Tatsuru Okamura

Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (33)55.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Thymic malignancies, comprising thymoma and thymic carcinoma, are rare. Consequently, optimal chemotherapy for advanced thymic malignancies remains controversial. Platinum-based chemotherapy is currently the consensus treatment based on the results of single-arm phase II trials and retrospective investigations. However, comparison of cisplatin-based and carboplatin-based chemotherapy has yet to be undertaken; the effectiveness of the addition of anthracycline also remains uncertain.
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 08/2014; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Thymic epithelial tumor, comprising of thymoma and thymic carcinoma, is a rare cancer, therefore, optimal chemotherapy for advanced thymic epithelial tumor is still controversial. Platinum-based chemotherapy is currently the consensus treatment based on results of single-arm phase II trials and retrospective investigations. However, the comparison of cisplatin-based and carboplatin-based is yet to be done, and whether addition of anthracycline is effective also remains uncertain. Methods: Clinical trials and retrospective investigations of platinum-based chemotherapy were analyzed. The endpoints in this study were the response rates of each chemotherapy. For advanced thymoma, we compared platinum with anthracycline- vs. platinum with non-anthracycline-based chemotherapy. For advanced thymic carcinoma, anthracycline- vs. non-anthracycline-based chemotherapy and carboplatin- vs. cisplatin-based chemotherapy were compared. This analysis included a retrospective study of irinotecan and cisplatin for advanced thymic carcinoma in our institution. Results: The response rate for the 314 patients from 15 studies with advanced thymoma, including both prospective and retrospective data, was 69.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 63.1%-75.0%) for platinum with anthracycline-based chemotherapy and 37.8% (95% CI: 28.1%-48.6%; P < 0.0001) for platinum with non-anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Also, the response rates with anthracycline-based and non-anthracycline-based chemotherapy for advanced thymic carcinoma were similar (40.2% vs. 41.2%; P < 0.89), whereas the response rates with cisplatin- and carboplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced thymic carcinoma were significantly different (52.4% vs. 32.8%; P = 0.0049) in 206 patients from 10 studies. Conclusions: Platinum with anthracycline-based chemotherapy is an optimal combination of chemotherapy for advanced thymoma. For advanced thymic carcinoma, cisplatin-based chemotherapy may be superior to carboplatin-based chemotherapy.
    J Clin Oncol 32, 2014 (suppl; abstr e18556); 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs), which comprise thymoma and thymic carcinoma, are rare cancers with specific morphological and clinical features. Their clinical characteristics and outcomes have gradually been clarified by assessing large-scale, retrospective data obtained with international cooperation. Methods The study is a retrospective review of 187 Japanese patients with TETs who attended our institution from 1976 to 2012. Relevant clinical features of patients with TETs and their tumors, including histology, staging, treatment strategies, and overall survival, were investigated. Differences in survival were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and uni- and multi-variate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Results The 187 patients included 52 patients with stage I, 37 with stage II, 22 with stage III, and 76 with stage IVa/IVb tumors according to the Masaoka-Koga Staging System. As to histological type, five patients had type A, 33 type AB, 19 type B1, 39 type B2, and 15 type B3 thymomas, whereas 68 patients had thymic carcinoma, including 11 with neuroendocrine carcinomas according to the 2004 WHO classification. Either insufficient data were available to classify the tumors of the remaining eight patients or they had rare types. Immunological abnormalities were present in 26 patients, most of whom had thymomas (21.8% of the thymoma group). Most of the patients who presented with symptoms had myasthenia gravis or extensive thymic carcinoma. Secondary cancers were present in 25 patients (13.3%). The overall 5- and 10-year survival rates for thymoma were 85.4 and 71.5%, respectively, and those for thymic carcinoma were 33.8 and 2.3%, respectively. OS differed significantly between stage IVa thymomas and thymic carcinomas. The stage and whether the tumors were thymomas or thymic carcinomas were significant determinants of survival according to multivariate analysis. Conclusion The efficacy of treatments for thymoma and thymic carcinoma should be investigated separately because these tumors differ in their clinical features and prognosis.
    BMC Cancer 05/2014; 14:349. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Heterogenous clinical or biological features are characteristic of thymic carcinoma. Well-defined clinical entities remain unclear because of rarity. The aim of this study was to clarify disease profiles, outcomes, and prognostic factors for survival among patients diagnosed with thymic carcinoma. Patients and methods A retrospective review was conducted of the medical records of 68 thymic carcinoma patients among 187 patients diagnosed with thymic epithelial neoplasms between 1980 and 2013 in our institution. Clinical demographics, histology, overall survival, and factors expected to predict survival were analyzed. Differences in survival were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Results The study included 38 males (55.9%) and 30 females (44.1%). The median age at diagnosis was 63.5 years. The most common subtypes of carcinoma were squamous cell carcinoma (69.1%), neuroendocrine carcinoma (16.2%), and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (5.9%). Masaoka-Koga staging of the 68 patients demonstrated no patients (0%) in Stage I, 3 (4.3%) in Stage II, 14 (20.6%) in Stage III, 12 (17.6%) in Stage IVa, and 39 (57.4%) in Stage IVb. The median survival time for all stages was 36.4 months (95% confidence interval 23.7-56.4); those for stages II, III, IVa, and IVb were: not reached, 65.8, 24.6, and 27.3 months, respectively. The difference by Masaoka-Koga staging was significant (p = 0.04). Overall survival rates at 1-, 5-, and 10- year were 76.3%, 36.0%, and 6.2%, respectively. By univariate analyses, the only favorable prognostic factor for overall survival was surgical intervention (p = 0.03), and, for Stage IVb, lymphatic metastasis without distant metastasis. However, clinically interesting variants did not differ significantly for predicting survival. Conclusion Surgical intervention results in better survival of thymic carcinoma, even in Stage IVb. The survival value of administration of curative-intent radiotherapy, or of identification of “resectability” in Stage IVb patients must continue to be discussed.
    Lung Cancer 05/2014; 84(2):175-81. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phase II NEJ001 trial suggested that gefitinib was active against advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) even in patients with poor performance status (PS). Clinical response among the patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation with poor PS is fair; however, gefitinib does not have as much continued efficacy as in patients with good PS. This study has retrospectively investigated the clinical outcomes of gefitinib treated patients with advanced NSCLC, EGFR mutations, and poor PS. A total of 208 patients with advanced NSCLC and poor PS treated with gefitinib from 2004 to 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Outcomes were studied after stratification for gender, smoking status, histological subtype, and EGFR mutation status. Fifty-two patients (25.0%) with advanced NSCLC, EGFR mutation, and poor PS were treated with gefitinib. The overall response rate was 65.4%. The median progression-free survival, median survival time, and one-year survival rate was 6.6 months, 19.6 months, and 62.9%, respectively. Death due to interstitial lung disease occurred in 11.5% of the patient population. In multivariate analysis, a PS of 4 was independently associated with poor outcomes (hazard ratio=10.5; 95% Confidence interval=1.92-50.19; p=0.0091). Patients with advanced NSCLC, EGFR mutation, and poor PS have poor outcomes in response to gefitinib. However, the indication of gefitinib for such patients will not be changed in clinical practice and oncologists should treat these patients with more careful follow-up since for those with poor PS, therapy may be more toxic than for patients with good PS.
    Anticancer research 11/2013; 33(11):5057-64. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: S-1, a 5-fluorouracil derivative, and pemetrexed (PEM) are antimetabolites that both mainly target thymidylate synthase. S-1 received approval as a therapeutic drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Japan in December 2004, and has been primarily used as a single agent for salvage chemotherapy. To our knowledge, there has been no clinical evidence whether the activity of S-1 is influenced by PEM resistance. Methods: Patients with pretreated NSCLC who underwent S-1 monotherapy were identified from an institutional database. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Eligible patients were classified into three groups; patients with non-squamous NSCLC pretreated with PEM (PEM+) or not (PEM−), or those with squamous cell lung cancer (SQ). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from S-1 administration were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test was used for inter-group comparisons. Impacts of prior PEM therapy on PFS and OS were examined using Cox proportional hazards modeling with variables including number of prior chemotherapy regimens, histological subtype of NSCLC, sex and age (<70 vs. ≥70 years). Results: We identified 125 patients who underwent S-1 monotherapy for pretreated NSCLC. Median age was 69 years (range, 39-86 years), with 31% female. Histological subtype was 82 (66%) adenocarcinoma, 33 (26%) squamous cell carcinoma and 10 (8%) NSCLC not otherwise specified. Number of prior chemotherapy regimens was one in 32 (26%), two in 54 (43%), three in 26 (21%) and four or more in 13 (10%) patients. Among 108 patients with measurable disease, response rate was 12% and disease control rate was 45%. Response rates for S-1 monotherapy as second-, third- and fourth-line chemotherapy were 19% (5/27), 13% (6/45) and 9% (2/23), respectively. Forty-eight patients had received PEM-based chemotherapy prior to S-1 administration. Median PFS were 2.0 months for the PEM− group (reference), 2.1 months for the PEM+ group (crude hazard ratio (HR) 1.11, 95%CI 0.73-1.69, p = 0.6), and 2.2 months for SQ group (crude HR 0.72, 95%CI 0.44-1.15, p = 0.2). Median OS were 4.5 months for the PEM− group (reference), 5.9 months for the PEM+ group (crude HR 0.65, 95%CI 0.41-1.03, p = 0.07), and 8.4 months for SQ group (crude HR 0.76, 95%CI 0.47- 1.23, p = 0.3). Multivariate analyses revealed that only female sex was associated with longer PFS (HR 0.59, 95%CI 0.38-0.91, p = 0.02) and OS (HR 0.58, 95%CI 0.36-0.91, p = 0.01), with history of PEM therapy or histological subtype exerting no influence. Conclusion: Activity of S-1 is unaffected by prior PEM therapy. These results are compatible with recent preclinical findings. Further study is warranted.
    15th World Conference on Lung Cancer; 10/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab requires some unique eligibility criteria, such as absence of hemoptysis and major blood vessel invasion by the tumor. The prognostic impact of these bevacizumab-specific criteria has not been evaluated. Patients with stage IIIB/IV, non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer who started chemotherapy before the approval of bevacizumab were reviewed. Patients with impaired organ function, poor performance status or untreated/symptomatic brain metastasis were excluded before the evaluation of bevacizumab eligibility. We compared overall survival and time to treatment failure among patients who were eligible (Group A) or ineligible (Group B) to receive bevacizumab. Among 283 patients with stage IIIB/IV non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer, eligibility for bevacizumab was evaluated in 154 patients. Fifty-seven patients were considered ineligible (Group B) based on one or more of a history of hemoptysis (n = 20), major blood vessel invasion (n = 43) and cardiovascular disease (n = 8). The remaining 97 patients were classified into Group A. Overall survival was significantly better in Group A (median, 14.6 months) than in Group B (median, 7.1 months; p<0.0001). Time to treatment failure was also significantly longer in Group A (median, 6.9 months) than in Group B (median, 3.0 months; p<0.0001). Adjusted hazard ratios of bevacizumab eligibility for overall survival and time to treatment failure were 0.48 and 0.38 (95% confidence intervals, 0.33-0.70 and 0.25-0.58), respectively. Eligibility for bevacizumab itself represents a powerful prognostic factor for patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer. The proportion of patients who underwent first-line chemotherapy without disease progression or unacceptable toxicity can also be biased by bevacizumab eligibility. Selection bias can be large in clinical trials of bevacizumab, so findings from such trials should be interpreted with extreme caution.
    PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e59700. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of thymic carcinoma have not been investigated in detail because of its rarity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the disease profile, outcomes, and prognostic factors for survival among patients with advanced thymic carcinoma treated with palliative-intent chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of the medical records of 40 patients treated with palliative-intent chemotherapy for advanced thymic carcinoma between 1991 and 2011 in our institution. Clinical demographics, histology, overall survival, and factors expected to predict survival were analyzed. Differences in survival were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. RESULTS: The study included 22 males (55.0%) and 18 females (45.0%). The median age at diagnosis was 58.5 years. The most common metastatic sites at diagnosis were lung (45.0%), lymph nodes (20.0%), liver (15.0%), bone (15.0%), and brain (5.0%). The most common histological subtypes were squamous cell carcinoma (70.0%), followed by neuroendocrine carcinoma (17.5%), and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (7.5%). The response rate for first-line chemotherapy was 47.5%. The median survival time was 24.5 months (95% confidence interval 20.9-43.5 months). Overall survival rates at 1-, 2-, and 5-years were 72.5%, 52.5%, and 17.5%, respectively. In uni- and multivariate analyses, the only favorable prognostic factor for overall survival was response to first-line chemotherapy (p=0.01). CONCLUSION: Response to first-line chemotherapy may be implicated as a potential surrogate for survival in advanced thymic carcinoma.
    Lung Cancer 01/2013; · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are surviving longer since the advent of antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, more patients are developing non-AIDS-defining cancers which increasingly determine mortality. Case Reports: Here we present 2 cases of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated initially with concomitant chemoradiotherapy and antiretroviral therapy. Both patients were male, ages 69 and 66, with known HIV infection and immunologically stable on antiretroviral therapy. Presenting symptoms included superior sulcus tumor with left arm immobility and sensory disturbance in case 1 and right lower bronchus constriction in case 2. Symptoms were controlled by chemoradiotherapy. Conclusion: These cases illustrate that intensive anticancer therapy administered to the HIV-infected population can be tolerated even though these patients seem to be too fragile for both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, especially since the potential benefit remains uncertain. Recent improvements in chemoradiotherapy and supportive care have enhanced tolerance for such therapy. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
    Onkologie 01/2013; 36(10):586-590. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 70-year-old man was diagnosed with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) of the left upper lobe, with a TNM classification of cT4N3M1b (PUL, OSS, BRA, HEP). A single asymptomatic brain metastasis 1 cm in diameter was also identified. The patient underwent four cycles of cisplatin plus irinotecan therapy, with a total effect of partial response. Complete remission of the brain metastasis was also achieved, and whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) was postponed at the request of the patient. Six months after diagnosis, he was admitted to our hospital with a major complaint of dizziness. Computed tomography showed enlargement of the primary lesion and multiple brain metastases. WBRT was started, but performance status did not improve. While undergoing WBRT, the patient complained of blurred vision. The ophthalmologist found a metastasis on the right iris by chance, although blurred vision was caused by detachment of the left retina. Two months later, the patient died of respiratory failure. Autopsy histologically confirmed the iris metastasis of SCLC. Cases of iris metastasis diagnosed before death are rarely reported. Iris metastases are estimated to account for 9 % of uveal metastases. This may suggest that many iris metastases have few clinical signs and are difficult to diagnose. Asymptomatic iris metastases, particularly among patients with SCLC, are thus likely to be underdiagnosed. Ocular metastasis should be considered when a cancer patient complains of visual disturbance.
    International Cancer Conference Journal. 07/2012; 1(3):138-41.
  • Internal Medicine 01/2012; 51(17):2487-8. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer has emerged as a crucial problem among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, contributing to significant mortality in Western countries. Japan has an increasing number of newly infected HIV patients, but clinical characteristics of lung cancer have not been well investigated in Asian populations with HIV. We retrospectively analyzed patients diagnosed with HIV and lung cancer simultaneously in our institution between 1985 and 2010. Data regarding HIV status, characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of lung cancer were evaluated. We identified 13 consecutive patients (all men; mean age, 59.0 ± 10.2 years) since 1985, 7 of whom had been diagnosed since 2008. Mean CD4 cell count was 332 ± 159 cells/μL, and HIV viral loads were undetectable in 8 patients (61.5%) at the time of lung cancer diagnosis. The mean latency from HIV diagnosis to detection of lung cancer was 4.0 years. Histological examination demonstrated adenocarcinoma in 9 patients (69.2%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (23.1%), and small cell carcinoma (7.7%). Among the 7 patients available for examination, 2 patients (28.6%) harbored EGFR mutation. Six patients had stage IA-IIIA, and 7 patients had stage IIIB/IV. Among 6 patients treated with chemotherapy for unresectable stages, 5 (83.3%) achieved a partial response. Median overall survival was 17 months for all stages and 14 months for advanced stages. Toxicities for treatment modalities were largely acceptable. Clinical characteristics of Japanese HIV-infected patients with lung cancer resemble those of Western populations. The prognosis for patients in the metastatic stage was better than previously reported.
    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2011; 17(5):462-9. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thymic carcinoma is a rare, malignant mediastinal tumor that is definitively distinguished from thymoma by its wide extensiveness and poor prognosis. At present, cisplatin-based triplet or quartet chemotherapy with the second generation antitumor agents, referred to as Einhorn's protocol for germ cell tumors, is used as first-line chemotherapy for advanced thymic carcinoma, though an optimal chemotherapeutic regimen has not yet been established. In this retrospective study, the effectiveness and toxicity of cisplatin and irinotecan combination chemotherapy were evaluated over a nine-year period. Patients with advanced thymic carcinoma who were treated with cisplatin and irinotecan combination chemotherapy between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2010, were retrospectively identified from our database and medical records. The endpoints in this study were disease control, response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Significant hematological and non-hematological toxicities were also assessed. Among identified nine patients, disease control was achieved in 8 patients (88.9%), and a clinical response was achieved in 5 (55.6%). The median PFS was 7.9 months, and the median OS was 33.8 months. One- and two-year OS were 77.7% and 55.6%, respectively. Grade 3/4 hematological toxicities were observed in 2 patients (22.2%), and Grade 3/4 non-hematological toxicities were seen in 2 patients (22.2%). No febrile neutropenia or toxic death was recorded. Cisplatin and irinotecan combination chemotherapy appears to be acceptable for advanced thymic carcinoma as first-line chemotherapy with respect to efficacy, toxicity, and usage in the clinical setting.
    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 06/2011; 74(3):492-6. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An asymptomatic 77-year-old woman was referred in 2000 because multiple nodular shadows were found on chest X-ray films on a medical checkup. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed bilateral multiple ground-glass opacities and ill-defined nodules. A transbronchial lung biopsy was performed via bronchoscopy, but the specimens did not yield any specific findings. She was then monitored without therapy as an outpatient. In November 2005, chest CT imaging showed that the size and density of the ground-glass opacities and nodules had increased. In January, 2006 video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) was performed to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Based on histological and immunohistochemical examinations, primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma was diagnosed. She has been followed up without any additional treatment since. Conclusion: Multiple ground glass opacities and nodules are rare chest CT findings in pulmonary MALT lymphoma.
    Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society. 04/2011; 49(4):321-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Thymic carcinoma is a rare intrathoracic malignant tumor, and the prognosis for patients with advanced stage of the disease is poor. However, no definitive chemotherapeutic regimen has been established for advanced thymic carcinoma in front-line settings. The efficacy and benefit of second-line or salvage chemotherapy are also unknown, as few cases or case series have been reported. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of S-1 monotherapy with S-1, a novel oral fluoropyrimidine agent, as salvage therapy in four consecutive patients with previously treated advanced thymic carcinoma from January, 2008 to May, 2010. Two patients achieved stable disease, and two achieved partial response. Median progression-free survival was 8.1 months. Hematological toxicity was mild, but gastrointestinal toxicity led to discontinuation in two of four patients. We concluded that oral S-1 monotherapy is useful as second-line or later chemotherapy in previously treated patients with advanced thymic carcinoma and is a potential alternative choice for patients who cannot tolerate platinum-containing treatments.
    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 10/2010; 70(3):357-63. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: EGFR-TKI yields a long survival period in cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially those with EGFR gene mutations, but the effect is limited. The later treatment strategy is still a large problem. Efficacy by re-treatment with EGFR-TKI is sometimes reported, but its clinical significance is not clear. We reviewed retrospectively 22 cases (gefitinib 11 cases and erlotinib 11 cases) of NSCLC re-treated with EGFR-TKI in our hospital from August 2004 to August 2009. After re-treatment with gefitinib, four cases showed disease control. Efficacy of erlotinib was recognized in the cases in which disease control was obtained by initial treatment with gefitinib. The disease control rate was 36% (4/11) in the gefitinib group and 45% (5/11) in the erlotinib group. Median survival time was 212 days and 292 days from re-treatment with EGFR-TKI, respectively. Re-administration of EGFR-TKI was effective, and therefore is considered one of the treatment options for patients who once respond to gefitinib, until new anti-cancer drugs are available.
    Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 10/2010; 37(10):1907-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are likely to develop intracranial events. Due to the spread of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-infected patients now survive longer, and metastatic non-AIDS-defining carcinoma is increasing. A 49-year-old man with HIV infection undergoing treatment with HAART developed an intratumoral hemorrhage in the right frontal lobe. He was diagnosed as having lung adenocarcinoma and was found to have a brain metastasis with bleeding. After treatment for intratumoral bleeding, a contralateral frontal lobe hemorrhage occurred within a month. The patient underwent a second craniotomy and removal of hematoma, followed by whole-brain radiotherapy. He was then treated with four cycles of cisplatin and gemcitabine combination chemotherapy while receiving HAART. A partial response was achieved, though he developed severe hematological toxicities for which the doses of chemotherapy needed to be decreased. However, as a result of treatment, his activities of daily life recovered gradually. This lung cancer patient had been alive for 17 months despite the coexistence of two disorders with a poor prognosis, HIV infection and bleeding brain metastases from lung cancer. This case revealed that physicians must include non-AIDS-defining cancer metastasis to the brain in the differential diagnosis of HIV-infected patients when they show stroke-like symptoms, and such patients may respond to treatment as well as non-HIV-infected patients with advanced lung cancer.
    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2010; 15(5):515-8. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 56-year-old male patient complaining of productive cough, hoarseness, and fatigue was found to have extensive disease of small cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC), with staging of cT4N3M1(PUL). He was treated with chemotherapy. While undergoing treatment with chemotherapy, he complained of a right visual disturbance, and choroidal metastasis was diagnosed. Because the primary site responded well to chemotherapy alone and the visual disturbance did not worsen, the patient refused radiotherapy to the choroidal metastasis. Two months after the first diagnosis of the choroidal metastasis, while he was receiving the first treatment regimen for SCLC, the visual disturbance suddenly worsened; emergent radiotherapy was started, with a total dose of 40 Gy, given as 2.0 Gy/fraction per day. The visual disturbance never improved, and the patient lost 80% of his right visual field. Within 6 months of diagnosis, the patient became blind in his right eye. The patient died of septic shock related to treatment received during his third chemotherapy regimen. Choroidal metastasis is very rare with extraocular malignant tumors, though it is common with intraocular malignant tumors. Choroidal metastasis secondary to SCLC has a poor prognosis, but in order to maintain quality of life during the patients' remaining lifespan, aggressive treatment would appear appropriate for these patients, because SCLC is a chemo-sensitive cancer.
    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2009; 14(6):541-4. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amrubicin, a totally synthetic 9-aminoanthracycline, was evaluated retrospectively for the treatment of refractory and relapsed small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Retrospective analysis was performed in 32 patients. Amrubicin was infused over 5 min on days 1-3, with courses repeated at 3- or 4-week intervals. Amrubicin was given at a dose of 45 mg/m(2) per day, 40 mg/m(2) per day, 35 mg/m(2) per day, 30 mg/m(2) per day, or 25 mg/m(2) per day depending on medical conditions (patients' age and performance status [PS]), and the dose was modulated according to myelosuppression. The median number of treatment cycles was 3 (range, 1-6). Seventeen patients (53.1%) had a partial response. Median progression-free survival time for all patients was 96 days, and median survival time was 166 days. Grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities comprised neutropenia (78.1%), anemia (65.6%), and thrombocytopenia (50.0%). Febrile neutropenia was observed in 8 patients (25.0%). Nonhematologic toxicities were mild. Treatment-related death was observed in 1 patient. Treatment with amrubicin appeared effective in SCLC patients previously treated with chemotherapy, although it was not necessarily safe, because of myelosuppression. Further research is warranted to investigate amrubicin treatment for patients with SCLC.
    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2009; 14(1):63-9. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since HIV infection and opportunistic infections began to be treated by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of cancers, especially lung cancer increased. The clinical course of lung cancer in HIV infected patients is more aggressive, and little is known about its features or management. We retrospectively evaluated 6 cases of lung cancer with HIV infected patients in Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital. All patients were male and current smokers. Adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma were observed in 3, 2 and 1, respectively. There were 2 cases each of clinical Stage I, IIIB, and IV were each 2 cases. The range of the CD4 cell count was 52-432/microL. HIV infection was confirmed concurrently with the diagnosis of lung cancer or complications in 5 of 6 patients. Some cases treated for both lung cancer and HIV, had a relatively good clinical course. We suggest that cancer treatment concurrently with HAART may be useful for similar cases. Further experience and study are necessary.
    Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society. 10/2007; 45(9):661-6.