ABSTRACT: Genetic heterogeneity at the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) locus influences heart failure outcomes. The prevalence of NOS3 variants differs in black and white cohorts, but the impact of these differences is unknown.
Subjects (n = 352) in the Genetic Risk Assessment of Heart Failure (GRAHF) substudy of the African-American Heart Failure Trial were genotyped for NOS3 polymorphisms: -786 T/C promoter, intron 4a/4b, and Glu298Asp and allele frequencies and compared with a white heart failure cohort. The effect of treatment with fixed-dose combination of isosorbide dinitrates and hydralazine (FDC I/H) on event-free survival and composite score (CS) of survival, hospitalization, and quality of life (QoL) was analyzed within genotype subsets. In GRAHF, NOS3 genotype frequencies differed from the white cohort (P < .001). The -786 T allele was associated with lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (P = .01), whereas the intron 4a allele was linked to lower diastolic blood pressure and higher LVEF (P = .03). Only the Glu298Asp polymorphism influenced treatment outcome; therapy with FDC I/H improved CS (P = .046) and QoL (P = .03) in the Glu298Glu subset only.
In black subjects with heart failure, NOS3 genotype influences blood pressure and left ventricular remodeling. The impact of genetic heterogeneity on treatment with FDC I/H requires further study.
Journal of cardiac failure 05/2009; 15(3):191-8. · 3.25 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We sought to evaluate the effect of the aldosterone synthase promoter polymorphism on heart failure outcomes for subjects in the African American Heart Failure Trial (A-HeFT).
Genetic heterogeneity modulates clinical outcomes in subjects with heart failure (HF); however, little data exist in African American populations. A common polymorphism exists in the promoter region of the aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2) at position -344 (T/C). The -344C allele, associated with higher aldosterone synthase activity, has been linked to hypertension; however, its impact on outcomes in HF is unknown.
A total of 354 subjects from A-HeFT participated in the GRAHF (Genetic Risk Assessment of Heart Failure in African Americans) substudy and were genotyped for the aldosterone synthase polymorphism. Patients were followed prospectively, and event-free survival (freedom from death and HF hospitalization) compared by CYP11B2 genotype.
Of the cohort, 218 patients were TT, 114 CT, and 22 patients were CC. Baseline etiology, blood pressure, and functional class were not significantly different among the 3 cohorts. The C allele was associated with significantly poorer HF hospitalization-free survival with the best survival among TT subjects, intermediate for heterozygotes, and the poorest for CC homozygotes (p = 0.018), and a higher rate of death (% death TT/TC/CC = 1.8/3.5/18.2, p = 0.001). The TT genotype, more prevalent in blacks, was associated with greater impact of fixed combination of isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine on the primary composite end point (p = 0.01).
The aldosterone synthase promoter -344C allele linked to higher aldosterone levels is associated with poorer event-free survival in blacks with HF. The role of aldosterone receptor antagonists in diminishing this apparent genetic risk remains to be explored.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2006; 48(6):1277-82. · 14.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We evaluated the interaction of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy with the effect of the ACE D/I polymorphism on heart failure survival.
The ACE deletion allele, ACE-D, is associated with increased ACE activity. The utilization of ACE genotyping to predict the impact of ACE inhibitor dose has not been previously evaluated.
We prospectively studied 479 subjects with systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction 0.25 +/- 0.08). Subjects were divided on the basis of ACE inhibitor therapy into low dose (<or=50% of target dose, n = 227), standard (high) dose (>50%, n = 201), or those receiving angiotensin receptor antagonists (n = 51). Patients were genotyped for the ACE D/I polymorphism, followed to the end point of death or cardiac transplantation, and transplant-free survival compared by genotype.
The ACE-D allele was associated with an increased risk of events (p = 0.026). In analysis by ACE inhibitor dose, this effect was primarily in the low-dose group (1-year percent event-free survival: II/ID/DD = 86/77/71,2-year = 79/66/59, p = 0.032). In the standard-dose group, the impact was markedly diminished (1-year: II/ID/DD = 91/81/80, 2-year: 77/70/71, p = 0.64). The impact of beta-blockers and high dose ACE inhibitors was greatest in subjects with the ACE DD genotype (p = 0.001) and was less apparent with the II and ID genotypes (p = 0.38).
Higher doses of ACE inhibitors diminished the impact of the ACE-D allele, and the benefits of beta-blockers and high-dose ACE inhibitors appeared maximal for DD patients. Determination of ACE genotype may help target therapy for patients with heart failure.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2004; 44(10):2019-26. · 14.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Significant variation exists within the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) gene that may influence cardiovascular risk. The Asp298 variant of NOS3 has a shorter half-life in endothelial cells. Given the importance of nitric oxide in the heart failure syndrome, we evaluated the effect of this variant on event-free survival in a population with systolic dysfunction.
Four hundred sixty-nine patients (72% male, 49% ischemic; mean age, 56+/-12 years) with systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction < or =0.45) were enrolled in a study of Genetic Risk Assessment of Cardiac Events (GRACE). The polymorphism in exon 7 of NOS3, a G-T transition at position 894 that results in a Glu to Asp amino acid substitution for codon 298, was genotyped and subjects were followed prospectively to the end point of death or heart transplantation. Event-free survival was compared on the basis of the presence (group 1, n=266) or absence (group 2, n=203) of the Asp298 variant. Event-free survival was significantly poorer in patients with the Asp298 variant (percent event-free survival group 1 at 1/2/3 years=78/65/54; group 2=82/72/64, P=0.03). In subset analysis, the adverse impact of the Asp298 variant was primarily in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (group 1=82/73/63; group 2=87/79/71, P=0.03) and was not apparent among patients with ischemic heart disease (group 1=75/59/47; group 2=74/62/54, P=0.71).
For patients with heart failure caused by systolic function, the Asp298 variant of NOS3 is associated with poorer event-free survival, particularly in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy.
Circulation 04/2003; 107(12):1598-602. · 14.74 Impact Factor