R H Scofield

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

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Publications (82)339.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is a negative regulator of T-cell activation associated with several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Missense rs2476601 is associated with SLE in individuals with European ancestry. Since the rs2476601 risk allele frequency differs dramatically across ethnicities, we assessed robustness of PTPN22 association with SLE and its clinical sub-phenotypes across four ethnically diverse populations. Ten SNPs were genotyped in 8220 SLE cases and 7369 controls from in European-Americans (EA), African-Americans (AA), Asians (AS), and Hispanics (HS). We performed imputation-based association followed by conditional analysis to identify independent associations. Significantly associated SNPs were tested for association with SLE clinical sub-phenotypes, including autoantibody profiles. Multiple testing was accounted for by using false discovery rate. We successfully imputed and tested allelic association for 107 SNPs within the PTPN22 region and detected evidence of ethnic-specific associations from EA and HS. In EA, the strongest association was at rs2476601 (P = 4.7x10(-9), OR = 1.40 (95% CI = 1.25-1.56)). Independent association with rs1217414 was also observed in EA, and both SNPs are correlated with increased European ancestry. For HS imputed intronic SNP, rs3765598, predicted to be a cis-eQTL, was associated (P = 0.007, OR = 0.79 and 95% CI = 0.67-0.94). No significant associations were observed in AA or AS. Case-only analysis using lupus-related clinical criteria revealed differences between EA SLE patients positive for moderate to high titers of IgG anti-cardiolipin (aCL IgG >20) versus negative aCL IgG at rs2476601 (P = 0.012, OR = 1.65). Association was reinforced when these cases were compared to controls (P = 2.7x10(-5), OR = 2.11). Our results validate that rs2476601 is the most significantly associated SNP in individuals with European ancestry. Additionally, rs1217414 and rs3765598 may be associated with SLE. Further studies are required to confirm the involvement of rs2476601 with aCL IgG.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e69404. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Arthritis Research & Therapy 09/2012; 14(3). · 4.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with diverse clinical manifestations characterized by the development of pathogenic autoantibodies manifesting in inflammation of target organs such as the kidneys, skin and joints. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants in the UBE2L3 region that are associated with SLE in subjects of European and Asian ancestry. UBE2L3 encodes an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UBCH7, involved in cell proliferation and immune function. In this study, we sought to further characterize the genetic association in the region of UBE2L3 and use molecular methods to determine the functional effect of the risk haplotype. We identified significant associations between variants in the region of UBE2L3 and SLE in individuals of European and Asian ancestry that exceeded a Bonferroni-corrected threshold (P<1 × 10(-4)). A single risk haplotype was observed in all associated populations. Individuals harboring the risk haplotype display a significant increase in both UBE2L3 mRNA expression (P=0.0004) and UBCH7 protein expression (P=0.0068). The results suggest that variants carried on the SLE-associated UBE2L3 risk haplotype influence autoimmunity by modulating UBCH7 expression.
    Genes and immunity 04/2012; 13(5):380-7. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Homozygous C1q deficiency is an extremely rare condition and strongly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. To assess and characterize C1q deficiency in an African-American lupus pedigree, C1q genomic region was evaluated in the lupus cases and family members. Genomic DNA from patient was obtained and C1q A, B and C gene cluster was sequenced using next generation sequencing method. The identified mutation was further confirmed by direct Sanger sequencing method in the patient and all blood relatives. C1q levels in serum were measured using sandwich ELISA method. In an African-American patient with lupus and C1q deficiency, we identified and confirmed a novel homozygote start codon mutation in C1qA gene that changes amino acid methionine to arginine at position 1. The Met1Arg mutation prevents protein translation (Met1Arg). Mutation analyses of the patient's family members also revealed the Met1Arg homozygote mutation in her deceased brother who also had lupus with absence of total complement activity consistent with a recessive pattern of inheritance. The identification of new mutation in C1qA gene that disrupts the start codon (ATG to AGG (Met1Arg)) has not been reported previously and it expands the knowledge and importance of the C1q gene in the pathogenesis of lupus especially in the high-risk African-American population.
    Lupus 04/2012; 21(10):1113-8. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production and organ damage. Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most severe manifestations of SLE. Multiple studies reported associations between renal diseases and variants in the non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) and the neighboring apolipoprotein L 1 (APOL1) genes. We evaluated 167 variants spanning MYH9 for association with LN in a multiethnic sample. The two previously identified risk variants in APOL1 were also tested for association with LN in European-Americans (EAs) (N = 579) and African-Americans (AAs) (N = 407). Multiple peaks of association exceeding a Bonferroni corrected P-value of P < 2.03 × 10(-3) were observed between LN and MYH9 in EAs (N = 4620), with the most pronounced association at rs2157257 (P = 4.7 × 10(-4), odds ratio (OR) = 1.205). A modest effect with MYH9 was also detected in Gullah (rs8136069, P = 0.0019, OR = 2.304). No association between LN and MYH9 was found in AAs, Asians, Amerindians or Hispanics. This study provides the first investigation of MYH9 in LN in non-Africans and of APOL1 in LN in any population, and presents novel insight into the potential role of MYH9 in LN in EAs.
    Genes and immunity 12/2011; 13(3):232-8. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disorder with a complex pathogenesis in which genetic, hormonal and environmental factors have a role. Rare mutations in the TREX1 gene, the major mammalian 3'-5' exonuclease, have been reported in sporadic SLE cases. Some of these mutations have also been identified in a rare pediatric neurological condition featuring an inflammatory encephalopathy known as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). We sought to investigate the frequency of these mutations in a large multi-ancestral cohort of SLE cases and controls. A total of 40 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including both common and rare variants, across the TREX1 gene, were evaluated in ∼8370 patients with SLE and ∼7490 control subjects. Stringent quality control procedures were applied, and principal components and admixture proportions were calculated to identify outliers for removal from analysis. Population-based case-control association analyses were performed. P-values, false-discovery rate q values, and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The estimated frequency of TREX1 mutations in our lupus cohort was 0.5%. Five heterozygous mutations were detected at the Y305C polymorphism in European lupus cases but none were observed in European controls. Five African cases incurred heterozygous mutations at the E266G polymorphism and, again, none were observed in the African controls. A rare homozygous R114H mutation was identified in one Asian SLE patient, whereas all genotypes at this mutation in previous reports for SLE were heterozygous. Analysis of common TREX1 SNPs (minor allele frequency (MAF)>10%) revealed a relatively common risk haplotype in European SLE patients with neurological manifestations, especially seizures, with a frequency of 58% in lupus cases compared with 45% in normal controls (P=0.0008, OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.25-2.39). Finally, the presence or absence of specific autoantibodies in certain populations produced significant genetic associations. For example, a strong association with anti-nRNP was observed in the European cohort at a coding synonymous variant rs56203834 (P=2.99E-13, OR=5.2, 95% CI=3.18-8.56). Our data confirm and expand previous reports and provide additional support for the involvement of TREX1 in lupus pathogenesis.
    Genes and immunity 01/2011; 12(4):270-9. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bippes, Claudia C. Feldmann, Anja Stamova, Slava Cartellieri, Marc Schwarzer, Adrian Wehner, Rebekka Schmitz, Marc Rieber, E. Peter Zhao, Senming Schaekel, Knut Temme, Achim Scofield, R. Hal Kurien, Biji T. Bartsch, Holger Bachmann, Michael
    01/2011; 6.
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    ABSTRACT: Kurien, Biji T. Porter, Andrew Dorri, Yaser Iqbal, Saqib D'Souza, Anil Singh, Anil Asfa, Sima Cartellieri, Marc Mathias, Kristen Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Bachmann, Michael Hensley, Kenneth Scofield, R. Hal
    01/2011; 50:1222-1233.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate the salivary chemokine levels in patients with primary SS (pSS) and compare them with those in patients with non-SS sicca symptoms or non-sicca controls. Unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from pSS patients (n = 30) and age- and gender-matched patients with non-SS sicca (n = 30) and non-sicca healthy controls (n = 25). Salivary CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL8 and CXCL10 levels were measured using a Luminex bead-based multiplex assay. Patients with pSS had significantly different distributions of salivary CCL3 (P = 0.0001 by the Kruskal-Wallis test), CCL4 (P < 0.00001), CXLC8 (P < 0.0001) and CXCL10 (P < 0.05) levels in unstimulated saliva and all chemokine levels in stimulated saliva when compared with non-SS sicca and non-sicca controls. In comparison with chemokine production rate, the CXCL8 and CXCL10 production rates were significantly higher in pSS than in non-SS sicca controls (P < 0.01 by the Mann-Whitney test). Logistic regression analyses revealed that salivary CXCL8 (P < 0.05) and CXCL10 (P < 0.05) were the significant discriminating chemokines between the pSS and non-SS sicca groups. Although CXCL8 and CXCL10 levels were not correlated with the focus scores, CXCL8 and CXCL10 levels were significantly associated with salivary gland dysfunction. These results support the notion that CXCL8 or CXCL10 chemokine plays a role in the pathogenesis of pSS.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 09/2010; 49(9):1747-52. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic complete deficiency of the early complement components such as C1, C2 and C4 commonly results in a monogenetic form of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, previous studies have examined groups of complete complement deficient subjects for SLE, while a familial SLE cohort has not been studied for deficiencies of complement. Thus, we undertook the present study to determine the frequency of hereditary complete complement deficiencies among families with two or more SLE patients. All SLE patients from 544 such families had CH50 determined. Medical records were examined for past CH50 values. There were 66 individuals in whom all available CH50 values were zero. All but four of these had a SLE-affected relative with a non-zero CH50; thus, these families did not have monogenetic complement deficient related SLE. The four remaining SLE-affected subjects were in fact two sets of siblings in which three of the four SLE patients had onset of disease at <18 years of age. Both patients in one of these families had been determined to have C4 deficiency, while the other family had no clinical diagnosis of complement deficiency. In this second family, one of the SLE patients had had normal C4 and C3 values, indicating that either C1q or C2 deficiency was possible. Thus, only 2 of 544 SLE families had definite or possible complement deficiency; however, 1 of 7 families in which all SLE patients had pediatric onset and 2 of 85 families with at least 1 pediatric-onset SLE patent had complete complement deficiency. SLE is found commonly among families with hereditary complement deficiency but the reverse is not true. Complete complement deficiency is rare among families with two or more SLE patients, but is concentrated among families with onset of SLE prior to age 18.
    Lupus 11/2009; 19(1):52-7. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that sera of patients with systemic autoimmunity contain autoantibodies to nuclear antigens. It is also known that patients with systemic autoimmunity have an increased risk for the development of tumours. Interestingly, tumour patients frequently develop autoantibodies and there is a growing list of potential tumour-associated antigens. It is, however, not known whether or not patients with systemic autoimmunity also develop antibodies to tumour-associated antigens. Here we describe the development of a novel multiprotein array allowing us to screen for autoantibodies to 30 different tumour-associated antigens in parallel. Using this novel assay, we found that the frequency of autoantibodies to the selected tumour-associated antigens is increased between 2- and 14-fold in patients with systemic autoimmunity compared with an age-matched control group.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 07/2009; 69(6):563-9. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disproportionately affects women. Recent work demonstrates that men with Klinefelter's syndrome (47,XXY men) have a similar risk of developing SLE as do women. We present an unusual African-American family with two SLE-affected individuals in which one of the patients with SLE also has Turner's syndrome (46,X,del(X)(q13)). Although not definitive, this family raises interesting questions regarding the function of genes located on the X chromosome in the development of SLE. The paucity of case reports documenting the overlap of SLE with Turner's syndrome while there is an association of male SLE with Klinefelter's syndrome suggests a lower risk of SLE in women with Turner's syndrome. These observations are consistent with a gene dose effect at X with two X chromosomes (46,XX or 47,XXY) conferring higher risk and one X chromosome (46,XY or 45,XO) conferring lower risk of SLE.
    Genes and immunity 06/2009; 10(5):478-81. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with highly variable clinical presentation. Patients suffer from immunological abnormalities that target T-cell, B-cell and accessory cell functions. B cells are hyperactive in SLE patients. An adapter protein expressed in B cells called BANK1 (B-cell scaffold protein with ankyrin repeats) was reported in a previous study to be associated with SLE in a European population. The objective of this study was to assess the BANK1 genotype-phenotype association in an independent replication sample. We genotyped 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BANK1 on 1892 European-derived SLE patients and 2652 European-derived controls. The strongest associations with SLE and BANK1 were at rs17266594 (corrected P-value=1.97 x 10(-5), odds ratio (OR)=1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.34) and rs10516487 (corrected P-value=2.59 x 10(-5), OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.11-1.34). Our findings suggest that the association is explained by these two SNPs, confirming previous reports that these polymorphisms contribute to the risk of developing lupus. Analysis of patient subsets enriched for hematological, immunological and renal ACR criteria or the levels of autoantibodies, such as anti-RNP A and anti-SmRNP, uncovers additional BANK1 associations. Our results suggest that BANK1 polymorphisms alter immune system development and function to increase the risk for developing lupus.
    Genes and immunity 05/2009; 10(5):531-8. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hysterectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in United States, and currently, one in three women in United States has had a hysterectomy by the age of 60 years. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common autoimmune disease and especially targets women of childbearing age at least 10 times higher than men, which reflects the major role of female sex hormones. In this retrospective study, we evaluate the potential effects of previous hysterectomy in our lupus cohort. Data collected from study subject questionnaires were obtained from the Lupus Family Registry and Repository (LFRR) at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation. Hysterectomy data were available from 3389 subjects. SLE patients with a positive history of hysterectomy have been selected and compared with matched lupus patients with a negative history of hysterectomy and healthy controls. Association analyses were performed, and the P values and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. SLE patients with a negative history of hysterectomy more likely had kidney nephritis or positive anti-dsDNA than age-matched SLE patients with a history of hysterectomy before disease onset. This effect was independent of ethnicity with an OR of 6.66 (95% CI = 3.09-14.38, P = 1.00 x 10(-8)) in European patients and 2.74 (95% CI = 1.43-5.25, P = 0.001) in African-Americans. SLE patients with a positive history of hysterectomy before disease onset also had a later age of disease onset (P = 0.0001) after adjustment for age and race. Our findings support the notion that the influence of female sex hormones in SLE and various clinical findings are tremendous and that surgical menopause such as this could significantly affect the outcome of disease and clinical manifestations.
    Lupus 01/2009; 18(11):1000-5. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    B T Kurien, R H Scofield
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 09/2008; 47(10):1587. · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • S A Mathews, B T Kurien, R H Scofield
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    ABSTRACT: Sjögren's syndrome is a common autoimmune rheumatic disease. The most common symptoms of Sjögren's syndrome are extreme tiredness, along with dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) and dry mouth (xerostomia). Saliva plays an essential role in numerous functions of the mouth. Xerostomia can be caused by medications, chronic diseases like Sjögren's syndrome, and medical treatments, such as radiation therapy and bone marrow transplant. Xerostomia can eventually lead to difficulty in swallowing, severe and progressive tooth decay, or oral infections. Despite having excellent oral hygiene, individuals with Sjögren's syndrome have elevated levels of dental caries, along with the loss of many teeth, early in the disease. Sjögren's syndrome alters the protein profile and brings about a change in the composition of saliva. There is an increase in the levels of lactoferrin, beta(2)-microglobulin, sodium, lysozyme C, and cystatin C, and a decrease in salivary amylase and carbonic anhydrase. Up to 90% of individuals with Sjögren's syndrome have antibodies targeting the Ro 60 and La autoantigens. Natural aging, regardless of Sjögren's syndrome, is also another factor that brings about a significant change in the composition of saliva. The most prevailing cause of xerostomia in elderly persons is the use of anticholinergic medications. Currently, there is no cure for Sjögren's syndrome, and treatment is mainly palliative.
    Journal of Dental Research 05/2008; 87(4):308-18. · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • B T Kurien, R H Scofield
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that usually develops in young women aged 18-50 years and is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies. Diagnosis is difficult as SLE is a great imitator of other diseases. When SLE is suspected clinically in a patient (involvement of two or more organ systems), an initial laboratory evaluation would be antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing. If ANA is negative, SLE is unlikely and results positive at less than 1:40 strongly argue against SLE. Other explanations for organ system involvement should be pursued. Results positive at greater than 1:40 may merit further evaluation for SLE and at times referral to a rheumatologist for a full SLE evaluation. While the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for SLE are primarily a tool for research, they may be useful clinically, in that those patients fulfilling four or more criteria are highly likely to have SLE.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 10/2006; 64(3):227-35. · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • B T Kurien, S Asfa, C Li, Y Dorri, R Jonsson, R H Scofield
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have showed that immunization with peptides from Ro 60 results in Sjogren's syndrome (SS)-like condition in BALB/c mice. We hypothesized that oral feeding with Ro 60 peptide or Ro 60 would prevent the disease. Four groups (each consisting of 10) of BALB/c mice were used. Group I-III were immunized with Ro 274 peptide. Group IV mice were administered adjuvant only. Group II mice were fed orally with Ro 274 peptide and Group III with Ro 60 for 5 days before immunization. There was a significant reduction in the binding of sera from both Group II and Group III mice to most of the Ro multiple antigenic peptides bound by Group I mice. In Group III mice, salivary flow was maintained above that of the Group I mice (average: 117.5 versus 58.6 microl; t = 2.7; P = 0.02). Salivary infiltrates were drastically decreased in the Ro peptide or Ro 60-fed groups, compared to non-tolerized group. Two of eight mice in Group II and 3/6 mice in Group III had no infiltrates, whereas all eight mice studied in Group I had a significant number of infiltrates. Thus, epitope spreading was prevented, lymphocytic infiltration was blocked and saliva flow was restored by means of oral feeding of either Ro 274 or Ro 60 in this animal model of SS.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 06/2005; 61(5):418-25. · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • BioTechniques 02/2004; 36(1):64-6. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The acute clinical syndrome of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is currently thought to be a distinct clinical-pathological entity typically resulting from drug hypersensitivity. We describe an adult woman who experienced a fulminate pattern of apoptotic epidermal cell injury following tanning bed exposure while taking naproxen that resulted in a clinical presentation having combined features of drug-induced TEN and an infrequently recognized form of bullous cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE). This case calls attention to the fact that TEN-like injury can occasionally be seen in settings other than drug hypersensitivity (e.g., LE, acute graft versus host disease) and illustrates the need for a unifying concept in this area. We therefore propose the term 'Acute Syndrome of Apoptotic Pan-Epidermolysis (ASAP)' to designate a clinical syndrome that is characterized by life-threatening acute and massive cleavage of the epidermis resulting from hyperacute apoptotic injury of the epidermis. We also review vesiculobullous skin disorders that can be encountered in LE patients and suggest a new classification scheme for such lesions.
    Lupus 02/2004; 13(12):941-50. · 2.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
174 Downloads
339.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      • Division of Rheumatology
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 1991–2012
    • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Central Oklahoma
      Edmond, Oklahoma, United States
  • 1991–2005
    • Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
      • Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
  • 1999
    • Oklahoma City University
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States