Abel Santamaría

Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Tlalpam, Mexico City, Mexico

Are you Abel Santamaría?

Claim your profile

Publications (121)315.35 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of an acute intrastriatal QUIN administration on cellular redox and bioenergetics homeostasis, as well as on important signaling pathways in the striatum of wild-type (Gcdh (+/+) , WT) and knockout mice for glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (Gcdh (-/-) ) fed a high lysine (Lys, 4.7 %) chow. QUIN increased lactate release in both Gcdh (+/+) and Gcdh (-/-) mice and reduced the activities of complex IV and creatine kinase only in the striatum of Gcdh (-/-) mice. QUIN also induced lipid and protein oxidative damage and increased the generation of reactive nitrogen species, as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2, and glutathione-S-transferase in WT and Gcdh (-/-) animals. Furthermore, QUIN induced DCFH oxidation (reactive oxygen species production) and reduced GSH concentrations (antioxidant defenses) in Gcdh (-/-) . An early increase of Akt and phospho-Erk 1/2 in the cytosol and Nrf2 in the nucleus was also observed, as well as a decrease of cytosolic Keap1caused by QUIN, indicating activation of the Nrf2 pathway mediated by Akt and phospho-Erk 1/2, possibly as a compensatory protective mechanism against the ongoing QUIN-induced toxicity. Finally, QUIN increased NF-κB and diminished IκBα expression, evidencing a pro-inflammatory response. Our data show a disruption of energy and redox homeostasis associated to inflammation induced by QUIN in the striatum of Gcdh (-/-) mice submitted to a high Lys diet. Therefore, it is presumed that QUIN may possibly contribute to the pathophysiology of striatal degeneration in children with glutaric aciduria type I during inflammatory processes triggered by infections or vaccinations.
    Molecular Neurobiology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9548-9 · 5.14 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Nanoparticle Research 11/2015; 17(11). DOI:10.1007/s11051-015-3257-1 · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are cystic, encapsulated, slow-growing epithelial tumors. CPs can be aggressive forms invading and resorting surrounding structures of adjacent brain tissue, where Rosenthal fibers (RFs) are expressed. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of these fibers in human biopsies and compare it with an experimental toxic model produced by the cortical infusion of the oil cyst fluid ("Oil machinery" fluid or OMF) from CPs to rats. For this purpose, the CPs from ten patients were examined by light and electron microscopy. OMF was administered to rats intracortically. Immunohistochemical detection of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin was assessed. In both freshly obtained CPs and rat brain tissue, the presence of abundant cellular debris, lipid-laden macrophages, reactive gliosis, inflammation and extracellular matrix destruction were seen. Ultrastructural results suggest focal pathological disturbances and an altered microenvironment surrounding the tumor-brain junction, with an enhanced presence of RFs in human tumors. In contrast, in the rat brain different degrees of cellular disorganization with aberrant filament-filament interactions and protein aggregation were seen, although RFs were absent. Our immunohistochemical findings in CPs also revealed an enhanced expression of GFAP and vimentin in RFs at the peripheral, but not at the central (body) level. Through these findings we hypothesize that the continuous OMF release at the CPs boundary may cause tissue alterations, including damaging of the extracellular matrix, and possibly contributing to RFs formation, a condition that was not possible to reproduce in the experimental model. The presence of RFs at the CPs boundary might be considered as a major criterion for the degree of CPs invasiveness to normal tissue. The lack of RFs reactivity in the experimental model reveals that the invasive component of CPs is not present in the OMF, although the fluid per se can exert tissue damage.
    Acta histochemica 10/2015; 117(8). DOI:10.1016/j.acthis.2015.09.006 · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thallium (Tl(+)) is a toxic heavy metal capable of increasing oxidative damage and disrupting antioxidant defense systems. Thallium invades the brain cells through potassium channels, increasing neuronal excitability, although until now the possible role of glutamatergic transmission in this event has not been investigated. Here, we explored the possible involvement of a glutamatergic component in the Tl(+)-induced toxicity through the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) in rats. The effects of MK-801 (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) on early (24 hours) motor alterations, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and GSH peroxidase activity induced by Tl(+) acetate (32 mg/kg, ip) were evaluated in adult rats. MK-801 attenuated the Tl(+)-induced hyperactivity and lipid peroxidation in the rat striatum, hippocampus and midbrain, and produced mild effects on other end points. Our findings suggest that glutamatergic transmission via NMDA receptors might be involved in the Tl(+)-induced altered regional brain redox activity and motor performance in rats.
    International Journal of Toxicology 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1091581815603936 · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The brain of children affected by organic acidemias develop acute neurodegeneration linked to accumulation of endogenous toxic metabolites like glutaric (GA), 3-hydroxyglutaric (3-OHGA), methylmalonic (MMA) and propionic (PA) acids. Excitotoxic and oxidative events are involved in the toxic patterns elicited by these organic acids, although their single actions cannot explain the extent of brain damage observed in organic acidemias. The characterization of co-adjuvant factors involved in the magnification of early toxic processes evoked by these metabolites is essential to infer their actions in the human brain. Alterations in the kynurenine pathway (KP) -a metabolic route devoted to degrade tryptophan to form NAD(+)- produce increased levels of the excitotoxic metabolite quinolinic acid (QUIN), which has been involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Herein we investigated the effects of subtoxic concentrations of GA, 3-OHGA, MMA and PA, either alone or in combination with QUIN, on early toxic endpoints in rat brain synaptosomes. To establish specific mechanisms, we pre-incubated synaptosomes with different protective agents, including the endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KA), the antioxidant S-allylcysteine (SAC) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). While the incubation of synaptosomes with toxic metabolites at subtoxic concentrations produced no effects, their co-incubation (QUIN + GA, +3-OHGA, +MMA or +PA) decreased the mitochondrial function and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation. For all cases, this effect was partially prevented by KA and L-NAME, and completely avoided by SAC. These findings suggest that early damaging events elicited by organic acids involved in metabolic acidemias can be magnified by toxic synergism with QUIN, and this process is mostly mediated by oxidative stress, and in a lesser extent by excitotoxicity and nitrosative stress. Therefore, QUIN can be hypothesized to contribute to the pathophysiology of brain degeneration in children with metabolic acidemias.
    Neuroscience 09/2015; 308. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.09.002 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several physiological processes in the CNS are regulated by the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Cannabinoid receptors (CBr) and CBr agonists have been involved in the modulation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) activation. Glutaric (GA), 3-hydroxyglutaric (3-OHGA), methylmalonic (MMA) and propionic (PA) acids are endogenous metabolites produced and accumulated in the brain of children affected by severe organic acidemias (OAs) with neurodegeneration. Oxidative stress and excitotoxicity have been involved in the toxic pattern exerted by these organic acids. Studying the early pattern of toxicity exerted by these metabolites is crucial to explain the extent of damage that they can produce in the brain. Herein, we investigated the effects of the synthetic CBr agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) on early markers of GA-, 3-OHGA-, MMA- and PA-induced toxicity in brain synaptosomes from adult (90-day-old) and adolescent (30-day-old) rats. As pre-treatment, WIN exerted protective effects on the GA- and MMA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and prevented the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation induced by all metabolites. Our findings support a protective and modulatory role of cannabinoids in the early toxic events elicited by toxic metabolites involved in OAs.
    Neuroscience 09/2015; 310. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.09.043 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The adaptation of species to the environment in which they live is accomplished by so-called "clocks" that allow the biological, physiological, metabolic and behavioral system to correct any development during the day. The alteration of those 'clocks' (circadian rhythms) shows a strong relationship with organic disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases. Many studies show that oxidative stress combined with pro-inflammatory mechanisms, play a key role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Oxidative stress is fought by many antioxidant molecules. Melatonin, a hallmark of circadian rhythm functionality, is a natural antioxidant with a circadian secretion pattern. The mechanisms involved in the antioxidant properties of melatonin are complex but its depletion or lack unequivocally leads to cell damage. This process is also linked to the disruption of the circadian rhythm. A disrupted circadian rhythm followed by oxidative stress and inflammatory processes could be the pathophysiological basis for several disorders of the central nervous system. In the current review we will analyze those interactions. We will focus on the relationship between melatonin and its light/dark rhythms of secretion and how the antioxidant properties of melatonin opens a new therapeutic hope against central nervous system disorders.
    Current pharmaceutical design 07/2015; 21(24). DOI:10.2174/1381612821666150706110940 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This simple study was designed to investigate whether acute restraint stress can generate changes in behavioral tests and hippocampal endpoints of oxidative stress in rats, and if the antioxidant S-allyl cysteine (SAC) can prevent these alterations. We evaluated motor activity, forced swimming and anxiety behavior, as well as the hippocampal levels of lipid peroxidation and the activities of glutathione-related enzymes in animals submitted to mild immobilization. The effect of SAC (100 mg⁄ kg, i.p.), given to rats every day 30 minutes before starting the immobilization session, was also investigated. Immobilization (restraint) stress was induced for a period of 6 h per day for five consecutive days. Our results indicate that, under the tested conditions, acute restraint stimulates compensatory behavioral tasks (motor activity, anxiety and forced swimming) to counteract the stressing conditions prevailing, and selectively increased the levels of lipid peroxidation and the enzyme activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the hippocampus also as adaptive responses. SAC exhibited preventive effects in the stressed group as it improved behavior, reduced lipid peroxidation and prevented the increase of GST and GPx activities, suggesting that this antioxidant blunted primary pro-oxidative stimuli induced by restraint stress. Findings of this work also confirm that the use of antioxidants such as SAC can provide effective protection against the acute oxidative damage associated with anxiety produced by stressing conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Life sciences 06/2015; 135. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2015.06.009 · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • Ana Laura Colín-González · Syed F Ali · Isaac Túnez · Abel Santamaría ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic approaches based on isolated compounds obtained from natural products to handle central and peripheral disorders involving oxidative stress and inflammation are more common nowadays. The validation of nutraceutics vs. pharmaceutics as tools to induce preventive and protective profiles in human health alterations is still far of complete acceptance, but the basis to start more solid experimental and clinical protocols with natural products has already begun. S-allyl cysteine (SAC) is a promising garlic-derived organosulfur compound exhibiting a considerable number of positive actions in cell models and living systems. An update, in the form of review, is needed from time to time to get access to the state-of-the-art on this topic. In this review we visited recent and refreshing evidence of new already proven and potential targets to explain the benefits of using SAC against toxic and pathological conditions. The broad spectrum of protective actions covered by this molecule comprises antioxidant, redox modulatory and anti-inflammatory activities, accompanied by anti-apoptotic, pro-energetic and signaling capacities. Herein, we detail the evidence on these aspects to provide the reader a more complete overview on the promising aspects of SAC in research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neurochemistry International 06/2015; 89. DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2015.06.011 · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria (HMGA) is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency. It is biochemically characterized by predominant tissue accumulation and high urinary excretion of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate (HMG) and 3-methylglutarate (MGA). Affected patients commonly present acute symptoms during metabolic decompensation, including vomiting, seizures, and lethargy/coma accompanied by metabolic acidosis and hypoketotic hypoglycemia. Although neurological manifestations are common, the pathogenesis of brain injury in this disease is poorly known. Astrocytes are important for neuronal protection and are susceptible to damage by neurotoxins. In the present study, we investigated the effects of HMG and MGA on important parameters of redox homeostasis and cytokine production in cortical cultured astrocytes. The role of the metabolites on astrocyte mitochondrial function (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction) and viability (propidium iodide incorporation) was also studied. Both organic acids decreased astrocytic mitochondrial function and the concentrations of reduced glutathione without altering cell viability. In contrast, they increased reactive species formation (2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFHDA) oxidation), as well as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF α release through the ERK signaling pathway. Taken together, the data indicate that the principal compounds accumulating in HMGA induce a proinflammatory response in cultured astrocytes that may possibly be involved in the neuropathology of this disease.
    Molecular Neurobiology 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9289-9 · 5.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor involved in neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders. RAGE induces cellular signaling upon binding to a variety of ligands. Evidence suggests that RAGE up-regulation is involved in quinolinate (QUIN)-induced toxicity. We investigated the QUIN-induced toxic events associated with early noxious responses, which might be linked to signaling cascades leading to cell death. The extent of early cellular damage caused by this receptor in the rat striatum was characterized by image processing methods. To document the direct interaction between QUIN and RAGE, we determined the binding constant (Kb) of RAGE (VC1 domain) with QUIN through a fluorescence assay. We modeled possible binding sites of QUIN to the VC1 domain for both rat and human RAGE. QUIN was found to bind at multiple sites to the VC1 dimer, each leading to particular mechanistic scenarios for the signaling evoked by QUIN binding, some of which directly alter RAGE oligomerization. This work contributes to the understanding of the phenomenon of RAGE-QUIN recognition, leading to the modulation of RAGE function.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0120221. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120221 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The benefits of the Mediterranean diet for the general status of human health are gaining attention due to the many antioxidative properties of its several components. As a primary constituent of the Mediterranean diet, olive oil contains an important number of antioxidants, which in turn represent a first line of defense against the noxious actions of reactive species, chemical species involved in aging, and the development of neurodegenerative features in neurological disorders. One of these disorders is Huntington's disease. Evidence collected from experimental models suggests that some components of olive oil could be responsible for the reduction of oxidative stress and the stimulation of neuroprotective mechanisms in the Huntington's disease phenotype, thereby suggesting that these molecules could be considered as potential therapeutic tools against this disorder. In this review we briefly describe and discuss this evidence, highlighting its relevance for a design of therapeutic approaches.
    Diet and Nutrition in Dementia and Cognitive Decline, 01/2015: pages 719-731; , ISBN: 9780124078246
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in a considerable number of physiological processes in the Central Nervous System. Recently, a modulatory role of cannabinoid receptors (CBr) and CBr agonists on the reduction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) activation has been demonstrated. Quinolinic acid (QUIN), an endogenous analog of glutamate and excitotoxic metabolite produced in the kynurenine pathway (KP), selectively activates NMDAr and has been shown to participate in different neurodegenerative disorders. Since the early pattern of toxicity exerted by this metabolite is relevant to explain the extent of damage that it can produce in the brain, in this work we investigated the effects of the synthetic CBr agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) and other agonists (anandamide or AEA, and CP 55,940 or CP) on early markers of QUIN-induced toxicity in rat striatal cultured cells and rat brain synaptosomes. WIN, AEA and CP exerted protective effects on the QUIN-induced loss of cell viability. WIN also preserved the immunofluorescent signals for neurons and CBr labeling that were decreased by QUIN. The QUIN-induced early mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation were also partially or completely prevented by WIN pretreatment, but not when this CBr agonist was added simultaneously with QUIN to brain synaptosomes. These findings support a neuroprotective and modulatory role of cannabinoids in the early toxic events elicited by agents inducing excitotoxic processes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuroscience 11/2014; 285. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.11.016 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fetal intrauterine growth restriction generates chronic hypoxia due to placental insufficiency. Despite the hemodynamic process of blood flow, redistributions are taking place in key organs such as the fetal brain during intrauterine growth restriction, in order to maintain oxygen and nutrients supply. The risk of short- and long-term neurological effects are still present in hypoxic offspring. Most studies previously reported the effect of hypoxia on the levels of a single neurotransmitter, making it difficult to have a better understanding of the relationship among neurotransmitter levels and the defects reported in products that suffer intrauterine growth restriction, such as motor development, coordination and execution of movement, and the learning-memory process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, dopamine and serotonin in three structures of the brain related to the above-mentioned function such as the cerebral cortex, the striatum, and the hippocampus in the chronic hypoxic newborn rabbit model. Our results showed a significant increase in glutamate and dopamine levels in all studied brain structures and a significant decrease in gamma-aminobutyric acid levels but only in the striatum, suggesting that the imbalance on the levels of several neurotransmitters could be involved in new born brain damage due to perinatal hypoxia.
    Neuroscience Letters 10/2014; 584. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2014.09.051 · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 3-Hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), an intermediate metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, has been largely hypothesized as a neurotoxic molecule contributing to neurodegeneration in several experimental and clinical conditions. Interestingly, the balance in literature points to a dual role of this molecule in the CNS: in vitro studies describe neurotoxic and/or antioxidant properties, whereas in vivo studies suggest a role of this metabolite as a weak neurotoxin. This work was designed to investigate, under different experimental conditions, whether or not 3-HK is toxic to cells, and if the redox activity exerted by this molecule modulates its actions in the rat striatum. In order to evaluate these effects, 3-HK was administered in vitro to isolated striatal slices, and in vivo to the striatum of rats. In striatal slices, 3-HK exerted a concentration- and time-dependent effect on lipid peroxidation, inducing both pro-oxidant actions at low (5-20) micromolar concentrations, and antioxidant activity at a higher concentration (100µM). Interestingly, while 3-HK was unable to induce mitochondrial dysfunction in slices, at the same range of concentrations it prevented the deleterious effects exerted by the neurotoxin and related metabolite quinolinic acid (QUIN), the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid, and the pro-oxidant compound iron sulfate. These protective actions were related to the stimulation of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. In addition, 3-HK stimulated the protein content of the transcription factor and antioxidant regulator Nrf2, and some of its related proteins. Accordingly, 3-HK, but not QUIN, exhibited reducing properties at high concentrations. The striatal tissue of animals infused with 3-HK exhibited moderate levels of lipid and protein oxidation at short times post-lesion (hours), but these endpoints were substantially decreased at longer times (days). These effects were correlated with an early increase in glutathione reductase (GR) and GST activities. However, these changes were likely to be merely compensatory as 3-HK-infused animals did not display behavioral (rotation) alterations or morphological changes in their injected striata. Altogether, these findings suggest that, despite 3-HK might exert pro-oxidant actions under certain conditions, these changes serve to evoke a redox modulatory activity that, in turn, could decrease the risk of cell damage. In light of this evidence, 3-HK seems to be more a redox modulatory molecule than a neurotoxic metabolite.
    Brain Research 09/2014; 1589. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.09.034 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Felipe Alconchel-Gago · Abel Santamaría · Isaac Túnez ·

    Actualidad médica 09/2014; 99(792):60-64. DOI:10.15568/am.2014.792.or01
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Melatonin is produced and released by the pineal gland in a circadian rhythm. This neurohormone has proven to be an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule able to reduce or mitigate cell damage associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, and this phenomenon underlies neurodegenerative disorders. These facts have drawn attention to this indole,triggering interest in evaluating its changes and in its relationship to the processes indicated, and analyzing its role in the mechanisms involved at the onset and development of neurodegenerative diseases, as well as its therapeutic potential. Multiple sclerosis, the most common cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults, is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease, characterized by demyelination, inflammation, and neuronal and oxidative damage. In its early diagnosis, it often requires a differential screening with other neurodegenerative diseases with similar symptoms, such as Huntington's disease, an autosomal dominant disorder. The onset of both diseases occurs in the second or third decade of life. On the other hand, cerebral ischemia is a major cause of human disability all over the world. Although a cerebral stroke can occur as the result of different damaging insults, severe ischemia produces the death of neuronal cells within minutes. Changes in melatonin levels have been observed in these processes (Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and cerebral ischemia) as part of their pathogenic features. This review aims to update and discuss the role played by melatonin during neurodegenerative processes, specifically in multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, and cerebral ischemia, and its possible therapeutic use. We also provide readers with an update on the many neuroprotective mechanisms exerted by this neurohormone in the Central Nervous System.
    CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets - CNS & Neurological Disorders) 08/2014; 13(6). DOI:10.2174/1871527313666140806160400 · 2.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, it has been proposed that the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) plays a crucial role in damaging cellular processes, such as neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. RAGE is a multiligand receptor belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules acting as a counter-receptor for diverse molecules. Engagement of RAGE converts a brief pulse of cellular activation into sustained cellular dysfunction and tissue damage. Indeed, the involvement of RAGE in physiopathological processes has been demonstrated for several neurodegenerative diseases. It is the full-length form of RAGE the one constituting the cellular receptor which is able to activate intracellular signals. After the binding of ligands to RAGE, oxidative stress is increased; then, over-expression of RAGE produces vicious cycles that perpetuate oxidative stress and contribute to neuroinflammation by nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) up-regulation. The NF-kB activation promotes the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including RAGE expression, to induce a prolonged activation and promotion of signaling mechanisms for cell damage. Because inflammatory and oxidative events have been demonstrated to concertedly interact during neurodegenerative events, this review is aimed to discuss the role of RAGE as mediator of an interaction between inflammation and oxidative stress through NF-kB signaling pathway.
    CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets - CNS & Neurological Disorders) 08/2014; 13(9). DOI:10.2174/1871527313666140806144831 · 2.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity involves a state of acute oxidative stress, which is a crucial event during neuronal degeneration and is part of the physiopathology of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we evaluated the ability of sulforaphane (SULF), a natural dietary isothiocyanate, to induce the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 (a master regulator of redox state in the cell) in a model of striatal degeneration in rats infused with quinolinic acid (QUIN). Male Wistar rats received SULF (5 mg/kg, i.p.) 24 h and 5 min before the intrastriatal infusion of QUIN. SULF increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels 4 h after QUIN infusion, which was associated with its ability to increase the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), an antioxidant enzyme capable to regenerate GSH levels at 24 h. Moreover, SULF treatment increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, while no changes were observed in γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCL) activity. SULF treatment also prevented QUIN-induced oxidative stress (measured by oxidized proteins levels), the histological damage and the circling behavior. These results suggest that the protective effect of SULF could be related to its ability to preserve GSH levels and increase GPx and GR activities.
    Neuroscience 07/2014; 272:188–198. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.04.043 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Astrocytes are key players for brain physiology, protecting neurons by releasing antioxidant enzymes; however, they are also susceptible to damage by neurotoxins. Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) is a central regulator of the antioxidant response, and therefore, pharmacologic inducers are often used to activate this transcription factor to induce cellular protection. To date, it still remains unknown if cells from aged animals are capable of developing this response. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to determine if cortical astrocytes derived from old rats are able to respond to tertbuthyl-hydroquinene (tBHQ) pretreatment and stimulate the Nrf2-antioxidant response pathway to induce an antioxidant strategy against MPP+ toxicity, one of the most used molecules to model Parkinson's disease. Our results show that, although astrocytes from adult and old rats were more susceptible to MPP+ toxicity than astrocytes from newborn rats, when pretreated with tertbuthyl-hydroquinene, they were able to transactivate Nrf2, increasing antioxidant enzymes and developing cellular protection. These results are discussed in terms of the doses used to create protective responses.
    Neurobiology of aging 02/2014; 35(8). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.01.143 · 5.01 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
315.35 Total Impact Points


  • 1991-2015
    • Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía
      • Clinical Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases
      Tlalpam, Mexico City, Mexico
  • 1998-2002
    • The National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery
      Tlalpam, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 2001
    • Seismological Society of America
      Missouri, United States
  • 1994
    • Metropolitan Autonomous University
      • Departamento de Química
      Mexico City, The Federal District, Mexico