Dietmar R Lohmann

University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (80)410.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:Treacher Collins syndrome is a mandibulofacial dysostosis caused by mutations in genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and synthesis. TCOF1 mutations are observed in ~80% of the patients and are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Recently, two other genes have been reported in <2% of patients-POLR1D in patients with autosomal dominant inheritance, and POLR1C in patients with autosomal recessive inheritance.Methods:We performed direct sequencing of TCOF1, POLR1C, and POLR1D in two unrelated consanguineous families.Results:The four affected children shared the same homozygous mutation in POLR1D (c.163C>G, p.Leu55Val). This mutation is localized in a region encoding the dimerization domain of the RNA polymerase. It is supposed that this mutation impairs RNA polymerase, resulting in a lower amount of mature dimeric ribosomes. A functional analysis of the transcripts of TCOF1 by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed in the first family, demonstrating a 50% reduction in the index case, compatible with this hypothesis.Conclusion:This is the first report of POLR1D mutation being responsible for an autosomal recessive inherited Treacher Collins syndrome. These results reinforce the concept of genetic heterogeneity of Treacher Collins syndrome and underline the importance of combining clinical expertise and familial molecular analyses for appropriate genetic counseling.Genet Med advance online publication 6 March 2014Genetics in Medicine (2014); doi:10.1038/gim.2014.12.
    Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 03/2014; · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary cancer of the eye in adults. About half of the patients are at risk of developing metastatic disease resulting in a poor clinical prognosis. Metastatic progression is strongly associated with loss of one chromosome 3 in the tumour (monosomy 3). The tumour suppressor gene BAP1 was found to be recurrently mutated in UM with monosomy 3. Familial UM is rare and amounts to about 0.6-6% of all patients with melanoma. However, BAP1 germline mutations have been identified in rare hereditary tumour syndromes, including cases with UM. One may assume that UM may be part of these hereditary conditions with predisposition to malignant cancers. The patients underwent complete ophthalmological workup and enucleation due to UM. Microsatellite analysis was performed to determine the chromosome 3 status of the tumours. Sanger sequencing of all coding exons of the BAP1 gene was performed in blood DNA of the patients. Here we report on two family members (mother and son) diagnosed with UM. In both patients, a cosegregating BAP1 germline mutation (c.299 T>C) was found. The mutant BAP1 allele was retained in the tumour of the son showing monosomy 3. The son further developed urothelial carcinoma and liver metastasis, the mother was affected by the UM and cholangiocellular carcinoma. We detected a cosegregating BAP1 germline mutation in two family members with UM. This suggests that, consistent with a classic tumour suppressor model, carriers of damaging mutations in BAP1 are predisposed to UM. However, as BAP1 germline mutations have been found to cause other cancer syndromes as well, there must be other factors that decide about the type of tumour emerging from BAP1 inactivation.
    The British journal of ophthalmology 11/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular childhood tumour. Although mortality is low in Western countries, long-term sequelae, including secondary tumours, compromised vision or loss of one or both eyes are common. Chemoreduction combined with focal treatment is currently the leading conservative treatment for retinoblastoma, with success rates of 50-75% reported. We assessed a new chemoreduction protocol using intravenous cyclophosphamide with reduced dose of carboplatin on eye retention in patients with retinoblastoma. The 40 patients with retinoblastomas in 56 eyes were treated between 1995 and 2004 at the German Retinoblastoma Reference Centre Essen. The 6-cycle chemotherapy used vincristine (days 1, 22, 43, 64, 85, 106), etoposide (days 22, 43, 85, 106), carboplatin (days 1, 43, 64, 106), and cyclophosphamide (days 1, 22, 64, 85). Mean follow-up was 101 months. Most patients received additional hyperthermia, some received local treatment with laser coagulation, cryotherapy and/or β-ray brachytherapy. Therapy failure was defined as progression requiring enucleation or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Primary chemotherapy was successful in 42 of 56 eyes (75%). Therapy success and visual acuity at age 6 years correlated with the International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB) group. Age at diagnosis (> or <6 months) correlated with relapse, but not with therapy failure or visual acuity at 6 years of age. ICRB group did not correlate with occurrence of relapse. In this retrospective single-centre study, chemoreduction, including cyclophosphamide, with or without focal treatment, effectively controlled retinoblastoma progression without requiring enucleation or EBRT. Addition of cyclophosphamide is safe, and allows reduction of carboplatin.
    The British journal of ophthalmology 07/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumour in Caucasians. There are approximately 500 new cases of uveal melanoma in Germany per year and the incidence rate peaks at the age of 70 years. Half of all uveal melanoma patients develop metastatic disease, which can be observed even many years after successful treatment of the primary tumour. In most cases the liver is the location of first manifestation. Based on the chromosome 3 status uveal melanomas can be divided into two major classes that differ in their metastatic potential. Tumours with a high risk to metastasise usually show monosomy 3, whereas tumours showing disomy 3 rarely metastasise. If a patient wishes to know about his individual risk, prognostic testing of the primary tumour tissue can be performed after obtaining tumour material via transscleral or transretinal biopsy, or by enucleation. To date results of prognostic testing do not influence therapeutic strategies. Recently, major key genes involved in uveal melanoma development, GNAQ, GNA11, BAP1, SF3B1 and EIF1AX, have been identified. Mutation profiling, in addition to chromosomal 3 analysis, will further refine the classification or subclassification of uveal melanomas and will hopefully influence diagnostic or therapeutic concepts. Hereditary mutations in tumour suppressor gene BAP1 are associated with an increased risk for different tumour entities. Detection of germ line mutations in this tumour suppressor gene should implicate further general screening examinations of the patient to be able to detect these tumour entities. Moreover relatives of these patients should be offered a screening for BAP1 mutation.
    Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 07/2013; 230(7):686-91. · 0.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gene expression profiles and chromosome 3 copy number divide uveal melanomas into two distinct classes correlating with prognosis. Using exome sequencing, we identified recurrent somatic mutations in EIF1AX and SF3B1, specifically occurring in uveal melanomas with disomy 3, which rarely metastasize. Targeted resequencing showed that 24 of 31 tumors with disomy 3 (77%) had mutations in either EIF1AX (15; 48%) or SF3B1 (9; 29%). Mutations were infrequent (2/35; 5.7%) in uveal melanomas with monosomy 3, which are associated with poor prognosis. Resequencing of 13 uveal melanomas with partial monosomy 3 identified 8 tumors with a mutation in either SF3B1 (7; 54%) or EIF1AX (1; 8%). All EIF1AX mutations caused in-frame changes affecting the N terminus of the protein, whereas 17 of 19 SF3B1 mutations encoded an alteration of Arg625. Resequencing of ten uveal melanomas with disomy 3 that developed metastases identified SF3B1 mutations in three tumors, none of which targeted Arg625.
    Nature Genetics 06/2013; · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated levels of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) are frequently observed in tumor patients. Activating mutations in exon 4 (R183) and exon 5 (Q209) of GNAQ and GNA 11 are almost exclusively found in uveal melanoma, thus providing a highly specific marker for the presence of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). To establish a reliable, noninvasive assay that might allow early detection and monitoring of metastatic disease, we determined the proportion of GNAQ or GNA 11 mutant reads in cfDNA of uveal melanoma patients by ultradeep sequencing. Cell-free DNA from 28 uveal melanoma patients with metastases or extraocular growth was isolated and quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (7-1550 ng DNA/mL plasma). GNAQ and GNA 11 regions of interest were amplified in 22 of 28 patients and ultradeep sequencing of amplicons was performed to detect even low proportions of mutant reads. We detected Q209 mutations (2-38% mutant reads) in either GNAQ or GNA 11 in the plasma of 9 of 22 metastasized patients. No correlation between the proportion of mutant reads and the concentration of cfDNA could be detected. Among the nine ctDNA-positive patients, four had metastases in bone, whereas no metastases were detected in the 13 ctDNA-negative patients at this location (P = 0.025). Furthermore, ctDNA-positive patients tended to be younger at initial diagnosis and show larger metastases. The results show that ultradeep amplicon sequencing can be used to detect tumor DNA in plasma of metastasized uveal melanoma patients. It remains to be shown if this approach can be used for early detection of disseminated tumor disease.
    Cancer medicine. 04/2013; 2(2):208-15.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma is the childhood retinal cancer that defined tumour-suppressor genes. Previous work shows that mutation of both alleles of the RB1 retinoblastoma suppressor gene initiates disease. We aimed to characterise non-familial retinoblastoma tumours with no detectable RB1 mutations. METHODS: Of 1068 unilateral non-familial retinoblastoma tumours, we compared those with no evidence of RB1 mutations (RB1(+/+)) with tumours carrying a mutation in both alleles (RB1(-/-)). We analysed genomic copy number, RB1 gene expression and protein function, retinal gene expression, histological features, and clinical data. FINDINGS: No RB1 mutations (RB1(+/+)) were reported in 29 (2·7%) of 1068 unilateral retinoblastoma tumours. 15 of the 29 RB1(+/+) tumours had high-level MYCN oncogene amplification (28-121 copies; RB1(+/+)MYCN(A)), whereas none of 93 RB1(-/-) primary tumours tested showed MYCN amplification (p<0·0001). RB1(+/+)MYCN(A) tumours expressed functional RB1 protein, had fewer overall genomic copy-number changes in genes characteristic of retinoblastoma than did RB1(-/-) tumours, and showed distinct aggressive histological features. MYCN amplification was the sole copy-number change in one RB1(+/+)MYCN(A) retinoblastoma. One additional MYCN(A) tumour was discovered after the initial frequencies were determined, and this is included in further analyses. Median age at diagnosis of the 17 children with RB1(+/+)MYCN(A) tumours was 4·5 months (IQR 3·5-10), compared with 24 months (15-37) for 79 children with non-familial unilateral RB1(-/-) retinoblastoma. INTERPRETATION: Amplification of the MYCN oncogene might initiate retinoblastoma in the presence of non-mutated RB1 genes. These unilateral RB1(+/+)MYCN(A) retinoblastomas are characterised by distinct histological features, only a few of the genomic copy-number changes that are characteristic of retinoblastoma, and very early age of diagnosis. FUNDING: National Cancer Institute-National Institutes of Health, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, German Research Foundation, Canadian Retinoblastoma Society, Hyland Foundation, Toronto Netralaya and Doctors Lions Clubs, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care, UK-Essen, and Foundations Avanti-STR and KiKa.
    The Lancet Oncology 03/2013; · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Germline loss of function mutations in tumor suppressor genes RB1 and LKB1/STK11 are associated with the autosomal dominant cancer predisposing syndromes familial retinoblastoma and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), respectively. We present a rare case of a young woman with trilateral retinoblastoma diagnosed as an infant who survived and was then diagnosed with PJS as a teenager. There was no family history of either disorder. Analysis of the LKB1/STK11 gene sequence identified a germline frameshift mutation (c.107del) leading to a nonsense mutation near the N-terminus of the protein, confirming a clinical diagnosis of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Extensive RB1 gene analysis failed to detect germline mutations or deletions, and immunohistochemical analysis of her ocular tumors demonstrated nuclear staining of immunoreactive pRB. This result suggests that the RB1 gene is intact. We estimate the chance of trilateral retinoblastoma and PJS occurring in the same individual at approximately 1 in 134 billion live births, and we discuss the possibility that this case could be explained by a putative modifier of pRB action that is associated with the LKB1/STK11 pathway. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 03/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    Epigenetics & Chromatin 03/2013; 6(1). · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are approximately 40 new cases of retinoblastoma in Germany per year. Children in whom the tumour is detected when still intraocular have an excellent overall survival rate (> 95 %). However, the prognosis of metastasised retinoblastoma remains poor. About 40 % of retinoblastoma patients have tumours in both eyes. For these children in particular it is important to save the eye and visual function as much as possible. There are several options for conservative treatment of localised retinoblastoma including laser coagulation, thermotherapy, cryotherapy, brachytherapy and chemotherapy. In recent years, systemic chemotherapy has become the established standard for primary treatment of intraocular retinoblastoma. In case series, intra-arterial, intravitreal and periocular applications of chemotherapy were also shown to be effective in treating intraocular retinoblastoma. Genetic testing is an integral part of the routine diagnostics of all patients. Mutation analysis of tumour material is invaluable for identification of somatic mutations including mutational mosaicism. Genetic testing also identifies children with heritable retinoblastoma, which represent 50 % of cases. These children also have a predisposition for the development of tumours outside of the eye (second primary neoplasm). To adequately address these and other late effects in survivors of retinoblastoma, a multidisciplinary approach is needed that optimises therapy and long-term follow-up. Upcoming multicentre clinical trials will evaluate treatment concepts for localised and metastasised retinoblastoma to improve survival rates and quality of life of children with retinoblastoma. This article was translated and modified and was primarily published in Klin Padiatr 2012; 224: 339-347.
    Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 03/2013; 230(3):232-242. · 0.70 Impact Factor
  • Petra Temming, Anja Viehmann, Eva Biewald, Dietmar R Lohmann
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A small number of children with unilateral retinoblastoma later develop retinoblastoma in the contralateral eye (metachronous bilateral retinoblastoma). METHODS: We analysed the clinical and genetic characteristics of children with sporadic unilateral retinoblastoma to identify risk factors for the development of metachronous bilateral disease. RESULTS: Fifteen (3.1%) of 480 children with unilateral retinoblastoma later developed metachronous bilateral retinoblastoma (latency period >30 days). The maximum latency period was 2.3 years after initial diagnosis. Nine (22.5%) of 40 children with a RB1 mutation detectable in blood developed metachronous bilateral disease while all 155 children proved to be without a germline RB1 mutation remained unilaterally affected. Clinically, the risk of developing metachronous bilateral retinoblastoma was higher for age at diagnosis ≤0.5 years compared with >0.5 years (19.6% vs 1.2%), and for multifocal compared with unifocal unilateral retinoblastoma (17.1% vs 2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that an oncogenic RB1 mutation in the blood is a risk factor for metachronous bilateral retinoblastoma. Additional clinical risk factors for metachronous bilateral disease are diagnosis at young age (≤0.5 years) and multifocal unilateral retinoblastoma. Early genetic analysis may identify children at high risk of developing metachronous bilateral disease and may help to preserve vision using risk-adapted follow-up and early treatment.
    The British journal of ophthalmology 01/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human retinoblastoma gene (RB1) is imprinted; the mouse Rb1 gene is not. Imprinted expression of RB1 is due to differential methylation of a CpG island (CpG85), which is located in the pseudogene PPP1R26P1 in intron 2 of RB1. CpG85 serves as promoter for an alternative RB1 transcript, which is expressed from the unmethylated paternal allele only and is thought to suppress expression of the full-length RB1 transcript in cis. PPP1R26P1 contains another CpG island (CpG42), which is biallelically methylated. To determine the influence of PPP1R26P1 on RB1 expression, we generated an in vitro murine embryonic stem cell model by introducing human PPP1R26P1 into mouse Rb1. Next generation bisulfite sequencing of CpG85 and CpG42 revealed differences in their susceptibility to DNA methylation, gaining methylation at a median level of 4% and 18%, respectively. We showed binding of RNA polymerase II at and transcription from the unmethylated CpG85 in PPP1R26P1 and observed reduced expression of full-length Rb1 from the targeted allele. Our results identify human PPP1R26P1 as a cis-repressive element and support a connection between retrotransposition of PPP1R26P1 into human RB1 and the reduced expression of RB1 on the paternal allele.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74159. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human RB1 gene is imprinted due to a differentially methylated CpG island in intron 2. This CpG island is part of PPP1R26P1, a truncated retrocopy of PPP1R26, and serves as a promoter for an alternative RB1 transcript. We show here by in silico analyses that the parental PPP1R26 gene is present in the analysed members of Haplorrhini, which comprise Catarrhini (Old World Monkeys, Small apes, Great Apes and Human), Platyrrhini (New World Monkeys) and tarsier, and Strepsirrhini (galago). Interestingly, we detected the retrocopy, PPP1R26P1, in all Anthropoidea (Catarrhini and Platyrrhini) that we studied but not in tarsier or galago. Additional retrocopies are present in human and chimpanzee on chromosome 22, but their distinct composition indicates that they are the result of independent retrotransposition events. Chimpanzee and marmoset have further retrocopies on chromosome 8 and chromosome 4, respectively. To examine the origin of the RB1 imprint, we compared the methylation patterns of the parental PPP1R26 gene and its retrocopies in different primates (human, chimpanzee, orangutan, rhesus macaque, marmoset and galago). Methylation analysis by deep bisulfite sequencing showed that PPP1R26 is methylated whereas the retrocopy in RB1 intron 2 is differentially methylated in all primates studied. All other retrocopies are fully methylated, except for the additional retrocopy on marmoset chromosome 4, which is also differentially methylated. Using an informative SNP for the methylation analysis in marmoset, we could show that the differential methylation pattern of the retrocopy on chromosome 4 is allele-specific. We conclude that the epigenetic fate of a PPP1R26 retrocopy after integration depends on the DNA sequence and selective forces at the integration site.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e81502. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retinoblastoma affects approximately 40 children in Germany per year. Most children are diagnosed early with localized intraocular disease, and the overall survival rate exceeds 95%. However, the prognosis of metastasized retinoblastoma remains poor. In 40% of the patients, retinoblastoma occurs bilaterally and, especially for these children, the salvage of the eye and visual function is of major importance. The variety of conservative treatment options for localized retinoblastoma includes laser coagulation, thermotherapy, cryotherapy, brachytherapy and chemotherapy. While systemic chemotherapy has nearly completely replaced external beam radiotherapy in the primary treatment of intraocular retinoblastoma, intra-arterial, intravitreal and periocular application of chemotherapy was also shown to be effective in treating intraocular retinoblastoma in case series. Genetic testing is an integral part of the routine diagnostics of all patients. Available tumor material should be analyzed to detect mutational mosaicism, that affects >10% of children with unilateral retinoblastoma. Genetic testing also identifies children with heritable (50% of patients) retinoblastoma. These children have a genetic predisposition for second malignancies. For this reason, late effects are an increasing concern and the care of patients with retinoblastoma requires a multidisciplinary approach to tailor therapy and long-term follow-up. Multicenter clinical trials are being developed to evaluate evidence-based treatment concepts for localized and metastasized retinoblastoma to improve survival rates and quality of life of children with retinoblastoma.
    Klinische Pädiatrie 10/2012; 224(6):339-347. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is the most common and well-known mandibulofacial dysostosis caused by mutations in at least three genes involved in pre-rRNA transcription, the TCOF1, POLR1D and POLR1C genes. We present a severely affected male individual with TCS with a heterozygous de novo frameshift mutation within the TCOF1 gene (c.790_791delAG,p.Ser264GlnfsX7) and compare the clinical findings with three previously unpublished, milder affected individuals from two families with the same mutation. We elucidate typical clinical features of TCS and its clinical implications for the paediatrician and mandibulofacial surgeon, especially in severely affected individuals and give a short review of the literature. Conclusion:The clinical data of these three families illustrate that the phenotype associated with this specific mutation has a wide intra- and interfamilial variability, which confirms that variable expressivity in carriers of TCOF1 mutations is not a simple consequence of the mutation but might be modified by the combination of genetic, environmental and stochastic factors. Being such a highly complex disease treatment of individuals with TCS should be tailored to the specific needs of each individual, preferably by a multidisciplinary team consisting of paediatricians, craniofacial surgeons and geneticists.
    European Journal of Pediatrics 06/2012; · 1.91 Impact Factor
  • Petra Temming, Timothy W Corson, Dietmar R Lohmann
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    ABSTRACT: The rate-limiting step in retinoblastoma tumorigenesis is inactivation of both RB1 alleles, but it has remained unclear how this tumor acquires the additional changes that constitute a malignant phenotype. Zhang et al. characterized the genetic and epigenetic alterations in four retinoblastomas using whole-genome analysis techniques. In these samples, the retinoblastoma genome was found to be remarkably stable genetically, although recurrent mutations in BCOR were identified in 13% of patients. However, an approach that integrated the results of ChIP, methylation and expression analysis identified multiple, more frequent alterations of the epigenetic landscape. One of the leading genes on the list the authors obtained was SYK, a kinase epigenetically upregulated. Knockdown of this gene and exposure to small molecules inhibiting the kinase function stopped tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, thus offering a new therapeutic target for the treatment of retinoblastoma.
    Future Oncology 05/2012; 8(5):525-8. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In uveal melanoma (UM), the most frequent primary intraocular tumour in adults, loss of one entire chromosome 3 (monosomy 3 (M3)) is observed in ~50% of tumours and is significantly associated with metastatic disease. The strong association of metastatic disease with M3 offers the opportunity for molecular prognostic testing of UM patients. To re-evaluate M3 as prognostic marker in our clinical and laboratory setting and to determine the metastatic potential of rare tumours with partial M3, we performed a comprehensive study on 374 UM patients treated by enucleation in our clinic within 10 consecutive years, starting in 1998. Genotyping of all tumours was performed by microsatellite analysis. Median follow-up time was 5.2 years. The disease-specific mortality rates (death by UM metastases) for tumours with disomy 3 (D3) and M3 were 13.2% and 75.1%, respectively. The disease-specific survival was worse when M3 was observed together with chromosome 8 alterations (P=0.020). Death of UM metastases was also observed in 12 patients (9%) with D3 tumours. The metastasising D3 tumours showed a larger basal tumour diameter (P=0.007), and were more frequently of mixed or epitheloid cell type (P<0.0001) than D3 tumours that did not metastasise. Mortality rate of tumours showing partial M3 (8.3%) was as low as that for tumours with D3. This shows that large tumours with disomy 3 have an increased risk to develop metastases. On the basis of these results, our clinic offers routine prognostic testing of UM patients by chromosome 3 typing.
    British Journal of Cancer 02/2012; 106(6):1171-6. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly (MFDM) is a rare sporadic syndrome comprising craniofacial malformations, microcephaly, developmental delay, and a recognizable dysmorphic appearance. Major sequelae, including choanal atresia, sensorineural hearing loss, and cleft palate, each occur in a significant proportion of affected individuals. We present detailed clinical findings in 12 unrelated individuals with MFDM; these 12 individuals compose the largest reported cohort to date. To define the etiology of MFDM, we employed whole-exome sequencing of four unrelated affected individuals and identified heterozygous mutations or deletions of EFTUD2 in all four. Validation studies of eight additional individuals with MFDM demonstrated causative EFTUD2 mutations in all affected individuals tested. A range of EFTUD2-mutation types, including null alleles and frameshifts, is seen in MFDM, consistent with haploinsufficiency; segregation is de novo in all cases assessed to date. U5-116kD, the protein encoded by EFTUD2, is a highly conserved spliceosomal GTPase with a central regulatory role in catalytic splicing and post-splicing-complex disassembly. MFDM is the first multiple-malformation syndrome attributed to a defect of the major spliceosome. Our findings significantly extend the range of reported spliceosomal phenotypes in humans and pave the way for further investigation in related conditions such as Treacher Collins syndrome.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 02/2012; 90(2):369-77. · 11.20 Impact Factor
  • Klinische Pädiatrie 01/2012; 224:339–347. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare craniofacial disorder characterized by facial anomalies and ear defects. TCS is caused by mutations in the TCOF1 gene and follows autosomal dominant inheritance. Recently, mutations in the POLR1D and POLR1C genes have also been identified to cause TCS. However, in a subset of patients no causative mutation could be found yet. Inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability is high as is the variety of mainly family-specific mutations identified throughout TCOF1. No obvious correlation between pheno- and genotype could be observed. The majority of described point mutations, small insertions and deletions comprising only a few nucleotides within TCOF1 lead to a premature termination codon. We investigated a cohort of 112 patients with a tentative clinical diagnosis of TCS by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to search for larger deletions not detectable with other methods used. All patients were selected after negative screening for mutations in TCOF1, POLR1D and POLR1C. In 1 patient with an unequivocal clinical diagnosis of TCS, we identified a 3.367 kb deletion. This deletion abolishes exon 3 and is the first described single exon deletion within TCOF1. On RNA level we observed loss of this exon which supposedly leads to haploinsufficiency of TREACLE, the nucleolar phosphoprotein encoded by TCOF1.
    Molecular syndromology 01/2012; 2(2):53-59.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
410.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2013
    • University Health Network
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1997–2013
    • University of Duisburg-Essen
      • Fakultät für Medizin
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1994–2013
    • University Hospital Essen
      • Institut für Humangenetik
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2011
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands