trials.
    Seminars in Hematology 01/2014; 51(1):67-72. DOI:10.1053/j.seminhematol.2013.11.010 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study clinical presentation, outcome, and the role of radiotherapy in patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma and skeletal involvement treated with and without rituximab. Outcome of patients with skeletal involvement was analyzed in a retrospective study of nine consecutive prospective trials of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Study Group. Of 3,840 patients, 292 (7.6%) had skeletal involvement. In the MabThera International Trial (MInT) for young good-prognosis patients and the Rituximab With CHOP Over 60 Years (RICOVER-60) study for elderly patients, the randomized addition of rituximab improved event-free survival (EFS; hazard ratio for MInT [HRMInT] = 0.4, P > 001; hazard ratio for RICOVER-60 [HRRICOVER-60] = 0.6, P > .001) and overall survival (OS; HRMInT = 0.4, P < .001; HRRICOVER-60 = 0.7, P = .002) in patients without skeletal involvement, but failed to improve the outcome of patients with skeletal involvement (EFS: HRMInT = 1.4, P = .444; HRRICOVER-60 = 0.8, P = .449; OS: HRMInT = 0.6, P = .449; HRRICOVER-60 = 1.0, P = .935). Skeletal involvement was associated with a worse outcome after cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) plus rituximab (HREFS = 1.5, P = .048; HROS = 1.1; P = .828), but not after CHOP without rituximab (HREFS = 0.8, P = .181; HROS = 0.7, P = .083). In contrast to rituximab, additive radiotherapy to sites of skeletal involvement was associated with a decreased risk (HREFS = 0.3, P = .001; HROS = 0.5; P = .111). Rituximab failed to improve the outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with skeletal involvement, although our data suggest a beneficial effect of radiotherapy to sites of skeletal involvement. Whether radiotherapy to sites of skeletal involvement can be spared in cases with a negative positron emission tomography after immunochemotherapy should be addressed in appropriately designed prospective trials.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2013; 31(32). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2012.48.0467 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To validate current donor selection strategies based on previous international studies, we retrospectively analyzed 2646 transplantations performed for hematologic malignancies in 28 German transplant centres. Donors and recipients were high resolution typed for HLA-A,-B,-C,-DRB1,-DQB1. Highest mortality in overall survival analysis (OS) was seen for HLA-A,-B, and DRB1 mismatches. HLA-DQB1 mismatched cases showed a trend towards higher mortality, mostly due to HLA-DQB1 antigen disparities. HLA incompatibilities at more than one locus showed additive detrimental effects. HLA-mismatching had no significant effect on relapse incidence and primary graft failure. Graft source had no impact on survival endpoints, neither in univariate nor in multivariate analysis. Higher patient age, advanced disease, transplantations before 2004, patient C2C2 KIR-ligand phenotype, and unavailability of a national donor adversely influenced outcomes in multivariate analysis. Our study confirms the association of HLA-A,-B,-C, and -DRB1 incompatibilities with adverse outcome in HSCT. The relevance of HLA-DQB1 disparities in single mismatched transplantations remains unclear. Similar hazard ratios for allele and antigen mismatches (possibly with an exception for HLA-DQB1) highlight the importance of allele level typing and matching in HSCT. The number of incompatibilities as well as their type significantly impact survival.
    Blood 09/2013; 122(18). DOI:10.1182/blood-2013-02-482547 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: High-dose therapy (HDT) followed by transplantation of autologous haemopoietic stem cells is frequently done as part of first-line therapy in young patients with high-risk aggressive B-cell lymphoma. We investigated whether HDT with cytotoxic agents identical to those used for conventional therapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) improved survival outcome compared with conventional chemotherapy when rituximab was added to both modalities. METHODS: We did an open-label, randomised trial comparing conventional chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone) and rituximab (R-CHOEP-14) with dose-escalated sequential HDT and rituximab (R-MegaCHOEP) followed by repetitive ASCT in high-risk (age-adjusted International Prognostic Index [IPI] 2 or 3) patients aged 18-60 years with aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Eligible patients received radiotherapy for bulky, extranodal disease, or both. Randomisation (1:1) used the Pocock minimisation algorithm; patients were stratified by age-adjusted IPI factors, bulky disease, and centre. The primary endpoint was event-free survival. All analyses were done on the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00129090. FINDINGS: 136 patients were randomly assigned to R-CHOEP-14 and 139 to R-MegaCHOEP. 130 patients in the R-CHOEP-14 group and 132 in the R-MegaCHOEP group were included in the intention-to-treat population. After a median of 42 months (IQR 29-59), 3-year event-free survival was 69·5% (95% CI 61·3-77·7) in the R-CHOEP-14 group and 61·4% (52·8-70·0) in the R-MegaCHOEP group (p=0·14; hazard ratio 1·3, 95% CI 0·9-2·0). All 128 evaluable patients treated with R-MegaCHOEP had grade 4 leucopenia, as did 48 (58·5%) of 82 patients with documented blood counts in the R-CHOEP-14 group. All 128 evaluable patients in the R-MegaCHOEP group had grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia, as did 26 (33·8%) of 77 patients in the R-CHOEP-14 group with documented blood counts. The most important non-haematological grade 3 or 4 adverse event was infection, which occurred in 96 (75·0%) of 128 patients treated with R-MegaCHOEP and in 40 (31·3%) of 128 patients treated with R-CHOEP-14. INTERPRETATION: In young patients with high-risk aggressive B-cell lymphoma, R-MegaCHOEP was not superior to conventional R-CHOEP therapy and was associated with significantly more toxic effects. R-CHOEP-14 with or without radiotherapy remains a treatment option for these patients, with encouraging efficacy. FUNDING: Deutsche Krebshilfe.
    The Lancet Oncology 11/2012; 13(12). DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70481-3 · 24.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEThe standard treatment for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is salvage chemotherapy followed by high-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). The impact of maintenance rituximab after ASCT is not known. PATIENTS AND METHODS In total, 477 patients with CD20(+) DLBCL who were in their first relapse or refractory to initial therapy were randomly assigned to one of two salvage regimens. After three cycles of salvage chemotherapy, the responding patients received high-dose chemotherapy followed by ASCT. Then, 242 patients were randomly assigned to either rituximab every 2 months for 1 year or observation. RESULTS: 46% v 56% for relapsed disease after 12 months), secondary age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (saaIPI) more than 1 (EFS: 37% v 61% for saaIPI < 1), and prior treatment with rituximab (EFS: 47% v 59% for no prior rituximab). A significant difference in EFS between women (63%) and men (46%) was also observed in the rituximab group. In the Cox model for maintenance, the saaIPI was a significant prognostic factor (P < .001), as was male sex (P = .01). CONCLUSION In relapsed DLBCL, we observed no difference between the control group and the rituximab maintenance group and do not recommend rituximab after ASCT.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2012; 30(36). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2012.41.9416 · 18.43 Impact Factor
  • N Schmitz · M Nickelsen · B Glaß ·
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    ABSTRACT: The roles of HDT/autoSCT and alloSCT in the treatment of B- and T-cell lymphomas continue to change. With the wider use of Rituximab in virtually every patient with B-cell lymphoma transplantation as part of first-line therapy has been challenged. New studies fail to show a benefit of HDT/autoSCT over conventional therapy when administered to newly diagnosed patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma; in the other B-cell lymphomas results from randomized studies are not yet available. Patients relapsing from first-line therapy including Rituximab do not have satisfying results with HDT/autoSCT. Therefore, alloSCT is increasingly being considered. In T-cell lymphoma the efficacy of autoSCT seems rather limited. Study groups and single institutions are developing new strategies including alloSCT to improve the situation for such patients both in the setting of first-line and salvage therapy.
    Best practice & research. Clinical haematology 03/2012; 25(1):61-73. DOI:10.1016/j.beha.2012.01.007 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe incidence, risk factors, and influence of treatment on occurrence of central nervous system (CNS) relapse or progression in younger patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma. We analyzed 2210 patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma treated on various studies for CNS relapse/progression. Treatment consisted of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) ± etoposide. Six hundred and twenty patients also received rituximab. CNS prophylaxis was intrathecal methotrexate on High-CHOEP and MegaCHOEP phase III studies if upper neck, head, bone marrow, or testes were involved. Fifty-six of 2196 patients (2.6%) developed CNS disease. It occurred early (median 7.0 months), median survival was 5.0 months. Patients with age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (aaIPI) 0 or 1 treated with rituximab showed a low risk for CNS disease (2-year rates: 0% or 0.5%), and rituximab decreased the risk (relative risk 0.3, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.9, P = 0.029). Patients with aaIPI 2 or 3 showed a moderate risk (4.2%-9.7%) and no significant reduction of CNS disease with rituximab. CNS prophylaxis was of no significant benefit. In younger patients with aaIPI 0 or 1, CNS relapse/progression is very rare; in patients with aaIPI 2 or 3, the risk is higher (up to 10%) and requires new diagnostic strategies and treatment.
    Annals of Oncology 10/2011; 23(5):1267-73. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdr440 · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A phase II trial evaluated safety, feasibility and efficacy of a sequential tandem approach combining myeloablative BEAM chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with myeloablative radioimmunotherapy (HD-RIT), with (131)I-anti-CD20 antibody ((131)I-rituximab), followed by a second ASCT in patients with relapsed or refractory CD20+ B-cell lymphoma. According to protocol, 16 patients with relapsed (n = 14) and refractory (n = 2) CD20+ B-cell lymphoma received salvage therapy with rituximab and Dexa-BEAM, followed by BEAM (HD chemotherapy) and high-dose myeloablative radioimmunotherapy 2-6 months after BEAM. Nine of 16 patients received HD-RIT; seven patients were excluded before HD-RIT because of toxicity or progressive disease. Disease histologies were follicular lymphoma (FL) grades 1 and 2 (n = 4), transformed follicular (FL 3b; n = 6), diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL; n = 4), mantle cell (n = 1) and marginal zone lymphoma (n = 1). After a median follow-up of 50.4 months for OS and 39.7 months for progression-free survival (PFS), estimated 4-year OS and PFS were 67% and 64%, respectively. The estimated 4-year OS and PFS for patients with FL were 80% and 78%, respectively. Toxicity was significant, including one fatal outcome due to pneumonitis. Tandem transplants consisting of HD chemotherapy followed by HD-RIT with (131)I-coupled anti-CD20 are manageable and effective but toxic treatment modalities for relapsed poor prognosis CD20+ B-NHL.
    Annals of Hematology 03/2011; 90(11):1307-15. DOI:10.1007/s00277-011-1199-y · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Salvage chemotherapy followed by high-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard treatment for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Salvage regimens have never been compared; their efficacy in the rituximab era is unknown. Patients with CD20(+) DLBCL in first relapse or who were refractory after first-line therapy were randomly assigned to either rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, and carboplatin (R-ICE) or rituximab, dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin (R-DHAP). Responding patients received high-dose chemotherapy and ASCT. The median age of the 396 patients enrolled (R-ICE, n = 202; R-DHAP, n = 194) was 55 years. Similar response rates were observed after three cycles of R-ICE (63.5%; 95% CI, 56% to 70%) and R-DHAP (62.8%; 95 CI, 55% to 69%). Factors affecting response rates (P < .001) were refractory disease/relapse less than versus more than 12 months after diagnosis (46% v 88%, respectively), International Prognostic Index (IPI) of more than 1 versus 0 to 1 (52% v 71%, respectively), and prior rituximab treatment versus no prior rituximab (51% v 83%, respectively). There was no significant difference between R-ICE and R-DHAP for 3-year event-free survival (EFS) or overall survival. Three-year EFS was affected by prior rituximab treatment versus no rituximab (21% v 47%, respectively), relapse less than versus more than 12 months after diagnosis (20% v 45%, respectively), and IPI of 2 to 3 versus 0 to 1 (18% v 40%, respectively). In the Cox model, these parameters were significant (P < .001). In patients who experience relapse more than 12 months after diagnosis, prior rituximab treatment does not affect EFS. Patients with early relapses after rituximab-containing first-line therapy have a poor prognosis, with no difference between the effects of R-ICE and R-DHAP.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2010; 28(27):4184-90. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2010.28.1618 · 18.43 Impact Factor
  • B Glass ·

    DMW - Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 09/2010; 135(38):1870. DOI:10.1055/s-0030-1263329 · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to determine safety and efficacy of rituximab (R) in combination with repetitive high-dose therapy (HDT) as primary treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients aged 18-60 years and elevated lactate dehydrogenase were treated with four cycles of MegaCHOEP and transplantation of autologous stem cells after cycles 2, 3 and 4. Rituximab (375 mg/m²) was given before each cycle and 12 and 33 days after start of the last cycle of chemotherapy. Sixty-four patients given R-MegaCHOEP were compared with 29 patients who had received identical treatment without rituximab. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) after 3 years were significantly improved in patients treated with R-MegaCHOEP (OS: 78.7% versus 55.0%, P = 0.045; EFS: 72.7% versus 47.2%, P = 0.013). In a Cox regression model adjusted for performance status and stage, relative risk of treatment failure was lower (relative risk 0.5, P = 0.041) and OS was better (relative risk 0.4, P = 0.054) for patients given R-MegaCHOEP. Grade 3/4 infections were more frequent in the R-MegaCHOEP group (18.5% versus 6.0%, P = 0.003). The addition of rituximab to MegaCHOEP significantly improved outcome in young patients with high-risk DLBCL. The higher incidence of grade 3/4 infections needs consideration when rituximab and HDT regimens are combined.
    Annals of Oncology 05/2010; 21(11):2255-61. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdq235 · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is widely used for risk stratification of patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma. The introduction of rituximab has markedly improved outcome, and R-CHOP (rituximab + cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) has become the standard treatment for CD20(+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. To investigate whether the IPI has maintained its power for risk stratification when rituximab is combined with CHOP, we analyzed the prognostic relevance of IPI in three prospective clinical trials. In total, 1,062 patients treated with rituximab were included (MabThera International Trial [MInT], 380 patients; dose-escalated regimen of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, and prednisone (MegaCHOEP) trial, 72 patients; CHOP + rituximab for patients older than age 60 years [RICOVER-60] trial, 610 patients). A multivariate proportional hazards modeling was performed for single IPI factors under rituximab on event-free, progression-free, and overall survival. IPI score was significant for all three end points. Rituximab significantly improved treatment outcome within each IPI group resulting in a quenching of the Kaplan-Meier estimators. However, IPI was a significant prognostic factor in all three end points and the ordering of the IPI groups remained valid. The relative risk estimates of single IPI factors and their order in patients treated with R-CHOP were similar to those found with CHOP. The effects of rituximab were superimposed on the effects of CHOP with no interactions between chemotherapy and antibody therapy. These results demonstrate that the IPI is still valid in the R-CHOP era.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2010; 28(14):2373-80. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2009.26.2493 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by natural killer (NK) cells is a major effector mechanism of the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in eliminating B-cell lymphomas. Resistance to this treatment occurs, although CD20 antigen is expressed on the tumor cells. A model of ADCC was established by stimulating human bulk NK cells and inhibitory killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR)-defined NK cells from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed donors. NK-cell activation was triggered via stimulation of the Fc receptor with immunoglobulin G aggregates, rituximab-labeled HLA-defined CD20-positive B-lymphoblast cell lines or CD20-positive B-lymphoma cell lines. The effect of KIR ligation by anti-KIR antibodies and HLA, the HLA expression density and rituximab concentrations on the efficacy of ADCC were analyzed in granzyme B ELISPOT measuring NK-cell activation and fluorescein-activated cell sorting cytotoxicity assay. HLA, but not CD20 expression density correlated with NK-cell activity against rituximab-labeled targets. ADCC was increased or decreased following HLA shielding or KIR activation by anti-KIR antibodies, respectively. Herein we show that rituximab-induced ADCC is attenuated upon ligation of KIR by HLA molecules expressed on human B-lymphoma target cells. Moreover, anti-KIR antibodies do not only block KIR/HLA interactions, but display agonistic effects at the KIR, which has to be considered for therapeutical applications. KIR activation and HLA expression density are critical determinants for the efficacy of rituximab treatment. An explanation for the failure of rituximab treatment may be the protection of the tumor cells from ADCC by inhibiting NK-cell function with their surface HLA.
    Experimental hematology 03/2010; 38(3):213-21. DOI:10.1016/j.exphem.2009.12.007 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neither effective salvage regimens nor the outcome and response to retherapy with rituximab containing chemotherapy have been defined for rituximab pre-treated patients with relapsing aggressive lymphoma. We report here a single-centre retrospective outcome analysis of second-line immunochemotherapy with rituximab. In 28 patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphomas, first-line immunochemotherapy had induced objective responses in 18 patients. Nine of 28 patients responded to rituximab containing salvage therapy, leading to a median overall survival of 243 days after start of second immunochemotherapy. Long-term disease free survivors (1,260 and 949 days) were restricted to the group of twelve patients that had received allogeneic stem cell transplantation as consolidation therapy. In 21 patients with relapsed mantle cell lymphomas (MCL), 19 patients had reached remissions with first-line therapy. Of those, 16 patients experienced responses to salvage therapy with a median overall survival of 226 days. Noteworthy, none of patients with initial non-responding disease reached a remission with second immunochemotherapy. Seven patients with MCL stayed free from progression after high-dose therapy with autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation in two and five cases, respectively. In summary, responses to repeated immunotherapy with rituximab were observed in approximately one third and two thirds of initially responding patients with aggressive B cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma, respectively, but not in primarily refractory disease. Lasting remissions were achieved only by high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation.
    Annals of Hematology 10/2009; 89(3):283-9. DOI:10.1007/s00277-009-0820-9 · 2.63 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
514.46 Total Impact Points


  • 2009-2015
    • Asklepios Klinik St. Georg
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2011
    • Asklepios Westklinikum Hamburg
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2010
    • Uppsala University
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
    • University of Leipzig
      • Institute of Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 2006-2008
    • Universitätsmedizin Göttingen
      • Department of Hematology and Oncology
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2003-2008
    • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 1991-2002
    • Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
      • UKSH II. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany