[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The associations between visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability and cardiac function and carotid atherosclerosis is not clear.
Study subjects were 144 subjects (80 were female, aged 73 +/- 9 years) who underwent echocardiography and cervical ultrasonography. The ratio of early ventricular filling velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e'), ejection fraction, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and maximum intima-media thickness (max-IMT) of the carotid artery were compared between the highest (high variability) and lowest (low variability) tertiles of the standard deviation of systolic BP (9.9 +/- 3.5 mmHg).
E/e' and max-IMT were significantly greater in the high variability group than in the low variability group after adjusting for age, sex, baseline systolic BP, and other covariates (high variability vs. low variability; E/e': 13.03 +/- 5.33 vs. 10.66 +/- 3.30, multivariate-adjusted difference (beta) = 1.82, 95% confidence interval 0.06-3.58; max-IMT: 1.65 +/- 0.43 mm vs. 1.42 +/- 0.46 mm, beta = 0.20 mm, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.36 mm). There were no significant differences in LVMI or ejection fraction.
These results indicate that high visit-to-visit BP variability is associated with diastolic function and carotid atherosclerosis, and is a possible risk factor for diastolic dysfunction and atherosclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can predict cardiac events in patients with advanced conservative chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear.
The present multicenter prospective cohort study aimed to clarify the ability of MPI to predict cardiac events in 529 patients with CKD and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) < 50 ml/min per 1.73(2) without a definitive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. All patients were assessed by stress-rest MPI with (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin and analyzed using summed defect scores and QGS software. Cardiac events were analyzed 1 year after registration.
Myocardial perfusion abnormalities defined as summed stress score (SSS) ≥4 and ≥8 were identified in 19 and 7 % of patients, respectively. At the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.2 %) cardiac events had occurred that included cardiac death, sudden death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and hospitalization due to heart failure. The event-free rates at that time were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.81 for groups with SSS 0-3, 4-7, and ≥8, respectively (p = 0.0009). Thus, patients with abnormal SSS had a higher incidence of cardiac events. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that SSS significantly impacts the prediction of cardiac events independently of eGFR and left ventricular ejection fraction.
MPI would be useful to stratify patients with advanced conservative CKD who are at high risk of cardiac events without adversely affecting damaged kidneys.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/2014; 41(9). DOI:10.1007/s00259-014-2781-z · 5.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assessment of regional contraction is considered important for diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). We evaluated the synchronicity in regional contraction and assessed recovery from contraction insufficiency after revascularizations. Myocardial contraction parallel to the left ventricular (LV) wall was calculated using the method called quantification of segmental function by solving the Poisson equation (QSFP) from an electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) single-photon emission computed tomographic (ECG-SPECT) image. Myocardial synchronous contraction was quantified using the synchronous contraction index (SCI), defined as the temporal correlation coefficient between LV volume and regional myocardial shortening. SCI was evaluated in 20 subjects, of whom 10 had CAD and 10 were normal. ECG-SPECT was performed in all the CAD patients before and after revascularization. In the 10 patients with CAD, the mean SCI before the revascularization was 62.7 ± 19.1%, which was significantly lower than that in the normal subjects (95.0 ± 3.0%, p = 0.002). After revascularization, a significant improvement in SCI was recorded (74.8 ± 11.1%, p = 0.01). The territorial improvement in SCI was 12.0 ± 15.6% (p = 0.03). Locations of abnormal cardiac contraction due to CAD were delineated by using QSFP. Therefore, SCI can be considered a valuable index for cardiac function assessment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maximum allowable contrast dose (MACD) calculated as body weight × 5/serum creatinine has been a standard contrast dye volume (CV) used to decrease contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Recent advances in intravascular ultrasound-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can dramatically minimize CV. The safe threshold when using an extremely low-dose CV is unknown. This study was designed as a multicenter, retrospective study of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) undergoing elective PCI. We divided the patients into three groups according to following criteria: (1) low dose, CV/eGFR ratio <1.0; (2) medium dose, CV/eGFR ratio ≥1 and <MACD; and (3) high dose, CV ≥MACD. A total of 100 patients were enrolled. Average age was 74 ± 8 years, 64 % were male and 48 % were diabetic. Mean baseline eGFR was 22.8 ± 6.0 ml/min/1.73 m(2). CV in the three groups was 15 ± 6 ml (n = 18), 69 ± 39 ml (n = 47) and 224 ± 99 ml (n = 35), respectively. The incidences of CI-AKI were 0, 11 and 23 %, respectively (p = 0.02). All-cause death or introduction of maintenance hemodialysis at 1 year was 0, 13.8 and 31 %, respectively (p = 0.01). Extreme reduction of CV to a CV/eGFR ratio <1.0 may reduce CI-AKI and achieve better clinical outcomes following PCI in patients with severe CKD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The relationship between pulmonary vein (PV) potential (PVP) disappearance patterns during encircling ipsilateral pulmonary vein isolation (EIPVI) of atrial fibrillation (AF), and outcome was examined. Methods and Results: A total of 352 consecutive AF patients (age, 61±12 years; 269 men, 76.4%; paroxysmal AF, n=239; persistent AF, n=73; and long-standing persistent AF, n=40) who underwent initial AF ablation were studied. After EIPVI with a double Lasso technique, pacing was performed from the PV carina to confirm isolation of the carina. PVP disappearance patterns were classified into 3 types: A, both superior and inferior PVP disappeared simultaneously; B, superior and inferior PVP disappeared separately; and C, additional RF applications were required inside the encircling lesions to eliminate the PVP after creating anatomical encircling lesions. The relationship between these patterns and outcome was examined. Six groups were defined according to the combination of right and left ipsilateral PVP disappearance patterns. The incidence of A-A, A-B, B-B, A-C, B-C, and C-C was 7.1%, 14.2%, 16.2%, 15.3%, 27.3%, and 19.9%, respectively. AF recurrence-free rate at 2 years for these 6 groups was 96%, 81%, 78%, 64%, 64%, and 59%, respectively (P<0.02). The incidence of a carina isolation was 153/154 (99.4%) for type A, 221/259 (85.3%) for type B, and 145/290 (50.0%) for type C. Conclusions: PVP disappearance pattern during EIPVI was significantly associated with the incidence of residual PV carina conduction and AF recurrence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The findings of our recent study entitled, “Japanese Assessment of Cardiac Events and Survival Study by Quantitative Gated SPECT (J-ACCESS)” showed that myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS) can detect coronary artery disease (CAD) and help to predict future cardiac events in patients with suspected or extant CAD. However, the extent of the benefit conferred by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as an initial management strategy compared with optimal medical therapy remains controversial. Little evidence supports the notion that myocardial ischemia identified using MPS is an alternative target of coronary revascularization to reduce the likelihood of developing cardiac events.
Journal of Cardiology 09/2013; 63(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jjcc.2013.07.006 · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) frequently is induced by sedation during ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). We tested whether or not sedative-induced SDB is associated with clinical sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). METHODS: We examined SDB observed during intra-ablation sedation with a novel portable respiratory monitor (PM), SD-101, in 140 patients undergoing AF ablation without any known SAS. A sleep study was repeated the next night of the ablation with the simultaneous use of the SD-101 and type 3 PM, APNOMONITOR V. RESULTS: The respiratory disturbance index (RDI) during sedation (20.0±7.8events/h) was significantly correlated with the RDI measured by the SD-101 during the night (15.8±13.7events/h; r=0.50) and the RDI assessed by the APNOMONITOR V during the night (12.7±12.3events/h; r=0.55). An excellent agreement was found between the RDIs simultaneously measured with the 2 PMs (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84), especially for an RDI of ⩾30events/h (κ statistic value, 0.82). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the RDI with the use of the SD-101 during sedation to identify the patients with an RDI of ⩾30events/h by both PMs during the night was 0.92. A left atrial diameter of >40mm (odds ratio [OR], 4.10) and an RDI during sedation of >20events/h (OR, 17.75) were independently associated with having an RDI of ⩾30events/h with both PMs during the night. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent episodes of sedative-induced SDB may have a diagnostic value for SAS in patients with AF.
Sleep Medicine 05/2013; 14(7). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2013.04.003 · 3.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although several predictors of an electrical storm (ES) are indicated in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM), whether the severity of the myocardial tissue damage (SMTD) evaluated by myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) has an association with an ES remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinical significance of SMTD for the prediction of ES in IDCM patients with an ICD. METHODS: Thirty-seven (27 men, mean age 58 ± 15 years) IDCM patients receiving ICD implantations for secondary prevention with preoperative MPS were enrolled in this study. The medical history, physical and laboratory findings, electrocardiograms, echocardiograms and MPS findings were evaluated. The SMTD was assessed by the summed scores of 17 segments using a 4-point system (0, normal ~3, severe defect). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 43.9 ± 30.7 months, an ES developed in 12/37 (32.4 %) patients. The SMTD score predicted an ES with a 92 % sensitivity and 56 % specificity, at a cut-off score of 10. In addition, a multivariate analysis showed that the SMTD score remained an independent predictor of an ES (HR 1.09/score 1 increase, 95 % CI 1.01-1.19, p = 0.02). The SMTD score was significantly associated with three indices of late potentials on the signal-averaged electrocardiograms, and was significantly higher in patients with positive late potentials (p = 0.0006). CONCLUSION: SMTD score assessed by MPS has a strong correlation to the late potentials and higher SMTD score may increase the risk of ES among patients with IDCM and an ICD.
Annals of Nuclear Medicine 02/2013; DOI:10.1007/s12149-013-0699-3 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an oral direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran, as a periprocedural anticoagulant for use with ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: Consecutive patients scheduled to undergo an AF ablation were randomly assigned to receive dabigatran (n = 45) or warfarin (n = 45) to compare their clinical feasibility. Both of those oral anticoagulants were discontinued the day before the ablation and were resumed after confirming hemostasis of the venipuncture site. A bridging therapy with heparin was not used in either of the patient groups. RESULTS: Dabigatran was switched to warfarin before the ablation because of dyspepsia in three patients. An occurrence of rebleeding from the venipuncture site was less common in dabigatran-allocated patients than in warfarin-allocated patients (20% vs 44%; P = 0.013). The reduction in the D-dimer level after the initiation of oral anticoagulants was greater in the dabigatran-allocated patients than in the warfarin-allocated patients. The time from the initiation of the anticoagulants to the ablation was significantly shorter in the dabigatran-allocated patients than in the warfarin-allocated patients (43 ± 7 vs 63 ± 13 days; P < 0.0001). There was only one fatal periprocedural complication in a patient receiving warfarin, who had a mesenteric arterial thrombosis after the ablation. CONCLUSIONS: An anticoagulation strategy with dabigatran may surpass that with warfarin in reducing both the periprocedural risk of minor bleeding and a hypercoagulable state, and the time to ablation in patients undergoing ablation of AF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Recurrent in-stent restenosis remains an important clinical issue after a percutaneous coronary intervention even after treatment with a sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. We evaluated the impact of renal insufficiency on the clinical and angiographic outcomes after treatment for SES restenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 74 patients with 76 lesions underwent subsequent revascularization with a drug-eluting stent for SES restenosis. Patients were classified into three groups: group 1 included 29 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate more than 60 ml/min/1.73 m; group 2 included 27 patients with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (<60 ml/min/1.73 m) without hemodialysis (HD) dependence; and group 3 included 18 patients on HD. Clinical and angiographic follow-up was carried out at 8 months. Late lumen loss at the 8-month follow-up angiography showed progressive increases from group 1 to 2 to 3 (group 1: 0.36±0.39 mm, group 2: 1.11±0.61 mm, group 3: 1.30±0.85 mm, P<0.001). Similarly, compared with group 1, groups 2 and 3 had significantly higher rates of major adverse cardiac events (6.9, 37.0, and 38.9%, respectively, P=0.001), primarily because of a high frequency of target lesion revascularization (8.0, 34.8, and 33.3%, respectively, P=0.019). CONCLUSION: Non-HD-dependent chronic kidney disease patients had increased neointimal growth in the follow-up phase after percutaneous coronary intervention, with a drug-eluting stent for SES restenosis almost equivalent to patients on HD, resulting in higher rates of recurrent restenosis than patients with preserved renal function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS: Encircling ipsilateral pulmonary veins (PVs) isolation (EIPVsI) with the double-Lasso technique has proven to be effective to cure atrial fibrillation (AF). However, in this technique, PV mapping with circular catheters may miss a non-isolation of the PV carina. The purpose of this study was to reveal the incidence and clinical significance of a non-isolation of the PV carina after EIPVsI.METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 81 consecutive paroxysmal AF patients (age 61 ± 12 years, 56 men), in whom EIPVsI was successfully performed in one encircling line with the endpoint of the demonstration of bidirectional conduction block between the PVs and left atrium (LA) with the double-Lasso technique. After a successful EIPVsI, pacing from the PV carina was performed and it captured the LA in 17 (21.0%) patients. During a mean follow-up period of 19 ± 13 months, AF recurred in 13 (16.0%) patients. A multivariate Cox proportional analysis revealed that a non-isolation of the PV carina after the EIPVsI was a significant predictor (hazard ratio = 3.91, 95% confidence interval = 1.13-14.16, P = 0.03) of AF recurrence.CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary vein mapping with the double-Lasso technique did miss the non-isolation of the PV carina after a successful EIPVsI, which was an independent predictor of AF recurrence after the EIPVsI. Pacing from the PV carina may be required to confirm the electrical isolation of the PV carina after EIPVsI with the double-Lasso technique.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Whether or not automated scores obtained from myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging using software correlate with the visual interpretations by experts remains obscure. Methods and Results: Eighty-seven consecutive patients with known or suspected angina pectoris underwent (201)thallium stress/rest SPECT followed by coronary angiography and the summed difference scores (SDS) were calculated using Heart Score View software. The SDS was substantially associated with coronary stenosis and accurately detected culprit lesions, because the diagnostic accuracy was comparable to that of expert visual evaluation. Conclusions: Automated scores obtained from myocardial SPECT can help detect coronary artery disease. (Circ J 2012; 76: 2280-2282).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AF Ablation in HD Patients. Introduction: It is not common for patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) to undergo catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to show the outcomes of AF ablation in the HD patients. Methods and Results: Thirty HD patients who underwent pulmonary vein (PV) isolation for drug refractory paroxysmal AF were retrospectively studied, and their AF recurrence free rate and frequency of periprocedural complications were compared to 60 age- and gender-matched control patients not requiring HD. A nonirrigated ablation catheter was used in both patient groups. During a mean follow-up period of 821 ± 218 days, 16 (54%) of the HD patients remained free from AF recurrence without any antiarrhythmic agents versus 47 (78%) of the control patients with an initial ablation (P = 0.013). A second ablation procedure was performed in 12 patients with an AF recurrence, and consequently 20 (67%) of the HD patients were in sinus rhythm compared to 53 (88%) of the controls during a follow-up duration of 747 ± 221 after the last ablation (P = 0.012). Bleeding from the venipuncture site requiring a prolonged hospital stay was identified in 2 HD patients and 1 control subject, while no life-threatening complications were observed in either patient group. Conclusion: Although the success rate of the PV isolation in HD patients was far from satisfactory, it may be considered as one of the therapeutic options for them. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. pp. 1-6).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: : The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) after encircling ipsilateral pulmonary veins isolation (EIPVsI) for atrial fibrillation (AF) differed between patients with non-dilated and dilated left atria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: : We retrospectively studied 292 consecutive patients (mean age=61±11 years, 75% males) who underwent successful EIPVsI for paroxysmal or persistent AF. RASIs' effects were compared between the patients with a non-dilated left atrium of <40 mm (n=178) and dilated left atrium of ≥40 mm (n=114). RESULTS: : During a mean follow-up period of 18.9±12.7 months, AF recurred in 38 (21.4%) and 45 (39.5%) patients with non-dilated and dilated left atria, respectively. A multivariate Cox proportional analysis revealed that treatment with RASIs (hazard ratio (HR) 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.13-0.66, p=0.003), the duration of AF (HR 1.08/year, 95% CI=1.01-1.16, p=0.03), a history of hypertension (HR 2.86, 95% CI=1.21-6.85, p=0.02) and the left ventricular ejection fraction (HR 0.54/10%↑, 95% CI=0.34-0.87, p=0.01) were associated with AF recurrences in patients with a non-dilated left atrium. On the other hand, only the duration of AF (HR 1.11/year, 95% CI=1.01-1.21, p=0.03) was associated with AF recurrences in those with a dilated LA, and RASIs had no effect on AF recurrences (p=0.65). CONCLUSIONS: : RASIs suppressed AF recurrences after EIPVsI only in patients with a non-dilated left atrium.
Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 05/2012; 13(4). DOI:10.1177/1470320312446212 · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the atria induces atrial fibrillation (AF) when applied during sinus rhythm and elicits a parasympathetic response when delivered at sites where ganglionated plexi (GPs) are located. However, little is known about its impact after an electrophysiological study.
To evaluate the impact of HFS on the short-term and long-term outcomes after the ablation of persistent AF.
Thirty consecutive patients with persistent or long-standing persistent AF were randomly assigned to either receive HFS of the left atrium (n = 15) or not (n = 15) during their electrophysiological studies. Patients receiving HFS were examined to determine whether or not a vagal response was elicited by the HFS at sites where GPs were located before and after conventional pulmonary vein isolation without any ablation targeting the GPs. Patients not receiving the HFS underwent the ablation procedure alone. The rate of recurrence of AF within 3 months of the procedure (early recurrence [ER]) and the frequency of that occurring after that period (late recurrence) were compared between the patient groups.
The incidence of ER occurred more frequently in patients with HFS than in those without (80% vs 40%; P = .015), whereas the occurrence of late recurrence was similar between the 2 groups (27% vs 33%; P = .73). In the HFS group, the number of GPs decreased from 3.4 ± 1.1 to 1.5 ± 0.8 after the pulmonary vein isolation (P < .0001), and the decrease was smaller in the patients experiencing ER than in those without.
HFS increases the incidence of ER in patients with persistent AF despite a partial GP modification resulting from the pulmonary vein isolation.
Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 05/2012; 9(9):1386-92. DOI:10.1016/j.hrthm.2012.05.014 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 56-year-old man with atrial fibrillation and complete left bundle branch block (CLBBB) developed heart failure refractory to the initial medical treatment. Both the CLBBB and cardiac dysfunction completely recovered only with an advanced medical regimen for rate control and heart failure. This report describes a case with reversible CLBBB following tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, who was not a candidate for cardiac resynchronization therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:An additional approach may be essential to reduce recurrences of atrial fibrillation (AF) after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). We examined the efficacy of renin-angiotensin system blockers (RAS-B) in suppressing AF recurrences after PVI.
Methods and Results:We retrospectively studied 264 consecutive patients (195 male, median age: 63 years) who underwent successful PVI of paroxysmal (n = 94) or persistent AF (n = 170). RAS-B treatment was performed in 145 patients (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; n = 13, angiotensin receptor blockers; n = 129, both; n = 3). Echocardiography was performed before and 3 months after the ablation to examine the occurrence of left atrial structural reverse remodeling (LA-RR). After a median follow-up of 195 (interquartile range: 95–316) days, AF recurred in 51 (19.3%) patients. A Cox regression analysis revealed that AF recurrence was significantly lower in the patients with RAS-B than in those without (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.41 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23–0.71], P = 0.002). After a multivariate adjustment for potential confounders, the use of RAS-B (HR = 0.39 [95% CI: 0.19–0.77], P = 0.007) and type of AF (HR = 0.30 [95% CI: 0.13–0.66], P = 0.003) were the independent predictors for AF recurrence during the entire follow-up. Although effect of RAS-B was not significant during the early follow-up (<3 month), it was the only independent predictor during the late follow-up (>3 months) (HR = 0.21 [95% CI: 0.08–0.53], P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in LA-RR occurrence regarding RAS-B medication. The use of RAS-B was an independent predictor of late AF recurrences irrespective of an early LA-RR occurrence.
Conclusions:Treatment with RAS-B significantly reduced the AF recurrence after PVI. This benefit became more prominent 3 months after the PVI. (PACE 2011; 34:296–303)