[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A common treatment of low-grade cartilaginous lesions of bone is intralesional curettage with local adjuvant therapy. Because of the wide variety of different diagnoses and treatments, there is still a lack of knowledge about the effectiveness of the use of phenol as local adjuvant therapy in patients with grade-I central chondrosarcoma of a long bone.
A retrospective study was done to assess the clinical and oncological outcomes after intralesional curettage, application of phenol and ethanol, and bone-grafting in eighty-five patients treated between 1994 and 2005. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven grade-I central chondrosarcoma and location of the lesion in a long bone. The average age at surgery was 47.5 years (range, 15.6 to 72.3 years). The average duration of follow-up was 6.8 years (range, 0.2 to 14.1 years). Patients were evaluated periodically with conventional radiographs and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI) scans. When a lesion was suspected on the basis of the MRI, the patient underwent repeat intervention. Depending on the size of the recurrent lesion, biopsy followed by radiofrequency ablation (for lesions of <10 mm) or repeat curettage (for those of ≥10 mm) was performed.
Of the eighty-five patients, eleven underwent repeat surgery because a lesion was suspected on the basis of the Gd-MRI studies during follow-up. Of these eleven, five had a histologically proven local recurrence (a recurrence rate of 5.9% [95% confidence interval, 0.9% to 10.9%]), and all were grade-I chondrosarcomas. General complications consisted of one superficial infection, and two femoral fractures within six weeks after surgery.
This retrospective case series without controls has limitations, but the use of phenol as an adjuvant after intralesional curettage of low-grade chondrosarcoma of a long bone was safe and effective, with a recurrence rate of <6% at a mean of 6.8 years after treatment.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 07/2012; 94(13):1201-7. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enchondromatosis is characterized by the presence of multiple benign cartilage lesions in bone. While Ollier disease is typified by multiple enchondromas, in Maffucci syndrome these are associated with hemangiomas. Studies evaluating the predictive value of clinical symptoms for development of secondary chondrosarcoma and prognosis are lacking. This multi-institute study evaluates the clinical characteristics of patients, to get better insight on behavior and prognosis of these diseases.
A retrospective study was conducted using clinical data of 144 Ollier and 17 Maffucci patients from 13 European centers and one national databank supplied by members of the European Musculoskeletal Oncology Society.
Patients had multiple enchondromas in the hands and feet only (group I, 18%), in long bones including scapula and pelvis only (group II, 39%), and in both small and long/flat bones (group III, 43%), respectively. The overall incidence of chondrosarcoma thus far is 40%. In group I, only 4 patients (15%) developed chondrosarcoma, in contrast to 27 patients (43%) in group II and 26 patients (46%) in group III, respectively. The risk of developing chondrosarcoma is increased when enchondromas are located in the pelvis (odds ratio, 3.8; p = 0.00l).
Overall incidence of development of chondrosarcoma is 40%, but may, due to age-dependency, increase when considered as a lifelong risk. Patients with enchondromas located in long bones or axial skeleton, especially the pelvis, have a seriously increased risk of developing chondrosarcoma, and are identified as the population that needs regular screening on early detection of malignant transformation.
The Oncologist 12/2011; 16(12):1771-9. · 4.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy-induced toxicity is an independent prognostic indicator in several cancers. We aimed to determine whether toxicity was related to survival and histological response in high-grade localised extremity osteosarcoma. We undertook a retrospective analysis of patients treated within three consecutive randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of the European Osteosarcoma Intergroup.
Between 1982 and 2002, 533 patients were randomised to six cycles of doxorubicin 75 mg/m(2) and cisplatin 100 mg/m(2). Toxicity data were collected prospectively and graded according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. Standard univariate and multivariate models were constructed to examine the relationship between reported toxicity, survival, and histological response.
Five- and 10-year overall survival was 57% (95% confidence interval (CI) 52-61%) and 53% (49-58%), respectively. Grades 3-4 oral mucositis (hazard ratio (HR) 0.51, 95% CI 0.29-0.91), grades 1-2 nausea/vomiting (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.16-0.85), grades 1-2 thrombocytopenia (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.27-0.87), good histological response (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.65), and distal tumour site (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.28-0.71) were associated with improved survival in multivariate analysis. The only factors that were independently associated with histological response were older age (odds ratio (OR) 0.18, 95% CI 0.04-0.72) and chondroblastic tumour (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.10-0.77), both being associated with a significantly lower chance of achieving a good response.
Chemotherapy-induced toxicity predicts survival in patients with localised extremity osteosarcoma. Investigation of the pharmacogenomic mechanisms of constitutional chemosensitivity underlying these observations will present opportunities for personalising treatment and could lead to improved outcomes.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 10/2011; 48(5):703-12. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few longitudinal data are available concerning quality of life (QoL) and functioning of young patients undergoing surgical procedures for malignant bone tumors around the knee joint. Aim of the present study was to evaluate patients' quality of life, functional ability, and physical activity during a 2-year postoperative period.
This prospective study included patients who underwent surgery for a malignant bone tumor around the knee joint between 2004 and 2008. Assessments were done at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after surgery. QoL was measured with the TNO-AZL Children's or Adult's Quality of Life Questionnaires (TACQOL and TAAQOL), the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and Bone tumor (Bt)-DUX; functional ability with the Toronto Extremity Salvage Scale (TESS), the 6-minute walk test (6 MWT) and four functional performance tests; and physical activity with the Baecke questionnaire and the ActiLog® activity monitor. Statistical analysis included linear mixed model analysis.
Forty-four patients (27 males, 17 females, mean age 14.9 (SD 4.8) years) were included, 27 (61%) underwent limb-salvage and 17 (39%) ablative surgery. Twenty patients were lost during the 2 years follow-up as a consequence of oncological complications. Over the first year, survivors showed significant improvement of QoL, functional ability and physical activity, except for the mental dimension of the SF-36 and the activity monitor results. Over the second year, these improvements were less pronounced.
In the first 2 years after bone tumor surgery, survivors improved significantly with respect to QoL, functional ability, and physical activity levels.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer 10/2011; 58(6):978-85. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To systematically review published studies comparing Quality of Life (QoL), functional ability and/or physical activity between different surgical interventions due to a malignant bone tumour of the leg.
A systematic literature search, covering the years 2000-2010 was performed using the PubMed, Embase, Web of science and Cochrane databases. Studies were included if they described and statistically compared QoL, functional ability and/or physical activity of at least two surgical interventions for lower extremity bone cancer. In addition, the methodological quality of the selected studies was evaluated by using a 24-point scale. Where appropriate, a qualitative analysis or meta-analysis was performed.
The search strategy resulted in a list of 246 citations. Based on titles and abstracts 50 full-text articles were selected, of which 13 articles describing 12 studies, were finally included. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was moderate. Studies were heterogeneous with respect to their categorisation of surgical interventions, average age of patients and average duration of follow-up. Overall, results regarding differences between ablative and limb-sparing surgery varied largely. Meta-analysis was considered to be not appropriate due to clinical heterogeneity, methodological differences and flaws.
Twelve studies comparing the outcomes of QoL, functional ability and physical activity between limb-sparing and ablative surgery groups were identified, with an overall moderate methodological quality. Their largely varying outcomes suggest that no general conclusions on the advantage of either limb-sparing or ablative surgery in patients with malignant bone tumours of the lower extremity can be drawn.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of our study was to compare functional ability and physical activity in children and young adults who underwent surgery for a malignant bone tumor that was located around the knee.
This cross-sectional study included 82 patients aged 8-25 years with a follow-up of 1-5 years. The functional ability and the amount of physical activity were evaluated by means of questionnaires and objective instruments.
Thirty nine patients underwent limb-salvage surgery (24 allograft and 15 endoprosthesis) and 43 underwent ablative surgery (27 amputations and 16 rotationplasty). Patients in the limb-salvage group were significantly older at the time of surgery than patients in the ablative group (mean age 15.2 years vs. 13.2 years, P = 0.03). Apart from significantly better scores for the timed up and down stairs and various walking activities in the limb-salvage group as compared to the ablative surgery group, no significant differences were seen for any of the outcome measures.
One to 5 years after limb-salvage and ablative surgery due to a malignant bone tumor children and young adults do, apart from a few activities involving walking and climbing stairs, not differ with respect to overall functional ability and physical activity.
Journal of Surgical Oncology 03/2011; 103(3):276-82. · 2.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ollier disease is a rare, non-hereditary disorder which is characterized by the presence of multiple enchondromas (ECs), benign cartilaginous neoplasms arising within the medulla of the bone, with an asymmetric distribution. The risk of malignant transformation towards central chondrosarcoma (CS) is increased up to 35%. The aetiology of Ollier disease is unknown.
We undertook genome-wide copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array on 37 tumours of 28 Ollier patients in combination with expression array using Illumina BeadArray v3.0 for 7 ECs of 6 patients.
Non-recurrent EC specific copy number alterations were found at FAM86D, PRKG1 and ANKS1B. LOH with copy number loss of chromosome 6 was found in two ECs from two unrelated Ollier patients. One of these patients also had LOH at chromosome 3. However, no common genomic alterations were found for all ECs. Using an integration approach of SNP and expression array we identified loss as well as down regulation of POU5F1 and gain as well as up regulation of NIPBL. None of these candidate regions were affected in more than two Ollier patients suggesting these changes to be random secondary events in EC development. An increased number of genetic alterations and LOH were found in Ollier CS which mainly involves chromosomes 9p, 6q, 5q and 3p.
We present the first genome-wide analysis of the largest international series of Ollier ECs and CS reported so far and demonstrate that copy number alterations and LOH are rare and non-recurrent in Ollier ECs while secondary CS are genetically unstable. One could predict that instead small deletions, point mutations or epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the origin of ECs of Ollier disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-grade osteosarcoma occurs predominantly in adolescents and young adults and has an overall survival rate of about 60%, despite chemotherapy and surgery. Therefore, novel treatment modalities are needed to prevent or treat recurrent disease. Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes with cytotoxic activity toward virus-infected or malignant cells. We explored the feasibility of autologous and allogeneic NK cell-mediated therapies for chemotherapy-resistant and chemotherapy-sensitive high-grade osteosarcoma. The expression by osteosarcoma cells of ligands for activating NK cell receptors was studied in vitro and in vivo, and their contribution to NK cell-mediated cytolysis was studied by specific antibody blockade. Chromium release cytotoxicity assays revealed chemotherapy-sensitive and chemotherapy-resistant osteosarcoma cell lines and osteosarcoma primary cultures to be sensitive to NK cell-mediated cytolysis. Cytolytic activity was strongly enhanced by IL-15 activation and was dependent on DNAM-1 and NKG2D pathways. Autologous and allogeneic activated NK cells lysed osteosarcoma primary cultures equally well. Osteosarcoma patient-derived NK cells were functionally and phenotypically unimpaired. In conclusion, osteosarcoma cells, including chemoresistant variants, are highly susceptible to lysis by IL-15-induced NK cells from both allogeneic and autologous origin. Our data support the exploitation of NK cells or NK cell-activating agents in patients with high-grade osteosarcoma.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 01/2011; 60(4):575-86. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrence after osteosarcoma usually leads to death; thus prognostic factors for survival are of great importance.
Between 1983 and 2002, the European Osteosarcoma Intergroup accrued 1067 patients to 3 randomized controlled trials of pre- and post-operative chemotherapy for patients with resectable non-metastatic high-grade osteosarcoma of the extremity. Control treatment in all trials was doxorubicin 75 mg/m² and cisplatin 100mg/m². The comparators were additional high-dose methotrexate (BO02), T10-based multi-drug regimen (BO03) and G-CSF intensified-DC (BO06). Post-recurrence survival (PRS) was investigated on combined data with standard survival analysis methods.
Median recurrence-free survival was 31 months; 8 recurrences were reported more than 5 years after the diagnosis. In 564 patients with a recurrence (median 13 months post-randomisation), there was no difference in post-relapse survival between treatment arms. Patients whose disease recurred within 2 years after randomization had a worse prognosis than those recurring after 2 years. Patients with good initial histological response to pre-operative chemotherapy had a better overall survival after recurrence than poor responders. Local relapse was more often reported after limb-saving procedures (2 versus 8%; amputation versus limb-saving), independent of the primary tumour site. Site of first recurrence (local 20%, lung 62%, "other" 19%) affected survival, as patients recurring with non-lung distant metastases only or any combination of local relapse, lung metastases and non-lung metastases (=group "other") had significantly worse overall survival (local 39%, lung 19%, "other" 9% at 5 years).
These data describing a large series of patients with recurrent extremity osteosarcoma confirm the relationship between early recurrence and poor survival. There was better PRS in patients after good histological response to pre-operative chemotherapy, or with local-only recurrence.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 01/2011; 47(6):895-902. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome, complications and survival of the three most commonly used surgical reconstructions of the proximal humerus after transarticular tumour resection. Between 1985 and 2005, 38 consecutive proximal humeral reconstructions using allograft-prosthesis composite (n = 10), osteoarticular allograft (n = 13) or a modular tumour prosthesis (n = 14) were performed in our clinic. The mean follow-up was ten years (1-25). Of these, 27 were disease free at latest follow-up (mean 16.8 years) and ten had died of disease. The endoprosthetic group presented the smallest complication rate of 21% (n =1), compared to 40% (n = 4) in the allograft-prosthesis composite and 62% (n = 8) in the osteoarticular allograft group. Only one revision was performed in the endoprosthetic group, in a case of shoulder instability. Infection after revision (n = 3), pseudoarthrosis (n = 2), fracture of the allograft (n = 3) and shoulder instability (n = 4) were the major complications of allograft use in general. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significantly better implant survival for the endoprosthetic group (log-rank p = 0.002). At final follow-up the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society scores were an average of 72% for the allograft-prosthetic composite (n = 7, median follow-up 17 years), 76% for the osteoarticular allograft (n = 3, 19 years) and 77% for the endoprosthetic reconstruction (n = 10, 5 years) groups. An endoprosthetic reconstruction after transarticular proximal humeral resection resulted in the lowest complication rate, highest implant survival and comparable functional results when compared to allograft-prosthesis composite and osteoarticular allograft use. We believe that the surgical approach that best preserves the abductor mechanism and provides sufficient surgical exposure for tumour resection contributed to better functional results and glenohumeral stability in the endoprosthetic group.
International Orthopaedics 11/2010; 35(9):1375-80. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents after malignant bone tumor surgery of the leg with healthy controls.
Patients between 8 and 25 years old were cross-sectional recruited. Patients under 16 years of age received the TNO (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research) and AZL (Leiden University Medical Center) Children's Quality of Life Questionnaire (TACQOL), patients aged 16 years and older received the TNO-AZL Questionnaire for Adult's Quality of Life (TAAQOL) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Three age- and sex-matched normative random samples, drawn from large, nationwide studies, were used for the comparison with healthy controls. Patients were interviewed regarding their most important problems related to the disease and its treatment.
Eighty-one patients with a mean age of 16.9 years (SD 4.2) were included (41 female). Limb sparing surgery was executed in 38 patients, ablative surgery in 43 patients. In comparison with healthy controls, patients had significantly poorer HRQoL within the domains autonomy and motor function of the TACQOL, gross motor function, cognitive functioning, daily functioning and sexuality of the TAAQOL, and physical functioning, role physical, general health, and the physical and mental component summary scales of the SF-36. Patients reported limitations in physical activities, participation in sports, and cosmetic aspects as the most detrimental consequences of their disease and its treatment.
In children and adolescents who underwent surgery for a malignant tumor of the leg physical, functioning was significantly impaired as compared to healthy controls.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer 05/2010; 54(5):738-45. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chondrosarcomas are notorious for their resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, indicating there are no curative treatment possibilities for patients with inoperable or metastatic disease. We therefore explored the existence of molecular targets for systemic treatment of chondrosarcoma using kinome profiling. Peptide array was performed for four chondrosarcoma cell lines and nine primary chondrosarcoma cultures with GIST882, MSCs, and colorectal cancer cell lines as controls. Activity of kinases was verified using immunoblot, and active Src- and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling were further explored using imatinib and dasatinib on chondrosarcoma in vitro. The AKT1/GSK3B pathway was clearly active in chondrosarcoma. In addition, the PDGFR pathway and the Src kinase family were active. PDGFR and Src kinases can be inhibited by imatinib and dasatinib, respectively. Although imatinib did not show any effect on chondrosarcoma cell cultures, dasatinib showed a decrease in cell viability at nanomolar concentrations in seven of nine chondrosarcoma cultures. However, inhibition of phosphorylated Src (Y419) was found both in responsive and nonresponsive cells. In conclusion, using kinome profiling, we found the Src pathway to be active in chondrosarcoma. Moreover, we showed in vitro that the inhibitor of the Src pathway, dasatinib, may provide a potential therapeutic benefit for chondrosarcoma patients who are not eligible for surgery.
Cancer Research 09/2009; 69(15):6216-22. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the practical applicability, internal consistency, and validity of the Bt-DUX, a disease-specific Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) instrument. The Bt-Dux was developed to examine patients' individual values of their life after a malignant bone tumor of the lower extremity at four domains (cosmetic, social, emotional, and functional).
Patients were eligible for this cross-sectional, multicenter study if they underwent surgery for a malignant tumor of the leg in a period ranging between 12 and 60 months before the recruitment. Assessments included: Bt-DUX, Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) Short Form (SF)-36, TNO-AZL Questionnaire for Adult's Quality of Life (TAAQOL), and TNO-AZL Children's Quality of Life Questionnaire (TACQOL).
Seventy-two patients (35 male, 37 female), mean age 17 (SD 4) years were included. Limb sparing surgery took place in 32 patients and ablative surgery in 40 patients. The Bt-DUX was completed in less than 5 min and easy to comprehend. The mean Bt-DUX score was 69.8 (SD 15.5), with Cronbach's alpha being 0.92. Domain-total correlations ranged between 0.84 and 0.88 (P < 0.01). Correlations between Bt-DUX Total score and TESS, SF-36 Physical and Mental Component Summary scales and selected TACQOL and TAAQOL scores were statistically significant (P < 0.05), except for the social scale of the TACQOL. The Bt-DUX was able to discriminate between patients with higher and lower TESS scores (P < 0.05).
The Bt-DUX was found to be a practical and valid instrument. Its added value compared with existing HRQoL measures needs to be further established.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer 06/2009; 53(3):348-55. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor genes EXT1 and EXT2 are involved in the formation of multiple osteochondromas, which can progress to become secondary peripheral chondrosarcomas. The most common chondrosarcoma subtype is primary central chondrosarcoma, which occurs in the medullar cavity of bone. The EXT1/EXT2 protein complex is involved in heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) biosynthesis, which is important for signal transduction of Indian hedgehog (IHH), WNT, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. The role of EXT and its downstream targets in central chondrosarcomas is currently unknown. EXT1 and EXT2 were therefore evaluated in central chondrosarcomas at both the DNA and mRNA levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess HSPG (CD44v3 and SDC2), WNT (beta-catenin), and TGF-beta (PAI-1 and phosphorylated Smad2) signaling, whereas IHH signaling was studied both by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in vitro. mRNA levels of both EXT1 and EXT2 were normal in central chondrosarcomas; genomic alterations were absent in these regions and in 30 other HSPG-related genes. Although HSPGs were aberrantly located (CD44v3 in the Golgi and SDC2 in cytoplasm and nucleus), this was not caused by mutation. WNT signaling negatively correlated with increasing histological grade, whereas TGF-beta positively correlated with increasing histological grade. IHH signaling was active, and inhibition decreased cell viability in one of six cell lines. Our data suggest that, despite normal EXT in central chondrosarcomas, HSPGs and HSPG-dependent signaling are affected in both central and peripheral chondrosarcomas.
American Journal Of Pathology 02/2009; 174(3):979-88. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chondrosarcomas are highly resistant to conventional radiation and chemotherapy, and surgical removal is the only option for curative treatment. Consequently, there is nothing to offer patients with inoperable tumours and metastatic disease. The aim of this study is to investigate genes involved in cell cycle control: CDK4, CDKN2A/p16, cyclin D1, p21, p53, MDM2 and c-MYC, which may point towards new therapeutic strategies. The pRb pathway was targeted using CDKN2A/p16 overexpressing vectors and shRNA against CDK4 in chondrosarcoma cell lines OUMS27, SW1353, and CH2879. Cell survival and proliferation were assessed. CDK4, MDM2 and c-MYC expression levels were investigated by qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 34 fresh frozen and 90 FFPE samples of enchondroma and chondrosarcoma patients. On a subset of 29 high-grade chondrosarcomas IHC for cyclin D1, p21 and p53 was performed. The overexpression of CDKN2A/p16 and knockdown of CDK4 by shRNA in OUMS27, SW1353 and CH2879 resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability and proliferation and a decreased ability to form colonies in vitro. Expression of CDK4 and MDM2 was associated with high-grade chondrosarcoma both at the mRNA and protein level. Combining these results with the expression of cyclin D1 and the previously shown loss of CDKN2A/p16 expression show that the majority (96%; 28/29) of high-grade chondrosarcomas contain alterations in the pRb pathway. This suggests a role for the use of CDK4 inhibitors as a treatment of metastatic or inoperable high-grade chondrosarcoma.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 07/2008; 13(9A):2843-52. · 4.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review provides an overview of the histopathology, classification, diagnostic procedures, and therapy of skeletal chondrosarcoma. Chondrosarcomas that arise de novo are primary chondrosarcomas, whereas chondrosarcomas developing superimposed on pre-existing benign cartilage neoplasms such as enchondromas or osteochondromas are referred to as secondary chondrosarcomas. Conventional chondrosarcomas can be categorized according to their location in bone into central, peripheral, and juxtacortical chondrosarcomas. Histological grading is related to prognosis; however, it is also subject to interobserver variability. Rare subtypes of chondrosarcoma, including dedifferentiated, mesenchymal, and clear cell chondrosarcoma, are discussed as well. Magnetic resonance imaging is necessary to delineate the extent of the intraosseous and soft tissue involvement preoperatively. Computed tomography is especially recommended in the pelvis and other flat bones where it may be difficult to discern the pattern of bone destruction and the presence of matrix mineralization. Wide, en-bloc excision is the preferred surgical treatment in intermediate- and high-grade chondrosarcoma. In low-grade chondrosarcoma confined to the bone, extensive intralesional curettage followed by local adjuvant treatment and filling the cavity with bone graft has promising long-term clinical results and satisfactory local control. Chondrosarcomas are relatively radiotherapy resistant; therefore, doses >60 Gy are needed in attempts to achieve local control after incomplete resection. Irradiation with protons or other charged particles seems beneficial in this curative situation. Chemotherapy is only possibly effective in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, and is of uncertain value in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. Potential new systemic treatment targets are being discussed.
The Oncologist 04/2008; 13(3):320-9. · 4.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the heterogeneity of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics in primary lymphoma of bone (PLB), in particular the non-aggressive appearance.
In a retrospective study, MR imaging features were analyzed in 29 patients with histologically proven PLB. The following parameters were evaluated: tumor size, bone marrow and extension into soft tissues, signal characteristics of bone marrow and soft-tissue components, including enhancement, and involvement of cortical bone (complete disruption, focal destruction, permeative destruction and cortical thickening).
PLB presented with extension into the soft tissue in 22 (76%) of 29 patients, was only subtle in three of these 22 patients, and was absent in seven patients. Signal intensity (SI) of the soft-tissue part was most frequently homogeneously isointense with muscle on T1-weighted images (90%) and high on T2-weighted images (91%). Enhancement was predominantly homogeneous and diffuse (82%). In 93% of patients cortical bone appeared abnormal: among those patients complete cortical disruption was seen in 28%, with extension into soft tissues in all but one patient; a permeative pattern of destruction was present in 52% of patients, 66% of these had an associated soft-tissue mass. Two patients with normal-appearing cortical bone had no extension into soft tissues. In two patients focal cortical destruction was noticed; in one patient cortical bone was homogeneously thickened, and in one patient PLB was selectively localized within the cortical bone. SI of the bone marrow tumor component was more frequently heterogeneous (in 54%), compared with the soft-tissue component, being high on T2-weighted images in 89%, intermediate in 7% and low in 4%. Similarly, enhancement was heterogeneous in 59%.
The MR imaging appearance of PLB is variable. In 31% of PLB patients, the tumor was intra-osseous, with linear cortical signal abnormalities or even normal-appearing or thickened cortical bone without soft-tissue mass, and, as such, PLB may not infrequently look non-aggressive on MR imaging.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chondroblastoma (CB) and chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) are benign tumors of bone morphologically recapitulating cartilage differentiation. CMF can resemble high-grade central chondrosarcoma (HGCCS) because of its cellular atypia. The mechanism that drives this morphologic spectrum of cartilage differentiation is unclear.
CMFs and CBs were hybridized on a complementary DNA microarray that was enriched for cartilage-specific genes. Data were analyzed by Linear Model for Microarray Analysis and were compared with previous data on osteochondromas and HGCCS. Verification was performed in an extended series.
None of the 68 genes that were differentially expressed in CB versus CMF, including several extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-degradation genes, were related specifically to cartilage. Perlecan, versican, collagen 4A2 (Col4A2), and cell-cell adhesion genes, such as CD166, were significantly higher in CMF. Sixty genes were expressed differentially in CMF versus HGCCS. Higher expression levels of CD166, cyclin D1 (CCND1), and p16INK4A were observed in CMF.
The current findings indicated that differential expression of adhesion and ECM molecules, such as CD166, versican, perlecan, and Col4A2, may interfere with cartilaginous differentiation. The decreased expression of CCND1, p16INK4A, and CD166 in HGCCS reflects impairment of cell cycle progression and of cell-cell adhesions in malignant tumors and is of use in the differential diagnosis of CMF.
Cancer 08/2007; 110(2):385-94. · 5.20 Impact Factor