[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular calcification is a hallmark of advanced atherosclerosis. Here we show that deletion of the nuclear receptor PPARγ in vascular smooth muscle cells of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-deficient mice fed an atherogenic diet high in cholesterol, accelerates vascular calcification with chondrogenic metaplasia within the lesions. Vascular calcification in the absence of PPARγ requires expression of the transmembrane receptor LDLr-related protein-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells. LDLr-related protein-1 promotes a previously unknown Wnt5a-dependent prochondrogenic pathway. We show that PPARγ protects against vascular calcification by inducing the expression of secreted frizzled-related protein-2, which functions as a Wnt5a antagonist. Targeting this signalling pathway may have clinical implications in the context of common complications of atherosclerosis, including coronary artery calcification and valvular sclerosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylated analogues of imidazoline related compounds (IRC) were prepared; their abilities to bind I(1) imidazoline receptors (I(1)Rs), I(2) imidazoline binding sites (I(2)BS) and α(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes (α(2)ARs) were assessed. Methylation of the heterocyclic moiety of IRC resulted in a significant loss of α(2)AR affinity. Amongst the selective ligands obtained, LNP 630 (4) constitutes the first highly selective I(1)R agent showing hypotensive activity after intravenous administration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1) is a transmembrane receptor that integrates multiple signaling pathways. Its cytoplasmic domain serves as docking sites for several adaptor proteins such as the Src homology 2/α-collagen (ShcA), which also binds to several tyrosine kinase receptors such as the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor. However, the physiological significance of the physical interaction between LRP1 and ShcA, and whether this interaction modifies tyrosine kinase receptor signaling, are still unknown. Here we report that LRP1 forms a complex with the IGF-1 receptor, and that LRP1 is required for ShcA to become sensitive to IGF-1 stimulation. Upon IGF-1 treatment, ShcA is tyrosine phosphorylated and translocates to the plasma membrane only in the presence of LRP1. This leads to the recruitment of the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) to ShcA, and activation of the Ras/MAP kinase pathway. Conversely, in the absence of ShcA, IGF-1 signaling bifurcates toward the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and accelerates adipocyte differentiation when cells are stimulated for adipogenesis. These results establish the LRP1-ShcA complex as an essential component in the IGF-1-regulated pathway for MAP kinase and Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin activation, and may help to understand the IGF-1 signaling shift from clonal expansion to growth-arrested cells and differentiation during adipogenesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2011; 286(19):16775-82. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypotensive effect of imidazoline-like drugs, such as clonidine, was first attributed to the exclusive stimulation of central α2-adrenoceptors (α2ARs).However, a body of evidence suggests that non-adrenergic mechanisms may also account for this hypotension.This work aims (i) to check whether imidazoline-like drugs with no α2-adrenergic agonist activity may alter blood pressure (BP) and (ii) to seek a possible interaction between such a drug and an α2ARs agonist α-methylnoradrenaline (α-MNA).We selected S23515 and S23757, two imidazoline-like drugs with negligible affinities and activities at α2ARs but with high affinities for non-adrenergic imidazoline binding sites (IBS).S23515 decreased BP dose-dependently (−27±5% maximal effect) when administered intracisternally (i.c.) to anaesthetized rabbits. The hypotension induced by S23515 (100 μg kg−1 i.c.) was prevented by S23757 (1 mg kg−1 i.c.) and efaroxan (10 μg kg−1 i.c.), while these compounds, devoid of haemodynamic action by themselves, did not alter the hypotensive effect of α-MNA (3 and 30 μg kg−1 i.c.). Moreover, the α2ARs antagonist rauwolscine (3 μg kg−1 i.c.) did not prevent the effect of S23515.Finally, whilst 3 μg kg−1 of S23515 or 0.5 μg kg−1 of α-MNA had weak hypotensive effects, the sequential i.c. administration of these two drugs induced a marked hypotension (−23±2%).These results indicate that an imidazoline-like drug with no α2-adrenergic properties lowers BP and interacts synergistically with an α2ARs agonist.British Journal of Pharmacology (2001) 133, 261–266; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704080
British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2009; 133(2):261 - 266. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein LRP1 is a cell surface receptor with functions in diverse physiological pathways, including lipid metabolism. Here we show that LRP1-deficient fibroblasts accumulate high levels of intracellular cholesterol and cholesteryl-ester when stimulated for adipocyte differentiation. We demonstrate that LRP1 stimulates a canonical Wnt5a signaling pathway that prevents cholesterol accumulation. Moreover, we show that LRP1 is required for lipolysis and stimulates fatty acid synthesis independently of the noradrenergic pathway, through inhibition of GSK3beta and its previously unknown target acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). As a result of ACC inhibition, mature LRP1-deficient adipocytes of adult mice are hypotrophic, and lower uptake of fatty acids into adipose tissue leads to their redistribution to the liver. These results establish LRP1 as a novel integrator of adipogenic differentiation and fat storage signals.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2008; 284(1):381-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clonidine-like drugs (hybrid drugs) reduce blood pressure by acting centrally at both alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(2)AR) and I(1) receptors (I(1)R). Some attempts at cloning I(1)R have failed, probably because of the lack of selectivity of the ligands. Recently, compounds acting exclusively at I(1)R were synthesized: LNP 911, LNP509, and S23515. For example, LNP911 has a K(d) value of 1.7 nmol/L at I(1)R. LNP509 and S23515 reduce blood pressure when injected centrally in anesthetized animals, whereas S23757 behaves as an antagonist of hypotensive imidazolines. LNP509 reduces blood pressure even in genetically engineered mice lacking functional alpha(2)AR. An exclusive action at central I(1)R is therefore sufficient to modify blood pressure. With the help of drugs selective for I(1)R and alpha-methylnoradrenaline, selective for alpha(2)AR, we showed that imidazoline and alpha(2)-adrenergic mechanisms interact synergistically in controlling the blood pressure. Such a synergism may explain the very powerful hypotensive effects of hybrid drugs. The new ligands selective for I(1)R will be very helpful to investigate the molecular features and the signaling system of I(1)R.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/2004; 1009:228-33. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to further investigate the mechanisms of the central hypotensive action of catecholamines and imidazolines, in particular the role of nitric oxide (NO). Microinjections into the nucleus reticularis lateralis (NRL/RVLM) located in the rostroventrolateral part of the medulla (RVLM) and/or into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) were performed in pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits. Microinjections of brimonidine (1 ng/kg), which binds both alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(2)-ARs) and I(1) imidazoline receptors (I(1)Rs), into the NRL/RVLM induced hypotension (69+/-2 vs. 88+/-2 mm Hg) (p<0.05). Microinjections of S23757 (1 microg/kg), an antagonist highly selective for I(1)Rs, into the same site, prevented the hypotensive effect of brimonidine. These data show that the hypotensive effects of low doses of brimonidine involve the I(1)Rs of the NRL/RVLM. Alpha-methylnoradrenaline (alpha-MNA) (0.5 microg/kg) microinjected into the NTS induced hypotension (76+/-4 vs. 91+/-4 mm Hg) (p<0.05). Microinjections of a low dose of brimonidine (1 ng/kg) into the NTS had no blood pressure (BP) effect at all. In contrast, a higher dose (10 ng/kg) acting on alpha(2)-ARs induced hypotension (72+/-3 vs. 96+/-2 mm Hg) (p<0.05). Nomega-Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) (1.5 microg/kg) injected into the NRL/RVLM prevented the hypotensive effect of both alpha-MNA and the higher dose of brimonidine injected into the NTS. Bicuculline (1.5 microg/kg) injected into the NRL/RVLM prevented the hypotensive effect of alpha-MNA injected into the NTS. It is demonstrated that (i) the activation of alpha(2)-ARs of NTS triggers a neuronal GABAergic pathway projecting to the NRL/RVLM region which is NO dependent (ii) both alpha(2)-adrenergic (NTS) and non-adrenergic I(1)R (NRL/RVLM) mechanisms account for the very powerful hypotensive effect of brimonidine, a compound with high affinities at both types of receptors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The I1 subtype of imidazoline receptors (I1R) is a plasma membrane protein that is involved in diverse physiological functions. Available radioligands used so far to characterize the I(1)R were able to bind with similar affinities to alpha2-adrenergic receptors (alpha2-ARs) and to I1R. This feature was a major drawback for an adequate characterization of this receptor subtype. New imidazoline analogs were therefore synthesized and the present study describes one of these compounds, 2-(2-chloro-4-iodo-phenylamino)-5-methyl-pyrroline (LNP 911), which was of high affinity and selectivity for the I1R. LNP 911 was radioiodinated and its binding properties characterized in different membrane preparations. Saturation experiments with [125I]LNP 911 revealed a single high affinity binding site in PC-12 cell membranes (K(D) = 1.4 nM; B(max) = 398 fmol/mg protein) with low nonspecific binding. [125I]LNP 911 specific binding was inhibited by various imidazolines and analogs but was insensitive to guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate. The rank order of potency of some competing ligands [LNP 911, PIC, rilmenidine, 4-chloro-2-(imidazolin-2-ylamino)-isoindoline (BDF 6143), lofexidine, and clonidine] was consistent with the definition of [125I]LNP 911 binding sites as I1R. However, other high-affinity I1R ligands (moxonidine, efaroxan, and benazoline) exhibited low affinities for these binding sites in standard binding assays. In contrast, when [125I]LNP 911 was preincubated at 4 degrees C, competition curves of moxonidine became biphasic. In this case, moxonidine exhibited similar high affinities on [125I]LNP 911 binding sites as on I1R defined with [125I]PIC. Moxonidine proved also able to accelerate the dissociation of [125I]LNP 911 from its binding sites. These results suggest the existence of an allosteric modulation at the level of the I1R, which seems to be corroborated by the dose-dependent enhancement by LNP 911 of the agonist effects on the adenylate cyclase pathway associated to I1R. Because [125I]LNP 911 was unable to bind to the I2 binding site and alpha2AR, our data indicate that [125I]LNP 911 is the first highly selective radioiodinated probe for I1R with a nanomolar affinity. This new tool should facilitate the molecular characterization of the I1 imidazoline receptor.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both alpha(2)-adrenergic and non--alpha(2)-adrenergic mechanisms seem to be involved in the hypotensive effect of imidazoline-like drugs. This study aimed at investigating how these 2 mechanisms work together to modify blood pressure (BP).
LNP 509, which appeared in this study to be devoid of alpha(2A)-adrenergic activity, was administered to anesthetized rabbits and wild-type (WT) mice into the cisterna magna and into the fourth ventricle, respectively. Mean arterial pressure decreased by a maximum of 46 +/- 4% and 16 +/- 2%, respectively. In D79N mice, which lack functional alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptors, LNP 509 also reduced mean arterial pressure by 17 +/- 2%. The hypotension induced by LNP 509 (100 microg/kg intracisternally) was prevented by S23757 (1 mg/kg intracisternally), an antagonist highly selective for I(1)-imidazoline binding sites (I(1)BS). A synergy between LNP 509 and the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist alpha-methylnoradrenaline (alpha-MNA) was observed in rabbits (cisterna magna injection) and in WT mice (fourth ventricle injection) but not, as expected, in D79N mice. Similar to LNP 509 alone, rilmenidine (fourth ventricle injection), which binds both to alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors and to I(1)BS, decreased BP in D79N mice. In WT animals, rilmenidine had a significantly greater effect. Microinjections performed in rabbits showed that the synergism occurred at least in part in the nucleus reticularis lateralis of the brain stem.
These results demonstrate that a central imidazoline-sensitive, but non--alpha(2)-adrenergic, mechanism can modify BP by itself. This mechanism, which may involve I(1)BS, interacts synergistically with an alpha(2)-adrenergic mechanism to decrease BP.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To find new compounds selective for purported I1 imidazoline receptors (I1Rs) over I2 imidazoline binding sites (I2BS) and alpha2-adrenoceptors (alpha2ARs), a series of pyrrolinic isosteres of rilmenidine has been prepared and their biological activity at I1Rs, I2BS, and alpha2ARs evaluated. This isosteric replacement provided us with compounds which still bound to I1Rs but not to I2BS nor to alpha2ARs. A limited structure-affinity relationship was generated around the heterocyclic moiety of these ligands. One compound in this series, LNP 509 (1e) [cis-/trans-dicyclopropylmethyl-(4,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-3H-pyrrol-2-yl)-amine], had no detectable affinity at alpha2ARs yet was capable of lowering blood pressure after central administration. These pyrrolinic analogues constitute a new chemical class of imidazoline related compounds with high selectivity for the I1Rs. They could be used as new tools in the study of I1Rs and in the conception of new centrally acting hypotensive drugs.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 06/2001; 44(10):1588-93. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NO is known to be involved in the peripheral and central regulation of the cardiovascular function. It plays a neuromodulatory role via a direct action on presynaptic nerve terminals, stimulating the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and norepinephrine. Our aim was to study the possible role of NO in the cardiovascular effects of the central antihypertensive drugs clonidine, rilmenidine, and alpha-methyl-norepinephrine (alpha-MNA). Sites and mechanisms of the hypotensive action of these drugs were different; clonidine and rilmenidine acted on imidazoline receptors in the nucleus reticularis lateralis, whereas alpha-MNA acted upon alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in the nucleus tractus solitarius. The influence of N:(G)-nitro-L-arginine, an NO synthase inhibitor, on the central hypotensive effects of these drugs was investigated in pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits. The intracisternal (IC) administration of alpha-MNA (30 microg/kg) induced hypotension (79+/-2 versus 103+/-4 mm Hg) and bradycardia (222+/-8 versus 278+/-4 bpm) (P:<0.05) (n=5). Clonidine (0.07 microg/kg IC) also induced hypotension (69+/-5 versus 99+/-4 mm Hg) and bradycardia (266+/-7 versus 306+/-10 bpm) (P:<0.05) (n=5). In addition to clonidine, rilmenidine (1 microg/kg IC) induced hypotension (64+/-4 versus 97+/-4 mm Hg) and bradycardia (264+/-11 versus 310+/-4 bpm) (P:<0.05) (n=5). Pretreatment with N:(G)-nitro-L-arginine (900 microg/kg IC) completely prevented the hypotensive effect of alpha-MNA but influenced the cardiovascular effects of neither clonidine nor rilmenidine. These results confirm that imidazoline drugs, such as clonidine, rilmenidine, and the catecholamine alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist alpha-MNA, have distinct mechanisms of action.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypotensive effect of imidazoline-like drugs (IMs) directly injected into the rostroventrolateral part of the brainstem (NRL/RVLM) was shown to involve non-adrenergic imidazoline specific receptors (IRs). Some IMs caused hypotension when injected there, irrespective of their affinity and selectivity for any alpha-adrenoceptor subtype. Compounds, such as LNP 509, S 23515, S 23757 or benazoline with very high selectivities for IRs over alpha 2-adrenoceptors (A2Rs), became available recently. Some of these compounds (LNP 509, S 23515) caused hypotension when injected alone into the NRL/RVLM region. Nevertheless, high selectivity for IRs will not predict by its own the capability of IMs to elicit hypotension as some of these substances behaved as antagonists towards the hypotensive effects of the latter. As far as hybrid drugs, i.e., with mixed binding profiles (I1/alpha 2), were concerned, a significant correlation has been reported between their central hypotensive effect and their affinity for IRs. Imidazoline antagonists, such as idazoxan, were repeatedly shown to competitively prevent and reverse the centrally induced hypotensive effect of IMs. The sole stimulation of A2Rs within the NRL/RVLM region was not sufficient to decrease blood pressure as much as IMs did, as shown by the lack of significant blood pressure lowering effect of alpha-methylnoradrenaline (alpha-MNA). No correlation was observed between affinity of IMs for A2Rs and their central hypotensive effects. It is also noticeable that yohimbine, an A2Rs antagonist, was repeatedly shown to abolish the hypotensive effect of hybrids but usually in a non-competitive manner. Mutation of A2Rs was shown to prevent the hypotensive effects of centrally acting drugs. It is concluded that (i) drugs highly selective for I1Rs over A2Rs can reduce blood pressure by their own; (ii) the central hypotensive effect of IMs needs implication of IRs and appears to be facilitated by additional activation of A2Rs; and (iii) this effect requires intact A2Rs along the sympathetic pathways.
Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetiae 04/2000; 74(2-3):205-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The central hypotensive effect of imidazoline-like drugs (IMs) involves non-adrenergic imidazoline receptors (IRs). IMs cause hypotension irrespective of their affinity and selectivity for one or the other alpha-adrenoceptor subtypes. LNP 509, which binds to I1Rs (Ki = 5.10(-7) M) but roughly not to alpha 2-adrenoceptors (A2Rs) (Ki > 10(-5) M), causes hypotension when injected alone into the brainstem. As far as hybrid drugs, that is, those with mixed binding profiles (I1/alpha 2), are concerned, a significant correlation was reported between their central hypotensive effect and their affinity for IRs. Imidazoline antagonists such as idazoxan competitively antagonized the centrally induced hypotensive effect of IMs. Yohimbine, an A2Rs antagonist, blocks the hypotensive effect of hybrids but usually in a noncompetitive manner. Mutation of A2Rs prevented the hypotensive effects of drugs highly selective for A2Rs, but also that of hybrids such as clonidine. These data indicate that triggering of the hypotensive effects of IMs (1) needs implication of IRs; (2) appears to be facilitated by additional activation of A2Rs; and (3) requires integrity of A2Rs along the sympathetic pathways.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 06/1999; 881:272-8. · 4.38 Impact Factor