Francine E McCutchan

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States

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Publications (173)960.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) are a high priority for vaccines that aim to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection. Vaccine effectiveness will depend on the extent to which induced antibodies neutralize the global diversity of circulating HIV-1 variants. Using large panels of genetically and geographically diverse HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses and chronic infection plasma samples, we unambiguously show that cross-clade nAb responses are commonly induced in response to infection by any virus clade. Nonetheless, neutralization was significantly greater when the plasma clade matched the clade of the virus being tested. This within-clade advantage was diminished in older, more diverse epidemics in southern Africa, the US and Europe compared to more recent epidemics in Asia. It was most pronounced for circulating recombinant form (CRF) 07_BC, which is common in China and is the least divergent lineage studied; this was followed by the slightly more diverse Asian CRF01_AE. We found no evidence that transmitted/founder viruses are generally more susceptible to neutralization and are therefore easier targets for vaccination than chronic viruses. Features of the gp120 V1V2 loop, in particular length, net charge and number of N-linked glycans, were associated with Env susceptibility and plasma neutralization potency in a manner consistent with neutralization-escape being a force that drives viral diversification and plasma neutralization breadth. The overall susceptibility of Envs and potencies of plasmas were highly predictive of the neutralization outcome of any single virus/plasma combination. These findings highlight important considerations for the design and testing of candidate HIV-1 vaccines that aim to elicit effective nAbs.
    Journal of virology. 08/2014;
  • Journal of Virology 06/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here we explore the association between KIR/HLA and HIV-1 acquisition with different viral subtypes circulating in East Africa. In the prospective CODE cohort (Mbeya,Tanzania) carriers of KIR3DS1 and its putative ligand (HLA-A or HLA-B Bw4-80Ile alleles) showed increased HIV-1 acquisition risk(OR=3.46;95%CI:1.12-10.63;p=0.04) and a trend for enrichment for subtype A and A-containing recombinants (78%vs.46%;OR=4.05;95%CI:0.91-28.30;p=0.09),at the expense of subtype C (11%vs.43%;OR=0.17;95%CI:0.01-0.97;p=0.08).In vitro, only NK cells from KIR3DS1(+)/HLA-Bw4-80Ile(+) healthy donors showed a 2-fold increased capacity to inhibit replication of subtype C vs. subtype A viruses (p=0.01). These findings suggest the presence of an innate sieve effect and may inform HIV-1 vaccine development.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/2013; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial (Thailand, 2003-2009), using immunogens genetically matched to the regional epidemic, demonstrated the first evidence of efficacy for an HIV-1 vaccine. Here we studied the molecular evolution of the HIV-1 epidemic from the time of immunogen selection to the execution of the efficacy trial. We studied HIV-1 genetic diversity among 390 volunteers who were deferred from enrolment in RV144 due to pre-existing HIV-1 infection using a multi-region hybridization assay, full-genome sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. The subtype distribution was CRF01_AE: 91.7%, subtype B: 3.5%, B/CRF01_AE recombinants:4.3%, and dual infections: 0.5%. CRF01_AE strains were 31% more diverse than the ones from the 1990s Thai epidemic. 69% of subtype B clustered with cosmopolitan Western B. 93% of B/CRF01_AE recombinants were unique; recombination breakpoints analysis showed that these strains were highly embedded within the larger network that integrates recombinants from East/Southeast Asia. Compared to Thai sequences from the early 1990s, the distance to the RV144 immunogens increased 52%-68% for CRF01_AE Env, and 12-29% for subtype B immunogens. 43-48% of CRF01_AE sequences differed from the vaccine insert in Env V2 positions 169 and 181, which were implicated in vaccine sieve effects in RV144. In conclusion, compared to the molecular picture at the early stages of vaccine development, our results show an overall increase in the genetic complexity of the Thai epidemic and in the distance to vaccine immunogens, which should be considered at the time of the analysis of the trial results.
    Journal of Virology 04/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Standardized assays to assess vaccine and antiviral drug efficacy are critical for the development of protective HIV-1 vaccines and drugs. These immune assays will be advanced by the development of standardized viral stocks, such as HIV-1 infectious molecular clones (IMC), that i) express a reporter gene, ii) are representative of globally diverse subtypes and iii) are engineered to easily exchange envelope (env) genes for expression of sequences of interest. Thus far, a subtype B IMC backbone expressing Renilla luciferase (LucR), and into which the ectodomain of heterologous env coding sequences can be expressed has been successfully developed but as execution of HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials shifts increasingly to non-subtype B epidemics (Southern African and Southeast Asia), non-subtype B HIV-1 reagents are needed to support vaccine development. Here we describe two IMCs derived from subtypes C and CRF01_AE HIV-1 primary isolates expressing LucR (IMC.LucR) that were engineered to express heterologous gp160 Envs. 18 constructs expressing various subtypes C and CRF01_AE Envs, mostly acute, in subtype-matched and -unmatched HIV backbones were tested for functionality and neutralization sensitivity. Our results suggest a possible effect of non-env HIV-1 genes on the interaction of Env and neutralizing antibodies and highlight the need to generate a library of IMCs representative of the HIV-1 subtype spectrum to be used as standardized neutralization assay reagents for assessing HIV-1 vaccine efficacy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e76104. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The multi-region hybridization assay (MHAbce) for genotyping HIV-1 subtypes B, C and circulating recombinant form (CRF01_AE) was evaluated on paired plasma and dried blood spots (DBS) collected from 68 HIV-1 infected individuals in Thailand. CRF01_AE was the predominant subtype identified using plasma samples (51/62) and DBS (24/27). There was no discordance in subtype designations between plasma and DBS.
    The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health 03/2012; 43(2):333-9. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The U.S. Army initiated an investigation in response to observations of a possible increase in HIV incidence among soldiers deployed to combat. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected U.S. Army soldiers are not eligible to deploy. Combat presents a health hazard to HIV-infected soldiers and they pose a threat to the safety of the battlefield blood supply and their contacts. All soldiers are routinely screened for HIV every 2 years and those who deploy are also screened both prior to and after deployment. Seroconversion rates were estimated for all soldiers who deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq in the period 2001-2007 and all active duty soldiers who did not. Seroconverters with an estimated date of infection, based on calculation of the midpoint between the last seronegative and first seropositive test date, that was either before or during deployment were eligible for inclusion. Confidential interviews and medical record reviews were conducted to determine the most likely time, geographic location, and mode of infection. Reposed predeployment samples were tested for HIV ribonucleic acid. The HIV seroconversion rate among all soldiers who deployed was less than the rate among those who did not deploy: 1.04 and 1.42 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. Among 48 cases, most were determined to have been infected in the United States or Germany and prior to deployment (n=20, 42%) or during rest and relaxation leave (n=13, 27%). Seven seronegative acute infections were identified in the predeployment period. Subtype was determined for 40 individuals; all were subtype B infections. All were acquired through sexual contact. These findings can inform development of preventive interventions and refinement of existing screening policy to further reduce HIV-infected deployed soldier person time.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 01/2012; 28(10):1308-12. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CRF14_BG isolates, originally found in Spain, are characterized by CXCR4 tropism and rapid disease progression. This study aimed to identify the origin of CRF14_BG and reconstruct its epidemiological history based on new isolates from Portugal. C2V3C3 env gene sequences were obtained from 62 samples collected in 1993-1998 from Portuguese HIV-1 patients. Full-length genomic sequences were obtained from three patients. Viral subtypes, diversity, divergence rate and positive selection were investigated by phylogenetic analysis. The molecular structure of the genomes was determined by bootscanning. A relaxed molecular clock model was used to date the origin of CRF14_BG. Geno2pheno was used to predict viral tropism. Subtype B was the most prevalent subtype (45 sequences; 73%) followed by CRF14_BG (8; 13%), G (4; 6%), F1 (2; 3%), C (2; 3%) and CRF02_AG (1; 2%). Three CRF14_BG sequences were derived from 1993 samples. Near full-length genomic sequences were strongly related to the CRF14_BG isolates from Spain. Genetic diversity of the Portuguese isolates was significantly higher than the Spanish isolates (0.044 vs 0.014, P<0.0001). The mean date of origin of the CRF14_BG cluster was estimated to be 1992 (range, 1989 and 1996) based on the subtype G genomic region and 1989 (range, 1984-1993) based on the subtype B genomic region. Most CRF14_BG strains (78.9%) were predicted to be CXCR4. Finally, up to five amino acids were under selective pressure in subtype B V3 loop whereas only one was found in the CRF14_BG cluster. CRF14_BG emerged in Portugal in the early 1990 s soon after the beginning of the HIV-1 epidemics, spread to Spain in late 1990 s as a consequence of IVDUs migration and then to the rest of Europe. CXCR4 tropism is a general characteristic of this CRF that may have been selected for by escape from neutralizing antibody response.
    PLoS ONE 09/2011; 6(9):e24130. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed HIV-1 genome sequences from 68 newly infected volunteers in the STEP HIV-1 vaccine trial. To determine whether the vaccine exerted selective T cell pressure on breakthrough viruses, we identified potential T cell epitopes in the founder sequences and compared them to epitopes in the vaccine. We found greater distances to the vaccine sequence for sequences from vaccine recipients than from placebo recipients. The most significant signature site distinguishing vaccine from placebo recipients was Gag amino acid 84, a site encompassed by several epitopes contained in the vaccine and restricted by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles common in the study cohort. Moreover, the extended divergence was confined to the vaccine components of the virus (HIV-1 Gag, Pol and Nef) and not found in other HIV-1 proteins. These results represent what is to our knowledge the first evidence of selective pressure from vaccine-induced T cell responses on HIV-1 infection in humans.
    Nature medicine 02/2011; 17(3):366-71. · 27.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study ( #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners. We obtained partial consensus HIV-1 env and gag sequences from blood plasma for 151 transmission pairs and performed deep sequencing of env in some cases. We analyzed sequences with phylogenetic techniques and developed a Bayesian algorithm to evaluate the probability of linkage. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between enrolled partners' sequences and a Bayesian posterior probability of ≥ 50%. Adjudicators classified each seroconversion, finding 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) indeterminate transmissions, with linkage determined by consensus env sequencing in 91 (84%). Male seroconverters had a higher frequency of unlinked transmissions than female seroconverters. The likelihood of transmission from the enrolled partner was related to time on study, with increasing numbers of unlinked transmissions occurring after longer observation periods. Finally, baseline viral load was found to be significantly higher among linked transmitters. In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage determination process.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(3):e16986. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dual infection with diverse HIV strains can foster the emergence of recombinants. The resulting increase in viral genetic diversity is a major challenge for vaccine development HIV treatment. In this study we aim to investigate the socio demographic factors associated with an increasing level of genetic diversity among HIV strains in a population of drug-users in Northern Thailand. From 1999 through 2000, 2231 volunteers were enrolled in the Opiate-Users Research in Chiang Mai, Thailand. HIV subtype analysis was conducted among those HIV-1 seropositive (n=347) using a multi-region hybridization assay. Social and demographic variables were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 336/347 (96.8%) of the samples could be typed. 81.8% were CRF01_AE, 3.9% were subtype B, 9.2% were recombinants (mostly between CRF01_AE and B) and 5.1% were dual infections. Dual infections were more frequent among those with a lower education level (AOR: 5.2; 95% CI 1.4-20.3), those who have initiated injecting in the last 3 years (AOR: 3.9; 95% CI 1.1-14.6), and those reporting frequent needle sharing in the last 3 months (AOR: 7.0; 95% CI 1.5-34.1). Both recombinant strains and dual infection were more frequent among those reporting frequent needle sharing in the last 3 months (AOR: 5.3; 95% CI 1.6-17.1). To limit the expanding complexity of HIV-1 strains, early intervention should be aimed at reduction in needle sharing, especially among new intravenous drug users.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 12/2010; 116(1-3):24-30. · 3.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The crucial role of recombination in HIV-1 biology is being increasingly recognized. In vitro studies have shown that up to 30 strand-transfer events may occur per viral replication cycle. Thus, recombination may surpass mutation as a major mechanism driving HIV-1 evolution. Currently, recombinant strains comprise 37% of the full-genome HIV-1 sequence database, including sequences representing 47 Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs) and more than 250 different Unique Recombinant Forms (URFs). Mapping of recombination breakpoints helps establish relationships among strains that are related by descent, such as CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC in China, and sheds light on their origin and epidemic spread. Additionally, unrelated recombinants sharing common breakpoints may reflect recombination hotspots within the viral genome. Here we present a software tool, RecDraw, for the graphical representation and efficient comparison of recombinant HIV-1 structures and breakpoints. RecDraw is a platform-flexible, Java stand-alone application available through = 5&SubServiceID = 6 .
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 10/2010; 26(12):1317-21. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here we explore associations between HLA variation and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and disease progression in a community cohort in Mbeya, Tanzania, a region that, despite harboring high rates of HIV-1 infection, remains understudied. African-specific allele HLA-A*74:01 was associated with decreased risk of infection (odds ratio [OR], 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.80; P = .011) and with protection from CD4(+) cell counts <200 cells/uL in women (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.07-0.91; P = .032) and men (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.01-0.78; P = .020). These associations remained significant after adjustment for linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B and HLA-C alleles. This observation calls for additional investigation of mechanisms by which HLA-A*74:01 may influence HIV-1 acquisition and control of the infection.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10/2010; 202(10):1562-6. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current US military clinical practice guidelines permit emergency transfusions of non-Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-compliant freshly collected blood products in theaters of war. This investigation aimed to characterize the risks of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) associated with battlefield transfusions of non-FDA-compliant blood products. US Service members who received emergency transfusion products in Iraq and Afghanistan (March 1, 2002-September 30, 2007) were tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections using reposed pre- and posttransfusion sera. Selected regions of viral genomes from epidemiologically linked infected recipients and their donors were sequenced and compared. Of 761 US Service members who received emergency transfusion products, 475 were tested for HCV, 472 for HIV, and 469 for HBV. One transfusion-transmitted HCV infection (incidence rate of 2.1/1000 persons) was identified. The pretransfusion numbers (prevalence per 1000 persons) were HCV-four (8/1000), HIV-zero (0/1000), chronic HBV-two (4 /1000), and naturally immune (antibody to HBV core antigen)-nine (19/1000). One HCV TTI was determined to be associated with emergency blood product use. The pretransfusion HCV and HBV prevalence in transfusion recipients, themselves members of the potential donor population, indicates better characterization of the deployed force's actual donor population, and further investigations of the TTI prevalence in these donors are needed. These data will inform countermeasure development and clinical decision making.
    Transfusion 10/2010; 51(3):473-85. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Specific glycosphingolipids (GSL), found on the surface of target immune cells, are recognized as alternate cell surface receptors by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) external envelope glycoprotein. In this study, the globotriose and 3'-sialyllactose carbohydrate head groups found on two GSL were covalently attached to a dendrimer core to produce two types of unique multivalent carbohydrates (MVC). These MVC inhibited HIV-1 infection of T cell lines and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by T cell line-adapted viruses or primary isolates, with IC(50)s ranging from 0.1 to 7.4 μg/ml. Inhibition of Env-mediated membrane fusion by MVC was also observed using a dye-transfer assay. These carbohydrate compounds warrant further investigation as a potential new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors. The data presented also shed light on the role of carbohydrate moieties in HIV-1 virus-host cell interactions.
    Virology 09/2010; 408(1):80-8. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since 1985, the U.S. Department of Defense has periodically screened all military personnel for HIV allowing for the monitoring of the infection in this dynamic cohort population. A nested case-control study was performed to study sociodemographics, overseas assignment, and molecular analysis of HIV. Cases were newly identified HIV infections among U.S. Army and Air Force military personnel from 2000 to 2004. Controls were frequency matched to cases by gender and date of case first positive HIV screening test. Genotyping analysis was performed using high-throughput screening assays and partial genome sequencing. HIV was significantly associated with black race [odds ratio (OR) = 6.65], single marital status (OR = 4.45), and age (OR per year = 1.07). Ninety-seven percent were subtype B and 3% were non-B subtypes (A3, CRF01_AE, A/C recombinant, G, CRF02_AG). Among cases, overseas assignment in the period at risk prior to their first HIV-positive test was associated with non-B HIV subtype infection (OR = 8.44). Black and single military personnel remain disproportionately affected by HIV infection. Most non-B HIV subtypes were associated with overseas assignment. Given the increased frequency and length of assignments, and the expanding HIV genetic diversity observed in this population, there is a need for active HIV genotyping surveillance and a need to reinforce primary HIV prevention efforts.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 08/2010; 26(8):889-94. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The viral load setpoint (VLS) is an important predictor of HIV disease progression, but there is a lack of information regarding the VLS and its possible determinants in African populations. Initially HIV-negative adults from 3 distinct groups(female bar workers, females, and males from the general population)were followed for up to 4 years. The VLS was calculated for 108 seroconverters and associations of the VLS with possible risk factors were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression. The median VLS for female bar workers, females, and males from the general population were 69,850, 28,600, and 158,000 RNA copies per milliliter, respectively. Significant associations with an elevated viral load were observed for male gender [risk ratio(RR) = 1.83, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.14 to 2.93], the expression of harmful HLA I alleles (RR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.13 to 2.66) and multiple infection with different HIV-1 subtypes (RR =1.65, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.66). Bar workers were considerably more often infected with different HIV-1 subtypes than participants from the general population. Our study confirms that gender and the expression of different HLA class I alleles are important determinants of the viremia at VLS, and it also corroborates an earlier finding that multiple infection with different HIV-1 subtypes is associated with a higher VLS.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 07/2010; 54(3):324-30. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little information is available regarding a circulating HIV genotype among high-risk groups in Afghanistan; we describe HIV genotypes among injecting drug users (IDUs) and sex workers (SWs) in four Afghan cities. Participants completed behavioral questionnaires and HIV testing. Western blot-confirmed specimens had peripheral mononuclear blood cells isolated for genotyping. Analysis of recombinants was done by bootscanning and manual sequence alignment. The single SW sample harbored a CRF01_AE strain. Of 10 IDUs available for analysis, all were CRF35_AD and from Hirat. Analyzed subregions (gag p17 and env C1-C5) revealed close homology between the Hirat specimens. Three distinct subclusters comprising two or three strains were identified, whereas two other strains were generally equidistant from previously identified Kabul strains. Results suggest that the nascent HIV epidemic among IDUs in Hirat is largely, if not entirely, subtype CRF35_AD, and the close homology suggests recent infection; harm reduction should be supported to avert further transmission.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 05/2010; 26(5):605-8. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HIV pandemic disseminated globally from Central West Africa, beginning in the second half of the twentieth century. To elucidate the virologic origins of the pandemic, a cross-sectional study was conducted of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains in villagers in 14 remote locations in Cameroon and in hospitalized and STI patients. DNA extracted from PBMC was PCR amplified from HIV(+) subjects. Partial pol amplicons (N = 164) and nearly full virus genomes (N = 78) were sequenced. Among the 3956 rural villagers studied, the prevalence of HIV infection was 4.9%; among the hospitalized and clinic patients, it was 8.6%. Virus genotypes fell into two distinctive groups. A majority of the genotyped strains (109/164) were the circulating recombinant form (CRF) known to be endemic in West Africa and Central West Africa, CRF02_AG. The second most common genetic form (9/164) was the recently described CRF22_01A1, and the rest were a collection of 4 different subtypes (A2, D, F2, G) and 6 different CRFs (-01, -11, -13, -18, -25, -37). Remarkably, 10.4% of HIV-1 genomes detected (17/164) were heretofore undescribed unique recombinant forms (URF) present in only a single person. Nearly full genome sequencing was completed for 78 of the viruses of interest. HIV genetic diversity was commonplace in rural villages: 12 villages each had at least one newly detected URF, and 9 villages had two or more. These results show that while CRF02_AG dominated the HIV strains in the rural villages, the remainder of the viruses had tremendous genetic diversity. Between the trans-species transmission of SIVcpz and the dispersal of pandemic HIV-1, there was a time when we hypothesize that nascent HIV-1 was spreading, but only to a limited extent, recombining with other local HIV-1, creating a large variety of recombinants. When one of those recombinants began to spread widely (i.e. became epidemic), it was recognized as a subtype. We hypothesize that the viruses in these remote Cameroon villages may represent that pre-epidemic stage of viral evolution.
    Retrovirology 01/2010; 7:39. · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have reported an increasing number of non-CRF01_AE infections in high-risk groups in Thailand suggesting a more complex HIV-1 epidemic. This study assessed the complexity of the HIV epidemic among high-risk clients tested for HIV-1 at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic (TRCAC) between July 1, 2006 and February 28, 2007. HIV-1 genotypes were determined from plasma of infected subjects (n = 401) by the multiregion hybridization assay (MHAbce, v.2). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine risk factors associated with HIV prevalence and non-CRF01_AE infection. The estimated overall HIV prevalence was 14.1%: 25.3% among men who have sex with men (MSM), 18.4% among heterosexual women, and 9.6% among heterosexual men. Among the risk factors found to be associated with HIV prevalence were age (25-29 years), risk behavior (MSM), marital status (not single), education (less than high school), and inconsistent condom use. Overall, non-CRF01_AE strains accounted for 18.9% of the infections: 25.3% among MSM and 14.8% and 20.4% among heterosexual women and men, respectively. Our results indicate a concentrated and genetically complex HIV epidemic among Thai MSM. These findings advocate for targeted intervention and prevention measures among high-risk populations in Thailand.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 01/2010; 26(1):5-12. · 2.18 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
960.64 Total Impact Points


  • 1994–2014
    • Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Institute of Human Virology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2003–2011
    • U.S. Military HIV Research Program
      Maryland, United States
    • San Diego State University
      • Graduate School of Public Health
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2001–2010
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Universität Regensburg
      • Department of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene
      Ratisbon, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of Cape Town
      • Division of Medical Virology
      Cape Town, Province of the Western Cape, South Africa
  • 2009
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Surgery
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1991–2009
    • Henry M Jackson Foundation
      Maryland City, Maryland, United States
  • 2007
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      Maryland, United States
  • 2006
    • Phramongkutklao Hostpital
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
    • Mahidol University
      • Faculty of Science
      Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2005
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2001–2004
    • Chiang Mai University
      • Research Institute for Health Sciences (RIHES)
      Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
  • 2002
    • Argentinean National Reference Center for AIDS
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina
    • National Institute for Communicable Diseases
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 1997
    • University of Nottingham
      • Centre for Sports Medicine
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996
    • Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 1995
    • Naval Health Research Center
      San Diego, California, United States