[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Larvae of the Northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) carry microscopic needles (setae), which by penetrating skin and mucous membranes, may cause inflammatory/immune derived symptoms in man. In the present study the stimulatory effects of setae on human blood lymphocytes in vitro was investigated. Blood mononuclear cells were separated from venous blood or buffy coat of ten healthy individuals, six previously exposed to setae and four with no known exposure. Lymphoproliferation was measured as uptake of 3H-thymidine. Setae were prepared from TP larvae. Setae and saline setae extracts stimulated proliferation of T-lymphocytes in the presence of monocytic cells. Stimulation was pronounced in cells from persons who had been exposed to setae, and weak in cells from non-exposed donors. Chitin also induced lymphocyte proliferation in most donors, but to a lesser extent and independently of donor's previous exposure to setae. In conclusion, setae contain molecules that in the presence of monocytes activate human T-lymphocytes to proliferation. The antigenic nature of stimulatory molecules was supported by the significantly stronger lymphocyte response in persons previously exposed to setae than in non-exposed donors. The nature of such molecules remains to be defined.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e113977. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113977 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have symptoms of depression and anxiety and impaired health related quality of life (HRQoL). Here we test the post-hoc hypothesis that acupuncture and exercise improve depression and anxiety symptoms and HRQoL in PCOS women.
Seventy-two PCOS women were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of 1) acupuncture (n = 28); 2) exercise (n = 29); or 3) no intervention (control) (n = 15). Outcome measures included: change in Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S), Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA-S), Swedish Short-Form 36 (SF-36), and PCOS Questionnaire (PCOSQ) scores from baseline to after 16-week intervention, and to 16-week post-intervention follow-up.
A reduction in MADRS-S and BSA-S from baseline to 16-weeks post-intervention follow-up was observed for the acupuncture group. The SF-36 domains role physical, energy/vitality, general health perception and the mental component of summary scores improved in the acupuncture group after intervention and at follow-up. Within the exercise group the role physical decreased after treatment, while physical functioning and general health perception scores increased at follow-up. The emotion domain in the PCOSQ improved after 16-weeks of intervention within all three groups, and at follow-up in acupuncture and exercise groups. At follow-up, improvement in the infertility domain was observed within the exercise group.
There was a modest improvement in depression and anxiety scores in women treated with acupuncture, and improved HRQoL scores were noted in both intervention groups. While not a primary focus of the trial, these data suggest continued investigation of mental health outcomes in women treated for PCOS.
Trial registration number
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 06/2013; 13(1):131. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-131 · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acupuncture has been demonstrated to improve menstrual frequency and to decrease circulating testosterone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Our aim was to investigate whether acupuncture affects ovulation frequency and to understand the underlying mechanisms of any such effect by analyzing luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex steroid secretion in women with PCOS. This prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted between June 2009 and September 2010. Thirty-two women with PCOS were randomized to receive either acupuncture in combination with manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation or to meetings with a physical therapist twice a week for 10-13 weeks. Main outcome measures were changes in LH secretion patterns from baseline to after 10-13 weeks of treatment and ovulation frequency during the treatment period. Secondary outcomes were changes in the secretion of sex steroids, anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B, and serum cortisol. Ovulation frequency during treatment was higher in the acupuncture group compared with the control group. After 10-13 weeks of intervention, circulating levels of estrone, estrone sulfate, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, free-testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, androsterone glucuronide, androstane-3α, 17β-diol-3glucuronide, and androstane-3α, 17β-diol-17glucuronide decreased within the acupuncture group and were significantly lower than in the control group for all of these except androstenedione. We conclude that repeated acupuncture treatments resulted in higher ovulation frequency in lean/overweight women with PCOS and were more effective than just meeting with the therapist. Ovarian and adrenal sex steroid serum levels were reduced with no effect on LH secretion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Numerous studies have shown associations between an on-going depression and elevated serum levels of the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP). Also, in suicidal behaviour, a proinflammatory state has been suggested to be of importance for the pathophysiology. There is a genetic susceptibility to suicidal behaviour, but studies with respect to genes related to inflammation are sparse. We have previously reported an association between a polymorphism located in the CRP gene, +1444C>T (rs1130864), and the personality trait impulsiveness in women assessed using the Karolinska Scales of Personality. The present study aims to replicate these results in suicide attempters and examine whether the polymorphism is associated with suicidal behaviour.
Materials and methods:
The +1444C>T polymorphism was genotyped in suicide attempters from two cohorts (a total of 106 patients) and healthy controls (n=517).
We could replicate our previous finding, as the +1444T allele was associated with higher scores in the Karolinska Scales of Personality factor extraversion and its subscale impulsiveness in one of the patient cohorts. Furthermore, the +1444T allele was significantly more common among suicide attempters compared with the +1444C allele.
The present results lend further support to the relevance of inflammation for suicidal behaviour. The association between the polymorphism and personality trait impulsiveness reinforces our hypothesis of the importance of immune-related genes also for normal mental functions such as personality traits. Given the fact that impulsiveness is a well-known risk factor for suicidal behaviour, we further hypothesize that the polymorphism studied may in part explain this relationship.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent discoveries indicate an important role for ghrelin in drug and alcohol reward and an ability of ghrelin to regulate mesolimbic dopamine activity. The role of dopamine in novelty seeking, and the association between this trait and drug and alcohol abuse, led us to hypothesize that ghrelin may influence novelty seeking behavior. To test this possibility we applied several complementary rodent models of novelty seeking behavior, i.e. inescapable novelty-induced locomotor activity (NILA), novelty-induced place preference and novel object exploration, in rats subjected to acute ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor; GHSR) stimulation or blockade. Furthermore we assessed the possible association between polymorphisms in the genes encoding ghrelin and GHSR and novelty seeking behavior in humans. The rodent studies indicate an important role for ghrelin in a wide range of novelty seeking behaviors. Ghrelin-injected rats exhibited a higher preference for a novel environment and increased novel object exploration. Conversely, those with GHSR blockade drastically reduced their preference for a novel environment and displayed decreased NILA. Importantly, the mesolimbic ventral tegmental area selective GHSR blockade was sufficient to reduce the NILA response indicating that the mesolimbic GHSRs might play an important role in the observed novelty responses. Moreover, in untreated animals, a striking positive correlation between NILA and sucrose reward behavior was detected. Two GHSR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2948694 and rs495225, were significantly associated with the personality trait novelty seeking, as assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), in human subjects. This study provides the first evidence for a role of ghrelin in novelty seeking behavior in animals and humans, and also points to an association between food reward and novelty seeking in rodents.
PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e50409. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0050409 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the possible effects of low-frequency electroacupuncture (EA) and physical exercise on markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis, insulin sensitivity, and adipose tissue characteristics in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Secondary analyses of a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial.
Department of Physiology and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Gothenburg.
Eighty-four women with PCOS were randomized.
Women with PCOS were randomized to 16 weeks of low-frequency EA (14 treatments), physical exercise (at least 3 times/wk), or no intervention.
Anthropometrics, circulating coagulation and fibrinolytic markers, insulin sensitivity (euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp), hemodynamics, and adipose tissue morphology/function recorded at baseline, after 16 weeks of intervention, and after a 16-week follow-up.
In the low-frequency EA group, circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 activity decreased by 21.8% after 16 weeks of intervention and by 31.1% at the 16-week follow-up and differed from the physical exercise and the no intervention groups. The EA group had decreases in circulating fibrinogen and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), sagittal diameter, and diastolic blood pressure after treatment, and fibrinogen remained lower at the 16-week follow-up. In the physical exercise group, lipoprotein lipase activity increased and diastolic blood pressure decreased after treatment, and both diastolic and systolic blood pressure were lower at follow-up. No other variables were affected.
Low-frequency EA counteracted a possible prothrombotic state in women with PCOS, as reflected by a decrease in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 activity. Despite within-group improvements, there were no between-group differences in anthropometric, metabolic, or hemodynamic variables after 16 weeks of EA or physical exercise at the dose/intensity studied.
Fertility and sterility 12/2011; 97(2):501-8. DOI:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.11.010 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in degradation of proteins in the extracellular matrix and have been shown to contribute to neuroinflammation by several mechanisms such as blood-brain barrier breakdown. Among the MMPs, MMP-9 (gelatinase B) has been suggested to be of relevance also for synaptic and behavioural plasticity. In order to explore the role of MMP-9 for mental functions a polymorphism in MMP-9 was analysed with respect to personality traits. The two studied populations consisted of women and men, respectively, both recruited from the population registry and assessed by means of the Karolinska Scales of Personality. The non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (R668Q, rs17577) studied is located in the coding region of MMP-9 and is believed to affect the activity of the enzyme. The present study found that an amino acid change from arginine (R) to glutamine (Q) was associated with higher scores of the personality trait inhibition of aggression in the female population whilst this substitution was associated with higher scores of verbal aggression and irritability in men. These findings give support for an influence of MMP-9 on mental functions.
Behavioural brain research 11/2011; 228(1):232-5. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2011.11.026 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is the main receptor for S100B, an astrogial proinflammatory mediator that has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To further elucidate the possible relevance of inflammation for mental functions, we investigated a functional polymorphism in the gene coding for RAGE in relation to personality traits and susceptibility to schizophrenia.
We studied the Gly82Ser polymorphism (rs2070600, 244G>A) in 2 population-based cohorts of middle-aged participants assessed using the Karolinska Scales of Personality. In addition, we compared genotype frequencies between patients with schizophrenia and controls.
The population-based cohorts included 270 women and 247 men, and the case-control study involved 138 patients with schizophrenia and 258 controls. In the population-based cohorts, 82Ser carriers were found to have significantly higher scores for the psychoticism personality trait comprising the detachment and suspicion subscales. The case-control study revealed that the 82Ser allele was significantly more frequent among patients than controls. Limitations: This study was limited by the modest sample size and the use of a self-report measure to assess personality traits.
Our findings suggest that the proven relation between certain personality traits and schizophrenia can at least to some extent be explained on a genetic level. Also, the activated S100B-RAGE axis may be an underlying cause, not only a consequence, of the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of fibrinolysis/coagulation status in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are contradictory.
The aim of the study was to investigate whether women with PCOS have disturbed circulating levels of fibrinolysis/coagulation markers and, if so, whether the disturbances are related to hemodynamics, metabolic variables, sex steroids, SHBG, lipids, and inflammatory variables in women with PCOS. DESIGN/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric variables, hemodynamics, circulating hemostatic and inflammatory markers, and serum lipid profile were measured in women with untreated PCOS (n = 74) and controls (n = 31).
After adjustments for age and body mass index (BMI), circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) activity and fibrinogen levels were higher in women with PCOS than controls; lipid profile, blood pressure, and levels of D-dimer, von Willebrand factor, factor VIII, tissue plasminogen activator, and inflammatory markers were comparable in the two groups. In multiple linear regression analyses including women with PCOS, low SHBG and high insulin predicted high PAI-1 activity (R(2) = 0.526; P < 0.001); elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and soluble E-selectin in combination with heart rate predicted high fibrinogen (R(2) = 0.333; P < 0.001). Differences in PAI-1 activity were not significant after adjustments for age, BMI, SHBG, and insulin.
PCOS is characterized by a prothrombotic state, as reflected by increased PAI-1 activity and fibrinogen, without signs of dyslipidemia or a proinflammatory state. Low SHBG and high insulin may partly explain the BMI-independent difference in PAI-1 activity between women with PCOS and controls. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and E-selectin may be involved in regulating fibrinogen in PCOS.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 04/2011; 96(4):1068-76. DOI:10.1210/jc.2010-2279 · 6.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orexin A and B are neuropeptides influencing, for example, arousal and respiration. Although panic disorder is characterized by both enhanced proneness for arousal and by respiratory abnormalities, the possible influence of orexin-related genes on the risk of developing this disorder has not been studied until now.
We have analyzed the Ile408Val polymorphism in the hypocretin receptor 1 (HCRTR1) gene and the Val308Iso (G1246A) polymorphism in the hypocretin receptor 2 (HCRTR2) gene in a sample of 215 panic disorder patients and 454 controls.
Although the polymorphism in the HCRTR1 did not differ between groups, the Iso allele of the HCRTR2 polymorphism was significantly more frequent in patients than in controls. After the population was divided according to sex, the association between the Iso allele of the Val308Iso polymorphism and panic disorder was observed only in female patients.
Our results suggest that the HCRTR2 polymorphism may be of importance for the pathophysiology of panic disorder. The results should be regarded as preliminary until replicated in an independent sample. This indicates that further research on the possible role of orexin in panic disorder may prove rewarding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ecological phenomenon of arthropods with defensive hairs is widespread. These urticating hairs can be divided into three categories: true setae, which are detachable hairs in Lepidoptera and in New World tarantula spiders; modified setae, which are stiff hairs in lepidopteran larvae; and spines, which are complex and secretion-filled structures in lepidopteran larvae. This review focuses on the true setae because their high density on a large number of common arthropod species has great implications for human and animal health. Morphology and function, interactions with human tissues, epidemiology, and medical impact, including inflammation and allergy in relation to true setae, are addressed. Because data from epidemiological and other clinical studies are ambiguous with regard to frequencies of setae-caused allergic reactions, other mechanisms for setae-mediated disease are suggested. Finally, we briefly discuss current evidence for the adaptive and ecological significance of true setae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated serum levels of S100B have proven useful as an indicator of brain-injury but have also been shown in patients diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. Recently, associations were found between variations in the S100B gene and schizophrenia as well as bipolar affective disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether some of these genetic variations influence general aspects of human behaviour as portrayed by normal dimensions of personality. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms within the S100B gene, 2757C>G and 5748C>T, were genotyped in two population based cohorts consisting of 42-year-old women (n=270) and 51-year-old men (n=247), respectively. The two polymorphisms were analysed with respect to personality traits assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). In men, the 2757C>G polymorphism was found to significantly influence the TCI dimension self-directedness with higher scores in 2757G homozygotes. A similar tendency towards association was seen in the female cohort; however, this correlation did not remain significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Furthermore, the 5748C>T polymorphism was highly associated with self-directedness in men. Self-directedness is an overall estimate of adaptive strategies to adjust behaviour to conceptual goals as well as coping strategies and is strongly correlated to general mental health and absence of personality disorder. These preliminary findings suggest that the S100B gene may be implicated not only in certain pathological brain conditions but also in processes involved in normal behaviour.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comprehensive characterization of the adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), over a wide range of body mass indices (BMIs), is lacking. Mechanisms behind insulin resistance in PCOS are unclear.
To characterize the adipose tissue of women with PCOS and controls matched pair-wise for age and BMI, and to identify factors, among adipose tissue characteristics and serum sex steroids, that are associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS. DESIGN/OUTCOME MEASURES: Seventy-four PCOS women and 31 controls were included. BMI was 18-47 (PCOS) and 19-41 kg/m(2) (controls). Anthropometric variables, volumes of subcutaneous/visceral adipose tissue (magnetic resonance imaging; MRI), and insulin sensitivity (clamp) were investigated. Adipose tissue biopsies were obtained to determine adipocyte size, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, and macrophage density. Circulating testosterone, free testosterone, free 17β-estradiol, SHBG, glycerol, adiponectin, and serum amyloid A were measured/calculated.
Comparison of 31 pairs revealed lower insulin sensitivity, hyperandrogenemia, and higher free 17β-estradiol in PCOS. Abdominal adipose tissue volumes/distribution did not differ in the groups, but PCOS women had higher waist-to-hip ratio, enlarged adipocytes, reduced adiponectin, and lower LPL activity. In regression analysis, adipocyte size, adiponectin, and waist circumference were the factors most strongly associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS (R(2)=0.681, P < 0.001).
In PCOS, adipose tissue has aberrant morphology/function. Increased waist-to-hip ratio indicates abdominal/visceral fat accumulation, but this is not supported by MRI. Enlarged adipocytes and reduced serum adiponectin, together with a large waistline, rather than androgen excess, may be central factors in the pathogenesis/maintenance of insulin resistance in PCOS.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 11/2010; 96(2):E304-11. DOI:10.1210/jc.2010-1290 · 6.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo/amenorrhea, and polycystic ovaries. We aimed to determine whether low-frequency electro-acupuncture (EA) would decrease hyperandrogenism and improve oligo/amenorrhea more effectively than physical exercise or no intervention. We randomized 84 women with PCOS, aged 18-37 yr, to 16 wk of low-frequency EA, physical exercise, or no intervention. The primary outcome measure changes in the concentration of total testosterone (T) at week 16 determined by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was analyzed by intention to treat. Secondary outcome measures were changes in menstrual frequency; concentrations of androgens, estrogens, androgen precursors, and glucuronidated androgen metabolites; and acne and hirsutism. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, after 16 wk of intervention, and after a 16-wk follow-up. After 16 wk of intervention, circulating T decreased by -25%, androsterone glucuronide by -30%, and androstane-3α,17β-diol-3-glucuronide by -28% in the EA group (P = 0.038, 0.030, and 0.047, respectively vs. exercise); menstrual frequency increased to 0.69/month from 0.28 at baseline in the EA group (P = 0.018 vs. exercise). After the 16-wk follow-up, the acne score decreased by -32% in the EA group (P = 0.006 vs. exercise). Both EA and exercise improved menstrual frequency and decreased the levels of several sex steroids at week 16 and at the 16-wk follow-up compared with no intervention. Low-frequency EA and physical exercise improved hyperandrogenism and menstrual frequency more effectively than no intervention in women with PCOS. Low-frequency EA was superior to physical exercise and may be useful for treating hyperandrogenism and oligo/amenorrhea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptors of the 5-HT2C subtype are of importance for the influence of serotonin on food intake, and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene (HTR2C)--Cys23Ser (rs6318) and -759C>T (rs3813929)--have been reported to be associated with weight and/or antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The present study aimed to replicate these associations; in addition, the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) was assessed. The polymorphisms were genotyped in subjects recruited from the normal population (n = 510), and possible associations between genotype and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. The Ser23 allele was more common in underweight subjects (BMI <20) than in normal- and overweight (BMI > or =20) subjects (P = .006). The T allele of the -759C/T polymorphism was less common in the overweight group (BMI > or =25) (P = .007). Homozygosity for the short allele of 5-HTTLPR was more frequent in underweight subjects (P = .015). Our results are in agreement with previous studies, suggesting polymorphisms in HTR2C to be associated with body weight, particularly in women; and they also suggest that 5-HTTLPR may influence this phenotype. Further studies on the importance of the investigated genes for eating disorders and drug-induced weight gain are warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism and panic disorder was studied in a Swedish sample of 211 patients and 452 controls. We found a significant excess of the Val allele in both male and female patients, the latter but not the former finding being in line with previous studies.
Psychiatry Research 05/2010; 178(1):196-8. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2009.11.022 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Despite the high prevalence of hyperandrogenemia, the principal biochemical abnormality in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a definitive endocrine marker for PCOS has so far not been identified. Objective: To identify a tentative diagnostic marker for PCOS, we compared serum levels of sex steroids, their precursors, and main metabolites in women with PCOS and controls. Design and Methods: In this cross-sectional study of 74 women with PCOS and 31 controls, we used gas and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to analyze serum sex steroid precursors, estrogens, androgens, and glucuronidated androgen metabolites; performed immunoassays of SHBG, LH, and FSH; and calculated the LH/FSH ratio. Results: Androgens and estrogens, sex steroid precursors, and glucuronidated androgen metabolites were higher in women with PCOS than in controls. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, estrone and free testosterone were independently associated with PCOS. The odds ratios per sd increase were 24.2 for estrone [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.0-144.7] and 12.8 for free testosterone (95% CI, 3.1-53.4). In receiver operating characteristic analyses, the area under curve was 0.93 for estrone (95% CI, 0.88-0.98) and 0.91 for free testosterone (95% CI, 0.86-0.97), indicating high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: Women with PCOS have elevated levels of sex steroid precursors, estrogens, androgens, and glucuronidated androgen metabolites as measured with a specific and sensitive mass spectrometry-based technique. The combination of elevated estrone (>50 pg/ml) and free testosterone (>3.3 pg/ml) appeared to discriminate with high sensitivity and specificity between women with and without PCOS.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 12/2009; 95(2):810-9. DOI:10.1210/jc.2009-1908 · 6.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) than in those without this disorder. Possible confounding effects of overweight and obesity are suggested. The aim was to compare symptoms of anxiety and depression in women with PCOS and controls matched for age, body weight and body mass index (BMI).
Women with PCOS (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) were recruited from the community. Persons with ongoing psychotropic medication were excluded. All potential participants underwent gynecological examination to confirm case-control status. Participants completed the self-reported versions of the Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA-S) and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S).
Women with PCOS had a higher BSA-S score compared with controls (median, range: 10.5, 1-24 versus 5.0, 0-28, P < 0.001). They scored higher on the following four individual symptoms: reduced sleep (2.0, 0-5 versus 0, 0-2, P < 0.001), worry (1.5, 0-4 versus 0, 0-6, P = 0.004), phobias (1, 0-4 versus 0, 0-3, P < 0.001), and pain (1, 0-3 versus 0, 0-2, P < 0.001). No statistical difference was demonstrated regarding MADRS-S scores (10.0, 0-27 versus 5.5, 0-24, P = 0.053). Only one of the nine MADRS-S symptoms, reduced sleep, which is also included in the BSA-S, differed between cases and controls.
Several anxiety symptoms distinguished women with PCOS from a control group matched on BMI. A better understanding of the symptoms is needed to identify and alleviate anxiety symptoms in this vulnerable group.
Human Reproduction 11/2009; 25(2):450-6. DOI:10.1093/humrep/dep384 · 4.57 Impact Factor