Carlota Gudiol

IDIBELL Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (26)85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We sought to identify the characteristics, aetiology, antibiotic resistance and outcomes of bloodstream infection (BSI) in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies (HM) and in those with solid tumours (ST) and assess their impact on empirical therapy and outcomes.
    The Journal of infection. 06/2014;
  • Carlota Gudiol, Jordi Carratalà
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial infection is one of the most frequent complications in cancer patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. In recent years, the emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a significant problem worldwide, and cancer patients are among those affected. Treatment of infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria represents a clinical challenge, especially in the case of Gram-negative bacilli, since the therapeutic options are often very limited. As the antibiotics active against MDR bacteria present several disadvantages (limited clinical experience, higher incidence of adverse effects, and less knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of the drug), a thorough acquaintance with the main characteristics of these drugs is mandatory in order to provide safe treatment to cancer patients with MDR bacterial infections. Nevertheless, the implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs and infection control measures is the cornerstone for controlling the development and spread of these MDR pathogens.
    Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 05/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current information regarding bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients with solid tumors is scarce. We assessed the epidemiology, antibiotic therapy, and outcomes of BSI in these patients. We also compared patients who died with those who survived to identify risk factors associated with mortality. From January 2006 to July 2012 all episodes of BSI in patients with solid tumors at a cancer center were prospectively recorded and analyzed. A total of 528 episodes of BSI were documented in 489 patients. The most frequent neoplasms were hepatobiliary tumors (19%), followed by lung cancer (18%) and lower gastrointestinal malignancies (16%). Many patients had received corticosteroid therapy (41%), and 15% had neutropenia (<500 neutrophils/μL) at the time of BSI. The most common source of BSI was cholangitis (21%), followed by other abdominal (19.5%) and urinary tract infections (17%). Gram-negative BSI occurred in 55% of cases, mainly due to Escherichia coli (55%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (16%). Among gram-positive BSI (35%), viridans group streptococci were the most frequent causative organisms (22%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%) and Enterococcus species (18%). We identified 61 multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms (13%), mainly extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (n = 20) and AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae (n = 13). The majority of patients with BSI caused by MDR organisms had received antibiotics (70%), and they had been previously hospitalized (61.4%) more frequently than patients with BSI caused by susceptible strains. Inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy was given to 23% of patients, with a higher proportion in those with BSI due to a MDR strain (69%). Early (<48 h) and overall (30 d) case-fatality rates were 7% and 32%, respectively. The overall case-fatality rate was higher among cases caused by MDR organisms (39.3%). The only independent risk factors for the early case-fatality rate were the endogenous source of BSI (odds ratio [OR], 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-12.02), shock at presentation (OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.63-8.09), and corticosteroid therapy (OR, 3.245; 95% CI, 1.43-7.32). The independent risk factors for overall case-fatality rate were the presence of a chronic advanced cancer (OR, 35.39; 95% CI, 2.48-504.91), shock at presentation (OR, 25.84; 95% CI, 3.73-179.0), and corticosteroid therapy (OR, 6.98; 95% CI, 1.61-30.21).BSI in patients with solid tumors occurred mainly among those with hepatobiliary cancer, and cholangitis was the most frequent source; gram-negative bacilli were the most frequent causative agents. MDR organisms were relatively common, particularly in patients who had previously received antibiotics and had been hospitalized; these patients were frequently treated with inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy and had a poorer outcome. The case-fatality rate of patients with solid tumors and BSI was high and was associated with chronic advanced cancer, corticosteroid therapy, and shock at presentation.
    Medicine 05/2014; 93(3):143-9. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information on the environmental variables that may affect the incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) is scarce. We sought to determine the relationship between airborne spore counts, climatic conditions, and IA. We also examined whether circulating respiratory viruses predispose to IA in a multicentre cohort study of hospitalized adults with IA. Data on environmental mould spores, climatic conditions, and circulating respiratory viruses were obtained from the Environmental Department of the Autonomous University of Barcelona, the Meteorological Service of Catalonia, and the Acute Respiratory Infection Surveillance Project in Catalonia respectively. Between 2008 and 2011, 165 patients with IA were identified. Diagnosis was based on one or more of the following: culture (125 cases), galactomannan antigen (98), and histology (34). One hundred and twenty-seven cases (77%) had criteria for probable IA, and the remainder for proven IA. Environmental mould spore counts from the period 28-42 days preceding infection presented significant associations with admissions due to IA. None of the climatic conditions were associated with an increased risk of IA, but, the presence of circulating respiratory viruses was associated with a higher risk of infection: the most strongly associated viruses were respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A(H1N1), and adenovirus. In conclusion, the presence of high numbers of spores in air increases the risk of admission due to IA. Circulating respiratory viruses appear to be associated with a higher risk for developing IA. Physicians should be aware of this association in order to optimize prevention and diagnosis strategies for IA during viral epidemic periods This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 04/2014; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted an observational study to assess the etiology, clinical features and outcomes of bloodstream infection (BSI) in 172 hematopoietic SCT (HCST) recipients. One hundred episodes of BSI in the pre-engraftment period (early onset) were compared with 89 episodes in the post-engraftment phase (late onset). More patients with late-onset BSI received an allogeneic HSCT, had GVHD and had received corticosteroids, whereas patients with early-onset BSI were more likely to have neutropenia, severe mucositis and a central venous catheter (CVC) in place. CVC was the most frequent site of infection, followed by an endogenous source. Pneumonia and gastrointestinal infection were particularly frequent in late-onset BSI, whereas mucositis was more frequent in the early-onset group. Gram-positive organisms predominated over Gram negatives. Streptococcus pneumoniae was more frequent in patients with late-onset BSI. Patients with late-onset BSI presented worse outcomes regarding septic shock, intensive care unit admission and early and overall case-fatality rates. Early-onset BSI was mainly related to the presence of neutropenia, mucositis and CVC, whereas late-onset BSI mainly affected severely immunosuppressed allogeneic HSCT recipients with GVHD and corticosteroids. Late-onset BSI caused high case-fatality rates. BSI due to S. pneumoniae was especially frequent late after transplantation. The development of better vaccination strategies is needed.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 24 March 2014; doi:10.1038/bmt.2014.37.
    Bone marrow transplantation 03/2014; · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Aspergillus spp. can cause acute invasive disease in severely immunocompromised patients. Nonetheless, there are few reports of solid tumors complicated with subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (subacute IPA). Methods Retrospective observational cohort study, performed in patients with primary lung cancer or secondary lung metastasis complicated with subacute IPA in three referral hospitals. Results From 2008 to 2011, 14 episodes of subacute IPA were diagnosed, including 11 (78.6%) probable and 3 proven (21.4%). Nine patients (64.3%) had primary lung cancer. Thirteen patients (92.9%) had more than one local or systemic predisposing factor for subacute IPA. No patient had previous fungal colonization. Aspergillus spp. was isolated in 6 specimens of bronchoalveolar lavage, 6 sputum, 2 biopsies, and 1 percutaneous lung puncture. At the time Aspergillus spp. was isolated, the most common radiologic findings on chest computed tomography (CT) were cavitary masses, and development or expansion of cavitation in existing masses or nodules (10/14, 71.4%). On CT follow-up, most patients (8/12, 66.7%) had new cavity formation or expansion of one or more existing cavities. All patients were treated with azoles and two underwent surgery. Ten (71.4%) patients died after Aspergillus spp. was detected (median time 73 days, IQR 33-243): 2 (20%) deaths were subacute IPA-attributable and 6 (60%) were related. Conclusions Primary lung cancer and secondary lung metastasis seem to be triggering factors for Aspergillus spp. implantation, and predispose to subacute IPA. Once localized in the damaged lung, the mold can grow and cause or expand cavities. In lung cancer patients, Aspergillus spp. detection is associated with a very poor prognosis
    Journal of Infection. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Infection due to the six ESKAPE pathogens has recently been identified as a serious emerging problem. However, there is still a lack of information on bacteremia caused by these organisms in cancer patients. We aimed to assess the epidemiology, antibiotic therapy and outcomes of bacteremia due to drug-resistant ESKAPE pathogens (rESKAPE) in patients with cancer. All episodes of bacteremia prospectively documented in hospitalized adults with cancer from 2006 to 2011 were analyzed. Of 1,148 episodes of bacteremia, 392 (34 %) were caused by ESKAPE pathogens. Fifty-four episodes (4.7 %) were due to rESKAPE strains (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium 0, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 13, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESLB)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae 7, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii 4, carbapenem- and quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18 and derepression chromosomic ß-lactam and ESBL-producing Enterobacter species 12. Risk factors independently associated with rESKAPE bacteremia were comorbidities, prior antibiotic therapy, urinary catheter and urinary tract source. Inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was more frequent in patients with rESKAPE bacteremia than in the other cases (55.6 % vs. 21.5 %, p < 0.001). Persistence of bacteremia (25 % vs. 9.7 %), septic metastasis (8 % vs. 4 %) and early case-fatality rate (23 % vs. 11 %) were more frequent in patients with rESKAPE bacteremia than in patients with other etiologies (p < 0.05). Bacteremia due to rESKAPE pathogens in cancer patients occurs mainly among those with comorbidities who have received prior antibiotic therapy and have a urinary tract source. These patients often receive inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy and have a poor outcome.
    Supportive Care in Cancer 10/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Statins have immunomodulatory properties and hinder Candida growth. However, it is unknown whether they may improve prognosis in patients with candidemia. We sought to determine the effect of prior statin use on the clinical outcomes of patients suffering candidemia. Multicenter cohort study of hospitalized adults with candidemia between 2005 and 2011 in six hospitals in Spain, Brazil and Argentina. Of 326 candidemias, 44 (13.5%) occurred in statin users and 282 (86.5%) in statin non-users. The median value of APACHE II at candidemia diagnosis was similar between groups (18 vs. 16; p=.36). Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species, followed by C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei. There were no differences regarding appropriate empirical antifungal treatment. Statin users had a lower early (5 d) case-fatality rate than non-users (4.5 vs. 17%; p=.031). This effect was not observed with other cardiovascular drugs (aspirin, beta blockers and ACE inhibitors). Independent factor related to early case-fatality rate was APACHE II score (AOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14; p=.002). An appropriate empirical antifungal therapy (AOR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.04-0.26; p=<.001) and prior statin use were independently associated with lower early case-fatality (AOR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03-0.93; p=.041). Fourteen days (14d) and overall (30d) case-fatality rates were similar between groups (27% vs. 29%; p=0.77 and 40% vs. 44%; p=.66). The use of statins might have a beneficial effect on outcomes of patients with candidemia. This hypothesis deserves further evaluation in randomized trials.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77317. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a prospective study to assess the risk factors, molecular epidemiology and outcome of bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Enterococcus faecium in hospitalized cancer patients. Between 2006 and 2012, a significant increase in vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium BSI was observed among cancer patients. Comparison of 54 episodes of BSI due to E. faecium with 38 episodes of BSI due to E. faecalis showed that previous use of carbapenems was the only independent risk factor for E. faecium acquisition (OR 10.24; 95% CI, 1.35-77.66). All E. faecium isolates were susceptible to glycopeptides, whereas 97% showed high-level resistance to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. All 30 isolates available for genotyping belonged to the hospital-associated E. faecium lineages 17, 18 and 78. After 2009, most of the isolates belonged to ST117 (lineage 78). Patients with E. faecium BSI were more likely to receive inadequate initial empirical antibiotic therapy than patients with E. faecalis BSI, and time to adequate empirical antibiotic therapy was also longer in the former group. No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding early and overall case-fatality rates. Independent risk factors for overall case-fatality were current corticosteroids (OR 4.18; 95% CI, 1.34-13.01) and intensive care unit admission (OR 9.97; 95% CI, 1.96-50.63). The emergence of E. faecium among cancer patients is a concern since there are limited treatment options and it may presage the emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. A rationale approach that combines infection control with antimicrobial stewardship.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74734. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: In the current era of changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease, we aimed to assess the clinical features, antimicrobial susceptibility, vaccination status, serotypes, genotypes and outcomes of pneumococcal bacteremia in cancer patients. METHODS: Prospective observational analysis of all consecutive cancer adults admitted to a university hospital (January 2006-April 2011). RESULTS: Of 971 episodes of bacteremia, 63 (6.5%) were caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumonia was the most common source of pneumococcal bacteremia (84.1%). Although all isolated pneumococci were penicillin-susceptible, resistance to ceftazidime was high (43%). The serotypes most frequently isolated were 19A and 14, and the most common genotypes were Spain(9V)-ST156 and Denmark(14)-ST230. Only 23% of patients had received the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine. This polysaccharide vaccine was found to cover 72.4% of the serotypes identified, whereas the 7-valent, 10-valent and the 13-valent conjugate vaccines covered 24.1%, 29.3%, and 53.5% of serotypes respectively. The early case-fatality rate (<48 h) was 4.8% and overall case-fatality rate (<30 days) 14.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumococcal bacteremia, which complicates mainly pneumonia, is frequent in cancer patients and causes significant morbidity and case-fatality rate. Resistance to ceftazidime is particularly high. These findings should be considered when selecting antibiotic treatment for cancer patients presenting pneumonia.
    The Journal of infection 09/2012; · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Recent changes in the management of patients with haematological malignancies might have influenced the aetiology, characteristics, antimicrobial resistance and outcomes of bloodstream infection (BSI) during neutropenia. We compared 272 episodes of BSI in adult neutropenic patients with cancer prospectively collected from January 1991 to December 1996 (first period), when quinolone prophylaxis was used, with 283 episodes recorded from January 2006 to March 2010 (second period), when antibacterial prophylaxis was stopped. Patients in the second period were significantly older and were more likely to have graft-versus-host disease and a urinary catheter in place, whereas the presence of a central venous catheter, parenteral nutrition, corticosteroids and antifungal and quinolone prophylaxis, were more frequent in the first period. More patients in the first period had mucositis and soft-tissue infection as the origin of BSI, but an endogenous source was more common during the second. Gram-positive BSI was more frequent in the first period (64% versus 41%; p <0.001), mainly due to coagulase-negative staphylococci and viridans group streptococci. In the second period gram-negative BSI increased (28% versus 49%; p <0.001), quinolone susceptibilities were recovered, but multidrug-resistant gram-negative BSI also increased (1% versus 6%; p <0.001). Although patients in the second period were more likely to need admission to the intensive-care unit, overall case-fatality rate was similar in the two periods (19% versus 15%). The aetiology of BSI in neutropenic patients with cancer has shifted from gram-positive to gram-negative organisms. Multidrug resistance among gram-negative bacilli is emerging as a therapeutic challenge. Overall case-fatality rate remains high.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 03/2012; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The incidence of invasive aspergillosis has increased worldwide. Information regarding the clinical characteristics of patients with extrapulmonary involvement is scarce.Objective We aimed to describe the pathogenesis, characteristics and outcomes of patients with invasive aspergillosis and extrapulmonary disease.MethodsA retrospective study conducted in a university hospital in Barcelona, Spain (1995-2011).ResultsA total of 12 cases of invasive aspergillosis and extrapulmonary involvement were found. The most common clinical manifestations were invasive sinusitis, early postoperative prosthetic valve endocarditis, fungaemia, postoperative meningitis, multiple brain abscesses and lumbar spondylitis with epidural abscess. Sinusitis occurred frequently in patients without immunosuppression and had invasive brain involvement in one case. Endocarditis was associated with multiple septic metastases. Concomitant lung involvement was documented in 5 cases. The strains isolated were Aspergillus fumigatus (5), Aspergillus flavus (3), and Aspergillus niger (2). The species of Aspergillus was not established for 3 isolates. All patients were treated with antifungals and surgery was performed in 8 cases. Outcome was related with the source of infection; all patients with invasive sinusitis survived, while the remaining patients had a high mortality rate (88%).Conclusions Invasive aspergillosis with extrapulmonary involvement is rare. The most common presentation is invasive sinusitis, which has a lower mortality. Other clinical forms with extrapulmonary involvement were associated with severe immunosuppression or previous surgery, and had a poor outcome.
    Revista Iberoamericana de Micología 01/2012; 29(3):139–143. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of invasive aspergillosis has increased worldwide. Information regarding the clinical characteristics of patients with extrapulmonary involvement is scarce. We aimed to describe the pathogenesis, characteristics and outcomes of patients with invasive aspergillosis and extrapulmonary disease. A retrospective study conducted in a university hospital in Barcelona, Spain (1995-2011). A total of 12 cases of invasive aspergillosis and extrapulmonary involvement were found. The most common clinical manifestations were invasive sinusitis, early postoperative prosthetic valve endocarditis, fungaemia, postoperative meningitis, multiple brain abscesses and lumbar spondylitis with epidural abscess. Sinusitis occurred frequently in patients without immunosuppression and had invasive brain involvement in one case. Endocarditis was associated with multiple septic metastases. Concomitant lung involvement was documented in 5 cases. The strains isolated were Aspergillus fumigatus (5), Aspergillus flavus (3), and Aspergillus niger (2). The species of Aspergillus was not established for 3 isolates. All patients were treated with antifungals and surgery was performed in 8 cases. Outcome was related with the source of infection; all patients with invasive sinusitis survived, while the remaining patients had a high mortality rate (88%). Invasive aspergillosis with extrapulmonary involvement is rare. The most common presentation is invasive sinusitis, which has a lower mortality. Other clinical forms with extrapulmonary involvement were associated with severe immunosuppression or previous surgery, and had a poor outcome.
    Revista iberoamericana de micología. 11/2011; 29(3):139-43.
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    ABSTRACT: We report 5 cases of invasive aspergillosis occurring in severely immunosuppressed patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza A (H1N1). We suggest that infection with influenza A (H1N1) may predispose immunocompromised patients to develop invasive aspergillosis. Physicians should be aware of this potential association to allow early diagnosis and prompt treatment of aspergillosis.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 09/2011; 53(6):e16-9. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Posaconazole has been recently approved for primary antifungal prophylaxis in patients with prolonged neutropenia after AML induction chemotherapy and patients with GVHD. We now present the first experience of the efficacy and safety of posaconazole during the early phase of post-allogeneic BMT (n=33; from June 2007), in comparison with itraconazole primary prophylaxis (n=16; up to May 2007). More patients receiving posaconazole were T-cell depleted (P=0.003). Groups were otherwise comparable in terms of age, sex, disease, neutrophil engraftment, incidence of GVHD, use of unrelated donors and type of conditioning. Safety data as well as the incidence of fever (84%) and persistent fever (27%) during the 100-day treatment period were comparable for both antifungal agents. Patients receiving posaconazole had a lower cumulative incidence of proven or probable invasive fungal disease, as defined by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria (0 vs 12%; P=0.04), which associated with a higher probability of fungal-free survival (91 vs 56%; P=0.003) and an improved probability of OS (91 vs 63%; P=0.011) compared with patients receiving itraconazole. Our single-centre experience suggests that antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole may lead to a better outcome than itraconazole for patients in the early high-risk neutropenic period after allogeneic BMT.
    Bone marrow transplantation 05/2011; 46(5):733-9. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although it has been suggested that statins have a beneficial effect on the outcome of bloodstream infection (BSI) in immunosuppressed patients, prospective studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. We performed an observational analysis of consecutive cancer patients and transplant recipients hospitalized at two tertiary hospitals in Spain (2006-2009). The first episode of BSI occurring in statin users was compared with those occurring in non-statin users. During the study period, 668 consecutive episodes of BSI in 476 immunosuppressed patients were recorded. Underlying diseases were solid tumor (46.2%), hematologic malignancy (35.1%), and transplantation (18.7%). Fifty-nine (12.4%) patients were receiving statins at the onset of BSI. Comparing with statin non-users, patients on statin treatment were older (67.3 vs. 58.7 years; p < 0.001) and had higher frequency of comorbidities (74.6% vs. 40.6%; p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in intensive care unit admission (6.8% vs. 7.7%; p = 1) and overall mortality (15.3% vs. 24%; p = 0.13) between groups. In a multivariate analysis, prior statin use was not associated with increased survival (odds ratio [OR], 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-1.23; p = 0.14). In conclusion, prior statin use is not associated with increased survival in immunosuppressed patients with BSI. Caution is warranted in attributing beneficial effects to statin use in infections among immunocompromised patients.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/2011; 30(1):77-82. · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the risk factors, antibiotic therapy and outcomes of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDRGNB) bacteraemia in hospitalized patients with cancer. Episodes of MDRGNB bacteraemia were compared with a susceptible control group in a 4 year prospective study. Of 747 bacteraemias, 372 (49.7%) were caused by a Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). Fifty-one of these (13.7%) were caused by a multidrug-resistant (MDR) strain. Previous antibiotics [odds ratio (OR) 3.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.63-7.80] and urinary catheter (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.01-5.74) were identified as independent risk factors for MDRGNB acquisition. The most frequent mechanism of resistance was extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production (45%), mainly by Escherichia coli, followed by Amp-C cephalosporinase hyperproduction (24%). Patients with MDRGNB bacteraemia more frequently received inadequate initial antibiotic therapy (69% versus 9%; P < 0.001) and time to adequate therapy was longer in this group (41% versus 4%; P < 0.001). Patients in the resistant group more frequently required intensive care unit (ICU) admission (14% versus 5%; P = 0.023), had greater need for mechanical ventilation (14% versus 3%; P = 0.005) and had a higher overall case-fatality rate (41% versus 21%; P = 0.003). Risk factors for mortality were solid tumour (OR 5.04; 95% CI 2.49-10.19), current corticosteroid use (OR 4.38; 95% CI 2.39-8.05), ICU admission (OR 11.40; 95% CI 3.19-40.74) and MDRGNB bacteraemia (OR 3.52; 95% CI 1.36-9.09). MDRGNB bacteraemia was common among cancer patients, especially in those exposed to antibiotics and urinary catheter. The most frequent mechanism of resistance was ESBL production. Patients with MDRGNB more frequently received inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy and presented poorer outcomes with a higher overall case-fatality rate (within 30 days).
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 12/2010; 66(3):657-63. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the risk factors for, and the clinical relevance of, faecal carriage by extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) in neutropenic cancer patients (NCP). An observational prospective multicentre cohort study was conducted over 2 years at two teaching hospitals. Patients with acute leukaemia or undergoing stem cell transplantation were included during neutropenia episodes. Rectal swabs were obtained at hospital admission and weekly thereafter until discharge or death. ESBL-EC colonized episodes were compared with non-colonized episodes. ESBL-EC strains were studied by PCR and isoelectric focusing, and molecular typing was performed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among 217 episodes of neutropenia, the prevalence of ESBL-EC faecal carriage was 29% (14% at hospital admission). Multivariate analysis identified previous antibiotics as the only independent risk factor for ESBL-EC faecal colonization (OR 5.38; 95% CI 2.79-10.39). Analysis of ESBL-EC isolates revealed a polyclonal distribution with CTX-M predominance (81.3%). E. coli bacteraemia was mainly caused by non-ESBL producing strains and its rate was similar in both groups (13% vs. 11%). We found no association between ESBL-EC carriage and an increased risk of ESBL-EC bacteremia or a negative influence on other clinical outcomes, including length of hospitalisation, early and overall mortality rates. ESBL-EC faecal colonization is frequent in NCP but difficult to identify by epidemiological or clinical features on presentation. Prior antibiotic therapy is the major associated risk factor. In this setting colonization does not appear to have a significant clinical relevance. Thus, routine testing for ESBL-EC faecal carriage does not seem to be beneficial.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2010; 30(3):355-60. · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the clinical features, risk factors, molecular epidemiology and outcome of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) bacteraemia in hospitalized cancer patients. Episodes of ESBL-EC bacteraemia were compared with a susceptible control group in a 3 year prospective study. ESBL-EC strains were studied by PCR and isoelectric focusing, and molecular typing was performed by PFGE. Out of 531 episodes of bacteraemia, 135 were caused by E. coli. Seventeen of these cases involved ESBL-EC-producing strains (12.6%). In the multivariate analysis, female gender [odds ratio (OR) 3.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-11.4] and previous antibiotic therapy (OR 3.22; 95% CI 1.00-10.3) were found to be independent risk factors for ESBL acquisition. An analysis of ESBL-EC isolates revealed a polyclonal distribution with CTX-M predominance (59%). Patients with ESBL-EC bacteraemia were more likely to have received an inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy (65% versus 6%; P = 0.000), and the time to adequate therapy was longer in this group (0 versus 1.50 days; P = 0.000). The overall mortality rate was 22%, ranging from 20% to 35% (P = 0.20). Risk factors for mortality were solid tumour (OR 19.41; 95% CI 4.66-80.83), corticosteroid therapy (OR 3.04 95% CI 1.05-8.81) and intensive care unit admission (OR 248.24, 95% CI 18.49-3332.14). In neutropenic patients, ESBL-EC bacteraemia was associated with poorer outcome and a higher overall mortality rate (37.5% versus 6.5%; P = 0.01). In our centre, ESBL-EC bacteraemia is frequent among cancer patients, especially in those exposed to antibiotic pressure. All ESBL-EC strains were unrelated and most of them carried a CTX-M group enzyme. Patients with ESBL-EC bacteraemia received inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy more frequently than patients carrying a susceptible strain, but significant differences in mortality could not be demonstrated.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 12/2009; 65(2):333-41. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fecal colonization by extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in 912 stool samples collected from 154 neutropenic patients with cancer, hospitalized at two teaching institutions, was prospectively studied. Forty-nine (31.8%) patients were colonized, 22 of them at hospital admission. Most strains were clonally unrelated and carried a CTX-M-9 group enzyme.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2008; 52(11):4187-90. · 4.57 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

210 Citations
85.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2014
    • IDIBELL Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2006–2014
    • Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      l'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2012
    • University of Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2008
    • Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol
      Badalona, Catalonia, Spain