[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although pain is a common symptom of various diseases and disorders, its contribution to disease pathogenesis is not well understood. Here we show using murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis (MS), that pain induces EAE relapse. Mechanistic analysis showed that pain induction activates a sensory-sympathetic signal followed by a chemokine-mediated accumulation of MHC class II+CD11b+ cells that showed antigen-presentation activity at specific ventral vessels in the fifth lumbar cord of EAE-recovered mice. Following this accumulation, various immune cells including pathogenic CD4+ T cells recruited in the spinal cord in a manner dependent on a local chemokine inducer in endothelial cells, resulting in EAE relapse. Our results demonstrate that a pain-mediated neural signal can be transformed into an inflammation reaction at specific vessels to induce disease relapse, thus making this signal a potential therapeutic target.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: KDEL receptors are responsible for retrotransporting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones from the Golgi complex to the ER. Here we describe a role for KDEL receptor 1 (KDELR1) that involves the regulation of integrated stress responses (ISR) in T cells. Designing and using an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-mutant mouse line, T-Red (naïve T-cell reduced), we show that a point mutation in KDELR1 is responsible for the reduction in the number of naïve T cells in this model owing to an increase in ISR. Mechanistic analysis shows that KDELR1 directly regulates protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), a key phosphatase for ISR in naïve T cells. T-Red KDELR1 does not associate with PP1, resulting in reduced phosphatase activity against eIF2α and subsequent expression of stress responsive genes including the proapoptotic factor Bim. These results demonstrate that KDELR1 regulates naïve T-cell homeostasis by controlling ISR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays key roles not only in the immune system but also in a variety of biological processes. It is a primary regulator of both acute and chronic inflammations. Moreover, it has proven an excellent target for clinical treatment, as the anti-IL-6 receptor antibody has been successfully used against autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and Castleman’s disease. In fact, it could be argued that IL-6 is the best example of basic cytokine research extending into clinical application. Here, we summarize IL-6 and its biological functions, with particular emphasis on inflammation and chronic inflammatory diseases, and a recently discovered inflammation control mechanism, the inflammation amplifier (formerly known as the IL-6 amplifier). We also describe a recent finding that indicates neural stimulations can modulate the activation of the inflammation amplifier at local blood vessels, creating a gate for the influx of immune cells into the central nervous system, which suggests the entry of immune cells into target organs can be artificially manipulated by local neural stimulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association studies demonstrated that common variants of solute carrier family 30 member 8 gene (SLC30A8) increase susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. SLC30A8 encodes zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8), which delivers zinc ion from the cytoplasm into insulin granules. Although it is well known that insulin granules contain high amounts of zinc, the physiological role of secreted zinc remains elusive. In this study, we generated mice with β cell-specific Slc30a8 deficiency (ZnT8KO mice) and demonstrated an unexpected functional linkage between Slc30a8 deletion and hepatic insulin clearance. The ZnT8KO mice had low peripheral blood insulin levels, despite insulin hypersecretion from pancreatic β cells. We also demonstrated that a substantial amount of the hypersecreted insulin was degraded during its first passage through the liver. Consistent with these findings, ZnT8KO mice and human individuals carrying rs13266634, a major risk allele of SLC30A8, exhibited increased insulin clearance, as assessed by c-peptide/insulin ratio. Furthermore, we demonstrated that zinc secreted in concert with insulin suppressed hepatic insulin clearance by inhibiting clathrin-dependent insulin endocytosis. Our results indicate that SLC30A8 regulates hepatic insulin clearance and that genetic dysregulation of this system may play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
The Journal of clinical investigation 09/2013; 123(10). DOI:10.1172/JCI68807 · 13.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The IL-6-triggered positive feedback loop for NFκB signaling (or the IL-6 amplifier/Imflammation amplifier) was originally discovered as a synergistic-activation signal that follows IL-17/IL-6 stimulation in nonimmune cells. Subsequent results from animal models have shown that the amplifier is activated by stimulation of NFκB and STAT3 and induces chemokines and inflammation via an NFκB loop. However, its role in human diseases is unclear. Here, we combined two genome-wide mouse screens with SNP-based disease association studies, revealing 1,700 genes related to the IL-6 amplifier, 202 of which showed 492 indications of association with ailments beyond autoimmune diseases. We followed up on ErbB1 from our list. Blocking ErbB1 signaling suppressed the IL-6 amplifier, whereas the expression of epiregulin, an ErbB1 ligand, was higher in patients with inflammatory diseases. These results indicate that the IL-6 amplifier is indeed associated with human diseases and disorders and that the identified genes may make for potential therapeutic targets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The IL-6 amplifier, a positive feedback loop for NFκB signaling, which was originally found to be activated by IL-17A and IL-6 stimulation in non-immune cells, is molecularly a simultaneous activator of NFκB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), functionally a local chemokine inducer and pathologically a machinery for inflammation development. It has been shown that IL-6 amplifier activation in epithelial cells contributes to rejection responses in a mouse chronic rejection model that develops a bronchiolitis obliterans (BO)-like disease. We investigated whether the IL-6 amplifier is activated in BO regions of a human lung graft after allogeneic transplantation. NFκB and STAT3 molecules were phosphorylated in the epithelial regions of bronchi that localized in the BO regions. Additionally, chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and CD4(+) T cells and macrophages increased in these regions. Furthermore, human lung epithelial cells expressed CCL2 after stimulation by IFNγ in the presence of IL-6 and epidermal growth factor via enhanced STAT3 signaling, which parallels behavior seen in the mouse model. Thus, our results suggest that the IL-6 amplifier in the epithelial cells of grafts is involved in chronic rejection after lung transplantation, suggesting that the amplifier may be a valuable therapeutic target to prevent chronic rejection after lung transplantation.
International Immunology 02/2013; 25(5). DOI:10.1093/intimm/dxs158 · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NFκB-triggered positive feedback loop for IL-6 signaling in type 1 collagen+ non-immune cells (IL-6 amplifier) was first discovered to be a synergistic signal that is activated following IL-17A and IL-6 stimulation in type 1 collagen+ non-immune cells. Subsequent disease models have shown that it can also be stimulated by the simultaneous activation of NFκB and STAT3, functions as a local chemokine inducer, and acts as a mechanism for local inflammation, particularly chronic ones like rheumatoid arthritis and a multiple sclerosis. Moreover, we have recently shown that hyper activation of the IL-6 amplifier via regional neural activation establishes a gateway for immune cells including autoreactive T cells to pass the blood-brain barrier at dorsal vessels in 5(th) lumbar cord. Here we review how the IL-6 amplifier is activated by neural activation and the physiological relevance of the gateway to the central nervous system. Accumulating evidences continues to suggest that the IL-6 amplifier offers a potential molecular mechanism for the relationship between neural activation and the development of inflammatory diseases, which could establish a new interdisciplinary field that fuses neurology and immunology.
International journal of biological sciences 10/2012; 8(9):1267-80. DOI:10.7150/ijbs.4828 · 4.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The IL-6-amplifier first was discovered as a synergistic activation mechanism for NF-κB/STAT3 in type 1 collagen(+) cells. This process is marked by the hyperinduction of chemokines and subsequent local inflammation that leads to autoimmune diseases. In this study, we show that IL-6 amplifier activation in grafts plays important roles in allogeneic graft rejection by using a tracheal heterotopic transplantation model that includes bronchiolitis obliterans, a pathological marker for chronic rejection. IL-6, epidermal growth factor, and IFN-γ all stimulate IL-6 amplifier activation, whereas CCL2, a chemotactic factor for Th1 cells, was one of the amplifier's main targets. Interestingly, IFN-γ hyperinduced CCL2 in type 1 collagen(+) cells via the IL-6 amplifier at least in vitro. In addition, we detected IL-6, CCL2, phospho-STAT3, and phospho-NF-κB in epithelial type 1 collagen(+) cells of allogeneic tracheal grafts. These results show that IL-6 amplifier activation in grafts plays a critical role for graft rejection responses after allogeneic transplantation, including chronic rejection. From these results, we consider whether the IL-6 amplifier in grafts might be a valuable therapeutic target for the prevention of transplant rejection, including chronic rejection.
The Journal of Immunology 07/2012; 189(4):1928-36. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1103613 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that zinc ion (Zn) can behave as an intracellular signaling molecule. We previously demonstrated that mast cells stimulated through the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) rapidly release intracellular Zn from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and we named this phenomenon the "Zn wave". However, the molecules responsible for releasing Zn and the roles of the Zn wave were elusive. Here we identified the pore-forming α(1) subunit of the Cav1.3 (α(1D)) L-type calcium channel (LTCC) as the gatekeeper for the Zn wave. LTCC antagonists inhibited the Zn wave, and an agonist was sufficient to induce it. Notably, α(1D) was mainly localized to the ER rather than the plasma membrane in mast cells, and the Zn wave was impaired by α(1D) knockdown. We further found that the LTCC-mediated Zn wave positively controlled cytokine gene induction by enhancing the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Consistent with this finding, LTCC antagonists inhibited the cytokine-mediated delayed-type allergic reaction in mice without affecting the immediate-type allergic reaction. These findings indicated that the LTCC α(1D) subunit located on the ER membrane has a novel function as a gatekeeper for the Zn wave, which is involved in regulating NF-κB signaling and the delayed-type allergic reaction.
PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e39654. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039654 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although it is believed that neural activation can affect immune responses, very little is known about the neuroimmune interactions involved, especially the regulators of immune traffic across the blood-brain barrier which occurs in neuroimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Using a mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we show that autoreactive T cells access the central nervous system via the fifth lumbar spinal cord. This location is defined by IL-6 amplifier-dependent upregulation of the chemokine CCL20 in associated dorsal blood vessels, which in turn depends on gravity-induced activation of sensory neurons by the soleus muscle in the leg. Impairing soleus muscle contraction by tail suspension is sufficient to reduce localized chemokine expression and block entry of pathogenic T cells at the fifth lumbar cord, suggesting that regional neuroimmune interactions may offer therapeutic targets for a variety of neurological diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human SLC39A13 gene encodes ZIP13, a member of the LZT (LIV-1 subfamily of ZIP zinc transporters) family. The ZIP13 protein is important for connective tissue development, and its loss of function is causative for the spondylocheiro dysplastic form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, this protein has not been characterized in detail. Here we report the first detailed biochemical characterization of the human ZIP13 protein using its ectopic expressed and the purified recombinant protein. Protease accessibility, microscopic, and computational analyses demonstrated that ZIP13 contains eight putative transmembrane domains and a unique hydrophilic region and that it resides with both its N and C termini facing the luminal side on the Golgi. Analyses including cross-linking, immunoprecipitation, Blue Native-PAGE, and size-exclusion chromatography experiments indicated that the ZIP13 protein may form a homo-dimer. We also demonstrated that ZIP13 mediates zinc influx, as assessed by monitoring the expression of the metallothionein gene and by detecting the intracellular zinc level with a zinc indicator, FluoZin-3. Our data indicate that ZIP13 is a homo-dimerized zinc transporter that possesses some domains that are not found in other LZT family members. This is the first biochemical characterization of the physiologically important protein ZIP13 and the demonstration of homo-dimerization for a mammalian ZIP zinc transporter family member. This biochemical characterization of the human ZIP13 protein provides important information for further investigations of its structural characteristics and function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is thought autoimmune diseases are caused by the breakdown of self-tolerance, which suggests the recognition of specific antigens by autoreactive CD4+ T cells contribute to the specificity of autoimmune diseases. In several cases, however, even for diseases associated with class II MHC alleles, the causative tissue-specific antigens recognized by memory/activated CD4+ T cells have not been established. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and arthritis in F759 knock-in mouse line (F759 mice) are such examples, even though evidences support a pathogenic role for CD4+ T cells in both diseases. We have recently shown local events such as microbleeding together with an accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in a manner independent of tissue antigen-recognitions induces arthritis in the joints of F759 mice. For example, local microbleeding-mediated CCL20 expression induced such an accumulation, causing arthritis development via chronic activation of an IL-17A-dependent IL-6 signaling amplification loop in type 1 collagen+ cells that is triggered by CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine(s) such as IL-17A, which leads to the synergistic activation of STAT3 and NFκB in non hematopoietic cells in the joint. We named this loop the IL-6-mediated inflammation amplifier, or IL-6 amplifier. Thus, certain class II MHC–associated, tissue-specific autoimmune diseases may be induced by local events that cause an antigen-independent accumulation of effector CD4+ T cells followed by the induction of the IL-6 amplifier in the affected tissue. To explain this hypothesis, we have proposed a Four Step Model for MHC class II associated autoimmune diseases. The interaction of four local events results in chronic activation of the IL-6 amplifier, leading to the manifestation of autoimmune diseases. Thus, we have concluded the IL-6 amplifier is a critical regulator of chromic inflammations in tissue specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.
Frontiers in Immunology 06/2011; 2:22. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2011.00022
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential trace element zinc (Zn) is widely required in cellular functions, and abnormal Zn homeostasis causes a variety of health problems that include growth retardation, immunodeficiency, hypogonadism, and neuronal and sensory dysfunctions. Zn homeostasis is regulated through Zn transporters, permeable channels, and metallothioneins. Recent studies highlight Zn's dynamic activity and its role as a signaling mediator. Zn acts as an intracellular signaling molecule, capable of communicating between cells, converting extracellular stimuli to intracellular signals, and controlling intracellular events. We have proposed that intracellular Zn signaling falls into two classes, early and late Zn signaling. This review addresses recent findings regarding Zn signaling and its role in physiological processes and pathogenesis.
European Journal of Biochemistry 06/2011; 16(7):1123-34. DOI:10.1007/s00775-011-0797-4 · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells are major players in allergic responses. IgE-dependent activation through FcεR leads to degranulation and cytokine production, both of which require Gab2. To clarify how the signals diverge at Gab2, we established Gab2 knock-in mice that express Gab2 mutated at either the PI3K or SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) binding sites. Examination of these mutants showed that both binding sites were required for the degranulation and anaphylaxis response but not for cytokine production or contact hypersensitivity. Furthermore, the PI3K, but not the SHP2, binding site was important for granule translocation during degranulation. We also identified a small GTPase, ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)1, as the downstream target of PI3K that regulates granule translocation. FcεRI stimulation induced ARF1 activation, and this response was dependent on Fyn and the PI3K binding site of Gab2. ARF1 activity was required for FcεRI-mediated granule translocation. These data indicated that Fyn/Gab2/PI3K/ARF1-mediated signaling is specifically involved in granule translocation and the anaphylaxis response.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2011; 187(2):932-41. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1100360 · 4.92 Impact Factor