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Publications (21)41.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to evaluate the effects of intraarticular combinations of tramadol and ropivacaine with ketamine in postoperative pain control of patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscectomy. We randomly divided 80 patients into four groups to receive intraarticular 50 mg tramadol (Group T), 50 mg tramadol with 0.5 mg kg(-1) ketamine (Group TK), 75 mg ropivacaine (Group R), 75 mg ropivacaine with 0.5 mg kg(-1) ketamine (Group RK) in 20 ml normal saline at the end of surgery. Postoperative analgesia was provided with patient-controlled analgesia with morphine. Postoperative pain scores, total morphine consumption amount and side effects were recorded at intervals of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h after the operation. Pain scores were higher in Group T when compared with Group R and Group RK at second and fourth hours, also compared with Group RK at zeroth, first, second, fourth and eighth hours. Total morphine consumption amount was found to be higher in Group T when compared to Group TK at eighth and twelfth hours and Group RK at eighth hours (P < 0.05). Total morphine consumption was lowest in Group TK (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences among the study groups regarding side effects. Administration of intraarticular tramadol-ketamine combination was found to be more effective in decreasing postoperative daily analgesic consumption.
    Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 11/2008; 130(3):307-12. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This double-blind pilot study compared the local anaesthetic effects of tramadol plus adrenaline with lidocaine plus adrenaline during surgery to repair hand tendons. Twenty patients were randomly allocated to receive either 5% tramadol plus adrenaline (n = 10) or 2% lidocaine plus adrenaline (n = 10). Injection site pain and local skin reactions were recorded. At 1-min intervals after injection of the anaesthetic agent, the degree of sensory blockade was assessed by the patient reporting the extent to which they felt a pinprick, light touch and a cold sensation. Pain felt during surgical incision was also recorded. There was no difference in the quality of sensory blockade or the incidence of side effects between the two groups. Only patients treated with tramadol did not require additional post-operative analgesia. A combination of tramadol plus adrenaline provided a local anaesthetic effect similar to that of lidocaine plus adrenaline.
    The Journal of international medical research 10/2008; 36(5):971-8. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of dexmedetomidine on intraoperative bleeding during septoplasty and tympanoplasty operations. Randomized, placebo-controlled study. Univesity medical center. 80 ASA physical status I and II patients, aged 18 to 65 years, 40 of whom were scheduled for septoplasty and 40 to undergo tympanoplasty operations. Patients undergoing septoplasty (S) and tympanoplasty (T) operations were randomly divided into 4 groups. Dexmedetomidine (D) was administered to Group SD and Group TD first as a bolus dose of one microg kg(-1), then intraoperative maintenance was supplied with dexmedetomidine 0.7 microg kg(-1) hour(-1). Groups S and T (controls) were given identical amounts of saline. If systolic blood pressure measurements are greater than 20% preoperative values, then fentanyl one microg kg(-1) was given. Intraoperative blood loss was determined with suction volumes and gauze counting. Bleeding was rated according to a 6-point scale. Hemodynamic parameters and fentanyl administration were recorded. Group SD had less bleeding and lower bleeding scores (P < 0.05). In addition, this group received less intraoperative fentanyl (P < 0.05). The only significant difference between Groups TD and T was the amount of intraoperative fentanyl given (35.4 +/- 58.8 vs 110.0 +/- 81.0 microg) (P < 0.05). Dexmedetomidine reduces bleeding, bleeding scores, and intraoperative fentanyl consumption during general anesthesia in septoplasty operations.
    Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 09/2008; 20(6):437-41. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preoperative and postoperative psychological factors, postoperative pain, analgesic consumption, treatment satisfaction were compared in patients treated with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) or intramuscular analgesics after laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. Thirty-one women with laparoscopically operated benign ovarian cysts were recruited in Zonguldak Karaelmas University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Postoperatively sixteen women received morphine delivered by IV-PCA pump system and 15 women were prescribed another opioid (meperidine) intramuscularly. Two weeks before and one day after the surgery, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were self-administered. Afterwards, the operation visual analog scale (VAS) and satisfaction with pain control scale were recorded. Preoperative BDI and BAI scores of both groups were comparable. Postoperative BDI (7.9 +/- 7.2 versus 13.8 +/- 6.9, P = 0.03) and BAI (11.4 +/- 9.1 versus 17.4 +/- 6.2, P = 0.045) scores were significantly lower in the IV-PCA group. Morphine usage with PCA resulted in significantly higher pain scores than equivalent doses of meperidine administered intramuscularly (2.94 +/- 1.0 versus 1.67 +/- 0.7, P = 0.001). Although higher pain scores were obtained from IV-PCA group, self-reported satisfaction rates were higher in this group (8.3 +/- 1.1 versus 7.4 +/- 1.1, P = 0.04). Involvement of patients in their pain management might increase the awareness of pain but their satisfaction about the control of postoperative pain was significantly improved.
    Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology 07/2008; 29(2):139-45. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of intramuscular injection and peritonsillar infiltration of tramadol to prevent pain in children undergoing tonsillectomy. In a double-blinded trial, 45 children were randomized into three groups: infiltration anesthesia with tramadol (2 mgkg(-1)) to the peritonsillar area (INF group, n=15), intramuscular analgesia with tramadol (2 mgkg(-1)) (IM group, n=15), and the placebo controls (PL group, n=15). Visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain assessment, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during and after anesthesia were recorded. Mean HR values were higher in INF than PL group at 10th, 20th, and 30th minutes of operation (P<0.05). Nine children required analgesics within the first hour after surgery in PL compared to 1 child in INF group (P=0.036). VAS scores on awakening were significantly better in INF than PL group (P=0.015). The difference between IM and PL groups was not significant for any of the parameters. Peritonsillar infiltration with tramadol provided good intraoperative analgesia, less postoperative pain on awakening and lower analgesic requirement within the first hour after surgery.
    International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 03/2008; 72(2):241-8. · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 10/2007; 99(3):448. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to determine the efficacy of dexmedetomidine compared with lidocaine in reducing the pain of propofol and rocuronium injection pain. One hundred and fifty patients, scheduled for elective surgery with general anaesthesia, were divided into five groups: saline (Group 1), dexmedetomidine 0.25 microg kg(-1) (Group 2), lidocaine 0.5 mg kg(-1) (Group 3), dexmedetomidine 0.25 microg kg(-1) plus lidocaine 0.25 mg kg(-1) (Group 4) or dexmedetomidine 0.25 microg kg(-1) plus lidocaine 0.5 mg kg(-1) (Group 5) were administered at a rate of 0.5 mL s(-1) after tourniquet application. The occlusion was released after 1 min and 5 mL of propofol was injected over 20 s. Pain was evaluated by use of a 10-point verbal analogue scale. Then, the rest of the induction dose of propofol, 3 mL of saline bolus and 0.6 mg kg(-1) of rocuronium, was injected. The response to injection of rocuronium was assessed with a four-point scale (0-3). Groups 1 and 2 were found to have higher propofol injection pain scores than Groups 3, 4 and 5 (P < 0.05). When the study groups were compared according to the overall incidence of withdrawal movements due to rocuronium (1 response) in Groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, they were different (86.7%, 60%, 36.7%, 50% and 40%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Except Group 1, there was no significant difference between the groups according to incidence of withdrawal movement after rocuronium injection (P = 0.325). Pretreatment with dexmedetomidine is not effective in reducing injection pain of propofol, but may attenuate the hand withdrawal associated to rocuronium, as lidocaine does.
    European Journal of Anaesthesiology 07/2007; 24(6):541-5. · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Anaesthesiology - EUR J ANAESTH. 01/2006; 23.
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION The aim of the study was to demonstrate the possible effects of preoperative intra-articular, intravenous, or intrathecal administration of morphine on postoperative pain management. Sixty patients undergoing arthroscopic menisectomy were included. Spinal anesthesia was performed in the lateral decubitus position with 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, and the patients were randomized into 4 groups. The IVM (intravenous, i.v., morphine) group received 3 mg of i.v. morphine after completion of spinal anesthesia, the ITM (intrathecal morphine) group received 0.3 mg of morphine together with bupivacaine during spinal anesthesia, the IAM (intra-articular morphine) group received 3 mg intra-articular morphine diluted in 10 ml of saline after spinal anesthesia had been induced but 15 min before surgery, while the C (control) group did not receive any drugs in addition to spinal anesthesia. The sensory block level was determined 15 min after spinal anesthesia. Pain at rest (by visual analogue scale, VAS) and pain at 30 degrees of flexion (by verbal rating scale, VRS) were evaluated during each of the first 2 h of the postoperative period and once every 4 h thereafter until 24 h. In each group; the number of patients in need of analgesics, the timing of the first analgesic intake (duration of analgesia), and the cumulative dose of analgesics were recorded. The mean duration of analgesia in the IAM group was significantly longer and the mean analgesic intake was significantly lower when compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). The mean VAS value of the ITM group at the 4th postoperative hour was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Mean VAS values at 8 and 12 h and mean VRS values at 4 and 8 h were significantly lower in the ITM and IAM groups (p < 0.05). The ITM group had the highest rates of nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and headache (p < 0.05). It was concluded that the preoperative administration of morphine, either intrathecally or intra-articularly, provides postoperative pain relief. Of these two, the intra-articular route seems to be superior in terms of fewer side-effects (nausea, vomiting, and pruritus), longer duration of analgesia, and reduction of total need for analgesics.
    Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 11/2005; 125(9):609-13. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lumbar puncture or identification of the epidural space is technically more difficult in children. Prior obtained information regarding the distance from skin to the dura mater may be useful as leading to an increase in success. We studied the anatomy of the posterior lumbar spine at the L4-5 intervertebral space in 137 children, using ultrasonography. Children aged between 7 and 12 years in whom weight and height are in 3-97 percentiles (recommended for healthy Turkish boys and girls) were investigated. The measured distance from skin to dura mater was found significantly higher in girls (2.59+/-0.44 cm) than boys (2.43+/-0.46 cm) (p<0.05). Prediction of the posterior dural depth at L4-5 level was obtained using single linear regression equation. All demographic variables correlated significantly with the dural depth in both sexes. In girls the skin-duramater distance achieved highest correlation ranks with weight and body surface area (BSA): 'dural depth' (cm)=1.094+[0.048 x weight (kg)], r=0.79, p<0.01 and 'dural depth' (cm)=0.337+[2.119xBSA m2], r=0.76, p<0.01). We concluded that the distance between the skin and the dura mater at the level of L4-5 interspace could be predicted using a statistical model based on the age, weight, height or BSA of children aged between 7-12 years old.
    Agri: Agri (Algoloji) Dernegi'nin Yayin organidir = The journal of the Turkish Society of Algology 07/2005; 17(3):53-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of intraperitoneal local anaesthetic administration is to block visceral nociceptive conduction and to provide an additional route of analgesia. The present study evaluates the effects of sequential injections of bupivacaine on postoperative pain through a subphrenic catheter. In this double-blinded controlled study, patients scheduled for gynaecological laparoscopy were randomly divided into two groups. One group received 20 mL of saline with 1:200000 epinephrine through a subphrenic catheter before the incision closure and at 4-hourly intervals for the first postoperative 20 h. The second group received 20 mL of bupivacaine 0.125% with 1:200000 epinephrine at the same injection times. Postoperative pain scores and consumption of analgesics were compared. There were no statistical differences in pain scores at rest or incidence of shoulder pain between the two groups, but the patients of the bupivacaine group reported lower pain scores on coughing only in the first hour postoperatively (P = 0.007). Although the patients consumed comparable amounts of metamizole and ondansetron, the number of patients requiring supplemental meperidine and flurbiprofen in the bupivacaine group were significantly lower than in the saline group (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that intraperitoneal bupivacaine may reduce pain on coughing in the early postoperative period and the consumption of analgesics postoperatively. The subphrenic catheter technique had no impact upon pain at rest and shoulder-tip pain after gynaecological laparoscopy.
    European Journal of Anaesthesiology 06/2005; 22(6):442-6. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the possible participation of morphine in pulmonary oedema induced by alpha-naphthylthiourea (ANTU), which is a well-known noxious chemical agent in the lung. Injection of ANTU (15 mg/kg i.p.) produced pulmonary oedema as indicated by an increase in lung weight/body weight ratio and pleural effusion reaching a maximum within 4 h in rat. Administration of morphine prior to ANTU significantly inhibited to pulmonary oedema with a dose-dependent manner. The protective effect of morphine is prevented by peripheral opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone methiodide. ANTU-treated rats were shown positive by inducible nitric oxide synthase immunohistochemical staining. There was no staining in the control group. On the other hand, the degree of staining was markedly reduced in tissue sections by morphine. These results suggest that previous administration of subcutaneous morphine has preventive effect on ANTU-induced pulmonary inflammatory reaction and its effect mediated via peripheral opioid receptors. Application of naloxone with ANTU has no effect on the lung parameters indicating that endogenous opioids do not modulate ANTU-induced damage.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 04/2005; 511(2-3):183-9. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study compares the effects of ephedrine and ketamine on injection pain, and hypotension from propofol. After obtaining the approval of the Ethics Committee, 75 patients (ASA I-II) scheduled for elective operations with general anaesthesia were divided into three groups. Saline 2 mL (Group S, n = 25), ketamine 0.5 mg kg(-1) (Group K, n = 25) or ephedrine 70 microg kg(-1) (Group E, n = 25) were administered over 5 s after tourniquet application. After releasing the tourniquet, propofol 2 mg kg(-1) was injected in 30 s. Pain was evaluated on a numerical scale (0-10) where 0 represented no pain and 10 the most severe pain possible. Systolic, diastolic blood pressures and heart rates were recorded preoperatively, 1 min after propofol injection, before intubation and 1, 2 and 3 min after intubation in all patients. The incidences of pain in Groups S, E and K were similar (84%, 80% and 72%, respectively). The mean pain score in Group K (2.1, SD 3.1) was significantly lower than those of Groups S and E (4.9, SD 2.6 and 4.6, SD, 3.3, respectively) (P < 0.05). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in Group K (120 +/- 27 mmHg) and Group E (123 +/- 21 mmHg) before intubation were significantly higher than that of Group S (104 +/- 25 mmHg) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the mean heart rate values of the groups. Low dose ketamine or ephedrine pretreatment may prevent hypotension due to propofol induction. Despite the reduction in injection pain intensity after ketamine, the study drugs were found to be ineffective in lowering the injection pain incidence.
    European Journal of Anaesthesiology 02/2005; 22(1):44-8. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A prospective study was carried out to find the exact site of obstruction in sleep model and to quantitatively evaluate the effect of Jaw-thrust maneuver (JTM) in opening the obstructed airway using flexible fiberoptic endoscope. Twenty-eight ASA physical status I or II patients with snoring symptom undergoing elective surgery were included. The patients were held in supine position without hyperextension of the neck. Having induced anesthesia, the base of the tongue and laryngeal inlet and/or epiglottis were visualized using endoscope. The patients' epiglottides were classified as leaf-shaped, curved (concaved or omega-shaped) and floppy types. We graded the airway opening at the level of epiglottis into six grades and obstruction at the tongue base level into four grades. The grades during inspiration (GrIns), expiration (GrExp) and after JTM (GrJTM) were recorded and compared with Pearson chi-square test. The strictly curved (Omega-shaped or concaved) epiglottis supplied a salvage pathway for airflow that resisted collapsing with the posterior movement of the tongue base in 2 patients. When we compared GrIns with GrExp for epiglottis the difference was statistically significant (chi(2) = 0.001), but the difference for tongue base was not (chi(2) = 0.152). After JTM, GrJTM for both epiglottis and tongue base were significantly better than GrIns and GrExp (chi(2) < 0.001). Tongue base was the principal site of obstruction although during the respiratory cycle the position of epiglottis changed prominently and increased the obstruction in inspiration. JTM alone significantly relieved the obstruction at the tongue base and epiglottis levels and increased the retroglossal airway.
    ORL 01/2005; 67(1):39-44. · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Anaesthesiology - EUR J ANAESTH. 01/2005; 22.
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, it has been shown that tramadol was an effective local anesthetic in minor surgery. In this study, its efficacy for relieving postoperative pain was evaluated. Forty patients undergoing minor surgery (lipoma excision and scar revision) under local anesthesia were included. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: In group T (n = 20), 2 mg/kg tramadol, and in group L (n = 20), 1 mg/kg lidocaine were given subcutaneously. In both groups, the injection volume was 5 mL containing 1/200,000 adrenalin. The degree of the erythema, burning sensation, and pain at the injection site were recorded. Incision response, which is a degree of the pain sensation during incision, was recorded and graded with the visual analog scale (VAS) 0-10. After incision, VAS values were recorded at 15-min intervals. When the VAS score of the pain during surgery exceeded 4, an additional 0.5 mg/kg of the study drug was injected and this dosage was added to the total amount. Patients were discharged on the same day. Subjects with VAS > or =4 were advised to take paracetamol as needed. No side effects were recorded in either group except for 1 patient complaining of nausea in group T at the 30th min of operation. After 24 h, patients were called and the time of first analgesic use and total analgesic dose taken during the postoperative period were recorded. During the 24 postoperative hours, 18 of 20 (90%) subjects did not need any type of analgesia in group T, whereas this number was 10 (50%) in group L (P < 0.05). The time span before taking first analgesic medication was longer (4.9 +/- 0.3 h) in group T than that of group L (4.4 +/- 0.7 h) (P < 0.05). We propose that tramadol can be used as an alternative drug to lidocaine for minor surgeries because of its ability to decrease the demand for postoperative analgesia.
    Anesthesia & Analgesia 12/2004; 99(5):1461-4; table of contents. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    Y Ozer, H Altunkaya
    Anaesthesia 09/2004; 59(8):830. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intra-articularly administered ketamine, neostigmine, and bupivacaine after outpatient arthroscopic surgery. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical study. In this study, 60 patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery other than ligament reconstruction were evaluated for postoperative pain. Ketamine, neostigmine, and bupivacaine were administered intra-articularly. The period of effective analgesia, recorded in minutes, was measured between time 0 and first usage of patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA) by the patients. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to describe the pain level of the patient. VAS values were lower for the 3 medication groups compared with the placebo at rest and 90 degrees knee flexion. Intra-articular administration of 0.5 mg/kg ketamine provided longer duration of analgesia as defined by the first PCA use time (P <.05). The total amount of pethidine and analgesia time were longer for the 3 medication groups. Our basic finding was reduction in postoperative pain and consumption of adequate analgesic drugs with intra-articular ketamine, bupivacaine, or neostigmine use. We have not seen any psychomimetic side effects, particularly as seen with higher doses or systemic use. This study may conclude that intra-articular administration of ketamine provides long-lasting and effective analgesia, similar to neostigmine but less effective than bupivacaine after knee arthroscopy without any adverse effects. LEVEL OF EVEIDENCE: Level I.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 03/2004; 20(3):300-5. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A double-blind, randomized study was designed to determine the efficacy of dexamethasone in decreasing periorbital edema and ecchymosis after rhinoplasty. Sixty rhinoplasty patients undergoing hump resection and lateral osteotomy were included in the study and were divided into 6 groups: group 1 (n = 10), single dose of 8 mg intravenous (IV) dexamethasone 1 hour before the operation; group 2 (n = 10), single dose of 8 mg IV dexamethasone at the beginning of the operation; group 3 (n = 10), 3 doses of 8 mg IV dexamethasone 1 hour before the operation, and 24 and 48 hours after the operation; group 4 (n = 10), 3 doses of 8 mg IV dexamethasone at the beginning of the operation, and 24 and 48 hour after the operation; group 5 (n = 10), 3 doses of 8 mg IV dexamethasone immediately after the operation, and 24 and 48 hours after the operation; group 6 (n = 10), control, no dexamethasone administration before or after the operation. Intraoperative blood loss was recorded for each patient. Patients were evaluated at 24 hours and days 2, 5, 7, and 10. For the postoperative evaluation of periorbital ecchymosis and edema, a scale of 0 to 4 points was used. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of bleeding (P > 0.05). In the groups using steroid before osteotomy, edema and ecchymosis were significantly lower during the first 2 days compared with the control group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was seen between groups 1 and 2. When patients were evaluated on day 5, edema and ecchymosis were significantly lower in groups 3 and 4 (P < 0.05) compared with other groups, but there was no difference between them. Group 5 had a significantly higher level of edema and ecchymosis compared with groups 1 through 4 at 24 hours and at days 2, 5, and 7 (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups on day 10. In conclusion, if the first dose is given before osteotomy, triple-dose steroid application is the best bet for decreasing postoperative edema and ecchymosis. None of the patients had any complications related to the use of dexamethasone.
    Annals of Plastic Surgery 12/2003; 51(6):570-4. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: General and regional anesthesia (spinal and epidural) can be performed successfully for lumbar disc surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the superiority of general anesthesia or epidural anesthesia techniques in lumbar laminectomy and discectomy. Sixty patients undergoing lumbar partial hemilaminectomy and discectomy were randomly divided into two groups receiving standardized general anesthesia (GA) or epidural anesthesia (EA). Demographically, both groups were similar. Surgical onset time (36.72 +/- 5.47 vs. 25.40 +/- 7.83 minutes) was longer in the EA group, but total anesthesia time (154.32 +/- 35.73 vs. 162.40 +/- 26.79 minutes) did not differ between the two groups. Surgical time (118.80 +/- 35.42 vs. 139.60 +/- 26.80 minutes) was longer in the GA group. The heart rate and mean arterial pressure values of the EA group measured 15, 20, and 25 minutes after local anesthetic administration to the epidural catheter were found to be lower than in the GA group measured after induction of general anesthesia. The frequency of bradycardia (EA vs. GA, 3 vs. 2), tachycardia (3 vs. 7), and hypotension (6 vs. 4) during anesthesia did not differ between the groups, but the occurrence of hypertension (1 vs. 7) was higher in the GA group. Blood loss was less in the EA group than in the GA group (180.40 +/- 70.38 vs. 288.60 +/- 112.51 mL). Postanesthesia care unit (PACU) heart rate and mean arterial pressure were higher in the GA group. Peak pain scores in PACU and postoperative 24 hours were higher in the GA group when compared with the EA group. Nausea was more common in the GA group both in PACU and 24 hours after surgery. There was no difference between the hospitalization duration of the groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that EA is an important alternative to GA during lumbar disc surgery.
    Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology 08/2003; 15(3):185-92. · 1.67 Impact Factor