R Hal Scofield

Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States

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Publications (220)1076.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The serologic hallmark of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is IgG antibodies specific for Ro (SSA) and La (SSB). Molecular characteristics of glandular-derived B cells at the site of pSS inflammation have been described; however, parallels between glandular antibody-secreting cells (ASC) and serologic antibody specificities have not been evaluated. We utilized recombinant monoclonal antibody (hmAb) technology to study salivary gland-(SG) derived ASC specificities, evaluating their molecular characteristics and identified IgG antibody specificity.MethodshmAbs were generated from glandular IgG ASC. Heavy and light chain usage and immunoglobulin subclass were analyzed by sequencing. ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay and 35S immunoprecipitation analysis were used to determine antibody specificity.ResultsEvaluation of single ASCs from SG biopsies of patients with primary SS or with SS and overlapping SLE revealed significant concordance between serum autoantibody and glandular ASC specificities. Glandular-derived ASC heavy and light chains were extensively somatically hypermutated, indicative of antigen-driven responses. Specifically, we produced the first fully human monoclonal autoantibodies derived from salivary glands in this study.Conclusions Salivary glands in SS patients are a site for antibody production, which extend beyond the canonical Ro and/or La SS specificities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that glandular antibody production strongly reflects the serological humoral response in the two patients studied herein. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Efforts to identify lupus-associated causal variants in the FAM167A/BLK locus on 8p21 are hampered by highly associated noncausal variants. In this report, we used a trans-population mapping and sequencing strategy to identify a common variant (rs922483) in the proximal BLK promoter and a tri-allelic variant (rs1382568) in the upstream alternative BLK promoter as putative causal variants for association with systemic lupus erythematosus. The risk allele (T) at rs922483 reduced proximal promoter activity and modulated alternative promoter usage. Allelic differences at rs1382568 resulted in altered promoter activity in B progenitor cell lines. Thus, our results demonstrated that both lupus-associated functional variants contribute to the autoimmune disease association by modulating transcription of BLK in B cells and thus potentially altering immune responses.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 04/2014; 94(4):586-98. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, vitamin D has been shown to possess a wide range of immunomodulatory effects. Although there is extensive amount of research on vitamin D, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or the mechanism by which vitamin D regulates the human immune system. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency and the relationship between vitamin D and the immune system in healthy individuals. Healthy individuals (n = 774) comprised of European-Americans (EA, n = 470), African-Americans (AA, n = 125), and Native Americans (NA, n = 179) were screened for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels by ELISA. To identify the most noticeable effects of vitamin D on the immune system, 20 EA individuals with severely deficient (<11.3 ng/mL) and sufficient (>24.8 ng/mL) vitamin D levels were matched and selected for further analysis. Serum cytokine level measurement, immune cell phenotyping, and phosphoflow cytometry were performed. Vitamin D sufficiency was observed in 37.5% of the study cohort. By multivariate analysis, AA, NA, and females with a high body mass index (BMI, >30) demonstrate higher rates of vitamin D deficiency (p<0.05). Individuals with vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher levels of serum GM-CSF (p = 0.04), decreased circulating activated CD4+ (p = 0.04) and CD8+ T (p = 0.04) cell frequencies than individuals with sufficient vitamin D levels. A large portion of healthy individuals have vitamin D deficiency. These individuals have altered T and B cell responses, indicating that the absence of sufficient vitamin D levels could result in undesirable cellular and molecular alterations ultimately contributing to immune dysregulation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94500. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prolidase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease in which one of the last steps of collagen metabolism, cleavage of proline-containing dipeptides, is impaired. Only about 93 patients have been reported with about 10% also having systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We studied a large extended Amish pedigree with four prolidase deficiency patients and three heterozygous individuals for lupus-associated autoimmunity. Eight unaffected Amish children served as normal controls. Prolidase genetics and enzyme activity were confirmed. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were determined using indirect immunofluorescence and antibodies against extractable nuclear antigens were determined by various methods, including double immunodiffusion, immunoprecipitation and multiplex bead assay. Serum C1q levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two of the four homozygous prolidase deficiency subjects had a positive ANA. One had anti-double-stranded DNA, while another had precipitating anti-Ro. By the simultaneous microbead assay, three of the four had anti-Sm and anti-chromatin. One of the three heterozygous subjects had a positive ANA and immunoprecipitation of a 75 000 molecular weight protein. The unaffected controls had normal prolidase activity and were negative for autoantibodies. Prolidase deficiency may be associated with the loss of immune tolerance to lupus-associated autoantigens even without clinical SLE.
    International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases 12/2013; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease with incompletely understood etiology. Very little is known about the role of epigenetic dysregulation in the pathogenesis of pSS. Methods: We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation study in naïve CD4(+) T cells in eleven pSS patients compared to age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy controls. Cytosine methylation was quantified using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array and validated using bisulfite sequencing. Results: We identified 553 hypomethylated and 200 hypermethylated CpG sites in naïve CD4(+) T cells from pSS patients compared to healthy matched controls, representing 311 hypomethylated and 115 hypermethylated gene regions. Hypomethylated genes in pSS include LTA, coding for Lymphotoxin α. Other relevant genes such as CD247, TNFRSF25, PTPRC, GSTM1 and PDCD1 were also hypomethylated. The interferon signature pathway was represented by hypomethylation of STAT1, IFI44L, USP18 and IFITM1. A group of genes encoding for members of the solute carrier proteins were differentially methylated. In addition, the transcription factor RUNX1 was hypermethylated in patients, suggesting a possible connection to lymphoma predisposition. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of hypomethylated genes demonstrated enrichment of genes involved in lymphocyte activation and immune response. GO terms for hypermethylated genes included antigen processing and presentation. Conclusion: This is the first epigenome-wide DNA methylation study in pSS. Our data highlight a role for DNA methylation in pSS and identify disease-associated DNA methylation changes in several genes and pathways in naïve CD4(+) T cells in pSS that may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. © 2013 American College of Rheumatology.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 11/2013; · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sjögren's syndrome is a common autoimmune disease (affecting ∼0.7% of European Americans) that typically presents as keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. Here we report results of a large-scale association study of Sjögren's syndrome. In addition to strong association within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region at 6p21 (Pmeta = 7.65 × 10(-114)), we establish associations with IRF5-TNPO3 (Pmeta = 2.73 × 10(-19)), STAT4 (Pmeta = 6.80 × 10(-15)), IL12A (Pmeta = 1.17 × 10(-10)), FAM167A-BLK (Pmeta = 4.97 × 10(-10)), DDX6-CXCR5 (Pmeta = 1.10 × 10(-8)) and TNIP1 (Pmeta = 3.30 × 10(-8)). We also observed suggestive associations (Pmeta < 5 × 10(-5)) with variants in 29 other regions, including TNFAIP3, PTTG1, PRDM1, DGKQ, FCGR2A, IRAK1BP1, ITSN2 and PHIP, among others. These results highlight the importance of genes that are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity in Sjögren's syndrome.
    Nature Genetics 10/2013; · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is elevated in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) correlating with disease activity. The established association of IL10 with SLE and other autoimmune diseases led us to fine map causal variant(s) and to explore underlying mechanisms. We assessed 19 tag SNPs, covering the IL10 gene cluster including IL19, IL20 and IL24, for association with SLE in 15,533 case and control subjects from four ancestries. The previously reported IL10 variant, rs3024505 located at 1 kb downstream of IL10, exhibited the strongest association signal and was confirmed for association with SLE in European American (EA) (P = 2.7×10(-8), OR = 1.30), but not in non-EA ancestries. SNP imputation conducted in EA dataset identified three additional SLE-associated SNPs tagged by rs3024505 (rs3122605, rs3024493 and rs3024495 located at 9.2 kb upstream, intron 3 and 4 of IL10, respectively), and SLE-risk alleles of these SNPs were dose-dependently associated with elevated levels of IL10 mRNA in PBMCs and circulating IL-10 protein in SLE patients and controls. Using nuclear extracts of peripheral blood cells from SLE patients for electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified specific binding of transcription factor Elk-1 to oligodeoxynucleotides containing the risk (G) allele of rs3122605, suggesting rs3122605 as the most likely causal variant regulating IL10 expression. Elk-1 is known to be activated by phosphorylation and nuclear localization to induce transcription. Of interest, phosphorylated Elk-1 (p-Elk-1) detected only in nuclear extracts of SLE PBMCs appeared to increase with disease activity. Co-expression levels of p-Elk-1 and IL-10 were elevated in SLE T, B cells and monocytes, associated with increased disease activity in SLE B cells, and were best downregulated by ERK inhibitor. Taken together, our data suggest that preferential binding of activated Elk-1 to the IL10 rs3122605-G allele upregulates IL10 expression and confers increased risk for SLE in European Americans.
    PLoS Genetics 10/2013; 9(10):e1003870. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the performance of the American-European Consensus Group (AECG) and the newly proposed American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) in a well-characterised sicca cohort, given ongoing efforts to resolve discrepancies and weaknesses in the systems. In a multidisciplinary clinic for the evaluation of sicca, we assessed features of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and autoimmunity as defined by tests of both AECG and ACR criteria in 646 participants. Global gene expression profiles were compared in a subset of 180 participants. Application of the AECG and ACR criteria resulted in classification of 279 and 268 participants with SS, respectively. Both criteria were met by 244 participants (81%). In 26 of the 35 AECG+/ACR participants, the minor salivary gland biopsy focal score was ≥1 (74%), while nine had positive anti-Ro/La (26%). There were 24 AECG-/ACR+ who met ACR criteria mainly due to differences in the scoring of corneal staining. All patients with SS, regardless of classification, had similar gene expression profiles, which were distinct from the healthy controls. The two sets of classification criteria yield concordant results in the majority of cases and gene expression profiling suggests that patients meeting either set of criteria are more similar to other SS participants than to healthy controls. Thus, there is no clear evidence for increased value of the new ACR criteria over the old AECG criteria from the clinical or biological perspective. It is our contention, supported by this report, that improvements in diagnostic acumen will require a more fundamental understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms than is at present available.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 08/2013; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic factors underlying the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus are largely unknown, although animal studies indicate that nuclear factor (NF)-κB is involved. We reported previously that a knockin mouse expressing an inactive form of ABIN1 (ABIN1[D485N]) develops lupus-like autoimmune disease and demonstrates enhanced activation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases in immune cells after toll-like receptor stimulation. In the current study, we show that ABIN1[D485N] mice develop progressive GN similar to class III and IV lupus nephritis in humans. To investigate the clinical relevance of ABIN1 dysfunction, we genotyped five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding ABIN1, TNIP1, in samples from European-American, African American, Asian, Gullah, and Hispanic participants in the Large Lupus Association Study 2. Comparing cases of systemic lupus erythematosus with nephritis and cases of systemic lupus erythematosus without nephritis revealed strong associations with lupus nephritis at rs7708392 in European Americans and rs4958881 in African Americans. Comparing cases of systemic lupus erythematosus with nephritis and healthy controls revealed a stronger association at rs7708392 in European Americans but not at rs4958881 in African Americans. Our data suggest that variants in the TNIP1 gene are associated with the risk for lupus nephritis and could be mechanistically involved in disease development via aberrant regulation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously established an 80 kb haplotype upstream of TNFSF4 as a susceptibility locus in the autoimmune disease SLE. SLE-associated alleles at this locus are associated with inflammatory disorders, including atherosclerosis and ischaemic stroke. In Europeans, the TNFSF4 causal variants have remained elusive due to strong linkage disequilibrium exhibited by alleles spanning the region. Using a trans-ancestral approach to fine-map the locus, utilising 17,900 SLE and control subjects including Amerindian/Hispanics (1348 cases, 717 controls), African-Americans (AA) (1529, 2048) and better powered cohorts of Europeans and East Asians, we find strong association of risk alleles in all ethnicities; the AA association replicates in African-American Gullah (152,122). The best evidence of association comes from two adjacent markers: rs2205960-T (P = 1.71×10(-34) , OR = 1.43[1.26-1.60]) and rs1234317-T (P = 1.16×10(-28) , OR = 1.38[1.24-1.54]). Inference of fine-scale recombination rates for all populations tested finds the 80 kb risk and non-risk haplotypes in all except African-Americans. In this population the decay of recombination equates to an 11 kb risk haplotype, anchored in the 5' region proximal to TNFSF4 and tagged by rs2205960-T after 1000 Genomes phase 1 (v3) imputation. Conditional regression analyses delineate the 5' risk signal to rs2205960-T and the independent non-risk signal to rs1234314-C. Our case-only and SLE-control cohorts demonstrate robust association of rs2205960-T with autoantibody production. The rs2205960-T is predicted to form part of a decameric motif which binds NF-κBp65 with increased affinity compared to rs2205960-G. ChIP-seq data also indicate NF-κB interaction with the DNA sequence at this position in LCL cells. Our research suggests association of rs2205960-T with SLE across multiple groups and an independent non-risk signal at rs1234314-C. rs2205960-T is associated with autoantibody production and lymphopenia. Our data confirm a global signal at TNFSF4 and a role for the expressed product at multiple stages of lymphocyte dysregulation during SLE pathogenesis. We confirm the validity of trans-ancestral mapping in a complex trait.
    PLoS Genetics 07/2013; 9(7):e1003554. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The chemokine receptor CCR5 has been implicated in the pathology of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) and Type I Diabetes (T1D). We performed a case control study to determine the frequency and relative risk associated with the CCR5 delta 32 mutation in cohorts of 90 pSS patients, 120 T1D patients and 111 controls from Columbia, Latin America. Cohorts were typed by PCR and allele frequencies and relative risk determined. The CCR5 delta 32 mutation frequency was not significantly different between pSS and control cohorts. Interestingly, mutation frequencies were significantly lower in individuals with T1D than in controls. We determined that the CCR5 delta 32 allele does not confer significant risk in either pSS (OR 0.952, p = 0.92) or T1D (OR 0.448, 0.09) compared to controls in Colombians.
    Clinical Immunology 05/2013; 148(2):206-208. · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • Ann Igoe, R Hal Scofield
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent developments concerning the potential viral pathomechanisms and involvement of viruses in Sjögren's syndrome, and to highlight the areas for future research and therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Activated IFN-1 pathway plays an important part in the autoimmune disease process of Sjögren's syndrome; therefore, several therapies aiming to reduce or inhibit the IFN-1 production and its effects may be a target for future treatment plans. Activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor may interact with latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, which in turn may predispose to the development of Sjögren's syndrome. It is estimated that the population is 95% positive for EBV serology. Microbial factors may incite autoimmune disease. Although this hypothesis is proven in a few illnesses such as rheumatic fever, there is no definitive evidence of an infectious environmental trigger in Sjögren's syndrome. However, there are circumstantial data with regard to viruses and several potential mechanisms of disease. These include antigen mimicry, polyclonal lymphocyte activation, and infection-mediated innate end-organ inflammation. In addition, hepatitis C virus infection clearly causes a Sjögren's-syndrome-like illness. SUMMARY: Data continue to implicate viral infection in the cause of Sjögren's syndrome, but there are no definitive studies incriminating a particular virus.
    Current opinion in rheumatology 05/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the genetic etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in individuals of African ancestry, despite its higher prevalence and greater disease severity. Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species are implicated in the pathogenesis and severity of SLE, making NO synthases and other reactive intermediate-related genes biological candidates for disease susceptibility. We analyzed variation in reactive intermediate genes for association with SLE in 2 populations with African ancestry. METHODS: A total of 244 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 53 regions were analyzed in non-Gullah African Americans (AA; 1432 cases and 1687 controls) and the genetically more homogeneous Gullah of the Sea Islands of South Carolina (133 cases and 112 controls). Single-marker, haplotype, and 2-locus interaction tests were computed for these populations. RESULTS: The glutathione reductase gene GSR (rs2253409; p = 0.0014, OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.44) was the most significant single SNP association in AA. In the Gullah, the NADH dehydrogenase NDUFS4 (rs381575; p = 0.0065, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.23-3.59) and NO synthase gene NOS1 (rs561712; p = 0.0072, OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.88) were most strongly associated with SLE. When both populations were analyzed together, GSR remained the most significant effect (rs2253409; p = 0.00072, OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.10-1.44). Haplotype and 2-locus interaction analyses also uncovered different loci in each population. CONCLUSION: These results suggest distinct patterns of association with SLE in African-derived populations; specific loci may be more strongly associated within select population groups.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 05/2013; · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic illness characteristically manifested by immune injury to the salivary and lacrimal glands, resulting in dry mouth/eyes. Anti-Ro (SSA) and anti-La (SSB) autoantibodies are frequently found in Sjögren's subjects as well as individuals that will go on to develop the disease. Immunization of BALB/c mice with Ro60 peptides results in epitope spreading with anti-Ro and anti-La along with lymphocyte infiltration of salivary glands similar to human Sjögren's. In addition, these animals have poor salivary function/low saliva volume. Here, we examined whether Ro-peptide immunization produces a Sjögren's-like illness in other strains of mice. BALB/c, DBA-2, PL/J, SJL/J and C57BL/6 mice were immunized with Ro60 peptide-274. Sera from these mice were studied by immunoblot and ELISA for autoantibodies. Timed salivary flow was determined after pharmacological stimulation, and salivary glands were examined pathologically. We found SJL/J mice had no immune response to the peptide from Ro60 while C57BL/6 mice produced antibodies that bound the peptide but had no epitope spreading. PL/J mice had epitope spreading to other structures of Ro60 as well as to La, but like C57BL/6 and SJL/J had no salivary gland lymphocytic infiltration and no decrement of salivary function. DBA-2 and BALB/c mice had infiltration but only BALB/c had decreased salivary function. The immunologic processes leading to a Sjögren's-like illness after Ro-peptide immunization were interrupted in a stepwise fashion in these differing mice strains. These data suggest this is a model of pre-clinical disease with genetic control for epitope spreading, lymphocytic infiltration and glandular dysfunction.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 02/2013; · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. African-Americans (AA) are at increased risk of SLE, but the genetic basis of this risk is largely unknown. To identify causal variants in SLE loci in AA, we performed admixture mapping followed by fine mapping in AA and European-Americans (EA). Through genome-wide admixture mapping in AA, we identified a strong SLE susceptibility locus at 2q22-24 (LOD = 6.28), and the admixture signal is associated with the European ancestry (ancestry risk ratio ∼1.5). Large-scale genotypic analysis on 19,726 individuals of African and European ancestry revealed three independently associated variants in the IFIH1 gene: an intronic variant, rs13023380 [P(meta) = 5.20×10(-14); odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 0.82 (0.78-0.87)], and two missense variants, rs1990760 (Ala946Thr) [P(meta) = 3.08×10(-7); 0.88 (0.84-0.93)] and rs10930046 (Arg460His) [P(dom) = 1.16×10(-8); 0.70 (0.62-0.79)]. Both missense variants produced dramatic phenotypic changes in apoptosis and inflammation-related gene expression. We experimentally validated function of the intronic SNP by DNA electrophoresis, protein identification, and in vitro protein binding assays. DNA carrying the intronic risk allele rs13023380 showed reduced binding efficiency to a cellular protein complex including nucleolin and lupus autoantigen Ku70/80, and showed reduced transcriptional activity in vivo. Thus, in SLE patients, genetic susceptibility could create a biochemical imbalance that dysregulates nucleolin, Ku70/80, or other nucleic acid regulatory proteins. This could promote antibody hypermutation and auto-antibody generation, further destabilizing the cellular network. Together with molecular modeling, our results establish a distinct role for IFIH1 in apoptosis, inflammation, and autoantibody production, and explain the molecular basis of these three risk alleles for SLE pathogenesis.
    PLoS Genetics 02/2013; 9(2):e1003222. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the G allele of rs3853839 at 3'untranslated region (UTR) of Toll-like receptor 7 () was associated with elevated transcript expression and increased risk for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 9,274 Eastern Asians [ = 6.5×10, odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) = 1.27 (1.17-1.36)]. Here, we conducted trans-ancestral fine-mapping in 13,339 subjects including European Americans, African Americans, and Amerindian/Hispanics and confirmed rs3853839 as the only variant within the region exhibiting consistent and independent association with SLE ( = 7.5×10, OR = 1.24 [1.18-1.34]). The risk G allele was associated with significantly increased levels of mRNA and protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and elevated luciferase activity of reporter gene in transfected cells. 3'UTR sequence bearing the non-risk C allele of rs3853839 matches a predicted binding site of microRNA-3148 (miR-3148), suggesting that this microRNA may regulate expression. Indeed, miR-3148 levels were inversely correlated with transcript levels in PBMCs from SLE patients and controls (R = 0.255, = 0.001). Overexpression of miR-3148 in HEK-293 cells led to significant dose-dependent decrease in luciferase activity for construct driven by 3'UTR segment bearing the C allele ( = 0.0003). Compared with the G-allele construct, the C-allele construct showed greater than two-fold reduction of luciferase activity in the presence of miR-3148. Reduced modulation by miR-3148 conferred slower degradation of the risk G-allele containing transcripts, resulting in elevated levels of gene products. These data establish rs3853839 of as a shared risk variant of SLE in 22,613 subjects of Asian, EA, AA, and Amerindian/Hispanic ancestries ( = 2.0×10, OR = 1.25 [1.20-1.32]), which confers allelic effect on transcript turnover via differential binding to the epigenetic factor miR-3148.
    PLoS Genetics 02/2013; 9(2):e1003336. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) occurs more frequently among women than men. We aimed to determine whether the male-female ratio in SLE families is different from what would be expected by chance, and whether excess male fetal loss is found. METHODS: All patients with SLE met the revised American College of Rheumatology classification criteria, while unaffected subjects were shown not to satisfy these same criteria. Putative family relationships were confirmed by genetic testing. Pregnancy history was obtained from all subjects, including unrelated control women. Adjusted Wald binomial confidence intervals were calculated for ratio of boys to girls in families and compared to the expected ratio of 1.06. RESULTS: There were 2579 subjects with SLE, with 6056 siblings. Considering all subjects, we found 3201 boys and 5434 girls (ratio 0.59, of 95% CI 0.576-0.602). Considering only the SLE-unaffected siblings, there were 2919 boys and 3137 girls (ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.92-0.94). In both cases, the ratio of males to females was statistically different from the known birth rate. Among patients with SLE as well as among their sisters and mothers, there was an excess of male fetal loss compared to the controls. CONCLUSION: Siblings of patients with SLE are more likely than expected to be girls. This finding may be in part explained by excess male fetal loss, which is found among patients with SLE and their first-degree relatives.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 02/2013; · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is a negative regulator of T-cell activation associated with several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Missense rs2476601 is associated with SLE in individuals with European ancestry. Since the rs2476601 risk allele frequency differs dramatically across ethnicities, we assessed robustness of PTPN22 association with SLE and its clinical sub-phenotypes across four ethnically diverse populations. Ten SNPs were genotyped in 8220 SLE cases and 7369 controls from in European-Americans (EA), African-Americans (AA), Asians (AS), and Hispanics (HS). We performed imputation-based association followed by conditional analysis to identify independent associations. Significantly associated SNPs were tested for association with SLE clinical sub-phenotypes, including autoantibody profiles. Multiple testing was accounted for by using false discovery rate. We successfully imputed and tested allelic association for 107 SNPs within the PTPN22 region and detected evidence of ethnic-specific associations from EA and HS. In EA, the strongest association was at rs2476601 (P = 4.7x10(-9), OR = 1.40 (95% CI = 1.25-1.56)). Independent association with rs1217414 was also observed in EA, and both SNPs are correlated with increased European ancestry. For HS imputed intronic SNP, rs3765598, predicted to be a cis-eQTL, was associated (P = 0.007, OR = 0.79 and 95% CI = 0.67-0.94). No significant associations were observed in AA or AS. Case-only analysis using lupus-related clinical criteria revealed differences between EA SLE patients positive for moderate to high titers of IgG anti-cardiolipin (aCL IgG >20) versus negative aCL IgG at rs2476601 (P = 0.012, OR = 1.65). Association was reinforced when these cases were compared to controls (P = 2.7x10(-5), OR = 2.11). Our results validate that rs2476601 is the most significantly associated SNP in individuals with European ancestry. Additionally, rs1217414 and rs3765598 may be associated with SLE. Further studies are required to confirm the involvement of rs2476601 with aCL IgG.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e69404. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Replacement of standard immunofluorescence methods with bead-based assays for antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing is a new clinical option. The aim of this study was to evaluate a large, multiethnic cohort of patients with systemic lupus erytematosus (SLE), blood relatives, and unaffected control individuals for familial aggregation and subset clustering of autoantibodies by high-throughput serum screening technology and traditional methods. Serum samples (1,540 SLE patients, 1,154 unaffected relatives, and 906 healthy, population-based controls) were analyzed for SLE autoantibodies using a bead-based assay, indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), and immunodiffusion. Autoantibody prevalence, sensitivity for disease detection, clustering of autoantibodies, and associations between newer methods and standard immunodiffusion results were evaluated. The frequencies of ANAs in the sera from African American, Hispanic, and European American patients with SLE were 89%, 73%, and 67%, respectively, by BioPlex 2200 bead-based assay and 94%, 84%, and 86%, respectively, by IIF. When comparing the serum prevalence of 60-kd Ro, La, Sm, nuclear RNP A, and ribosomal P autoantibodies across assays, the sensitivity of detection ranged from 0.92 to 0.83 and the specificity ranged from 0.90 to 0.79. Autoantibody cluster analysis showed associations of autoantibody specificities in 3 subsets: 1) 60 kd Ro, 52-kd Ro, and La, 2) spliceosomal proteins, and 3) double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), chromatin, and ribosomal P. Familial aggregation of Sm/RNP, ribosomal P, and 60-kd Ro in SLE patient sibling pairs was observed (P ≤ 0.004). Simplex-pedigree SLE patients had a greater prevalence of dsDNA (P = 0.0003) and chromatin (P = 0.005) autoantibodies compared to patients with a multiplex SLE pedigree. The frequencies of ANAs detected by a bead-based assay are lower than those detected by IIF in European American patients with SLE. These assays have strong positive predictive values across ethnic groups, provide useful information for clinical care, and provide unique insights into familial aggregation and autoantibody clustering.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 11/2012; 64(11):3677-86. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sjögren syndrome is a common, chronic autoimmune disease that typically produces inflammation and poor function of the salivary and lacrimal glands. Other organs can be affected, including the nervous system. Sensory peripheral neuropathy is a common manifestation of the disease. METHODS: Eight-eight patients attending a dry eyes-dry mouth clinic were diagnosed to have primary Sjögren syndrome and underwent a neurological examination. Anti-Ro (or SSA) and anti-La (or SSB) were determined using immunodiffusion as well as Inno-Lia and BioPlex ANA screen. Serum vitamin B12 levels were determined using an enzyme-linked microtiter plate assay. RESULTS: Twenty-seven (31%) of the 88 patients had peripheral neuropathy as defined by loss of light touch, proprioception, or vibratory sensation. Anti-Ro and anti-La were found by immunodiffusion in 12 patients, and 8 of these 12 had neuropathy (χ = 8.46, P = 0.0036, odds ratio = 6.0 compared to those without precipitating anti-Ro and anti-La). Of the 27 patients with only anti-Ro by immunodiffusion, 13 (48.1%) had neuropathy (χ = 5.587, P = 0.018, compared to those without anti-Ro). There was no relationship of the other, more sensitive measures of anti-Ro and anti-La to neuropathy. In addition, we found no association of serum vitamin B12 levels to neuropathy among these patients with Sjögren syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Sensory peripheral neuropathy is common among patients with Sjögren syndrome and is associated with the presence of anti-Ro and anti-La when determined by immunodiffusion.
    Journal of clinical rheumatology: practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases 09/2012; 18(6):290-293. · 1.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,076.61 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991–2014
    • Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
      • • Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program
      • • Free Radical Biology and Aging Program
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Michigan
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Division of Rheumatology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • 1991–2013
    • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2011
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      • Institut für Immunologie
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2009
    • Carl Gustav Carus-Institut
      Pforzheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2008
    • University of Central Oklahoma
      Edmond, Oklahoma, United States
  • 1999
    • Oklahoma City University
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States