[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycosphingolipids are expressed on the cell membrane, and act as important factors in various events that occur across the plasma membrane. Lactosylceramide is synthesized from glucosylceramide and is a common precursor of various glycosphingolipids existing in whole body. Based on the enzyme purification, β1,4-galactosyltransferase 6 (B4galt6) cDNA was isolated as a lactosylcaramide synthase-coding gene in rat brain. We generated B4galt6 gene knockout (KO) mice and analyzed their phenotypes to examine roles of β4GalT6. β4galt6 KO mice were born and grew up apparently normal. Lactosylceramide synthase activity and composition of acidic glycosphingolipids in brain were almost equivalent or minimally different between wild type and KO mice. Studies by mouse embryonic fibroblasts revealed that silencing of B4galt5 gene resulted in the marked reduction of lactosylceramide synthase activity and this reduction was more severe in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from β4galt6 KO mice than those from wild type mice. These results suggested that β4GalT6 plays a role as a lactosylceramide synthase, while β4GalT5 acts as a main enzyme for lactosylceramide biosynthesis in these tissues and cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although endogenous ligands for Toll-like receptor (TLR)4-myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) have not been well-understood, we here report that a globo-series glycosphingolipid, globotetraosylceramide (Gb4), attenuates the toxicity of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) by binding to TLR4-MD-2. Because α1,4-galactosyltransferase (A4galt)-deficient mice lacking globo-series glycosphingolipids showed higher sensitivity to LPS than wild-type mice, we examined mechanisms by which globo-series glycosphingolipids attenuate LPS toxicity. Cultured endothelial cells lacking A4galt showed higher expression of LPS-inducible genes upon LPS treatment. In turn, introduction of A4galt cDNA resulted in the neo expression of Gb4, leading to the reduced expression of LPS-inducible genes. Exogenous Gb4 induced similar effects. As a mechanism for the suppressive effects of Gb4 on LPS signals, specific binding of Gb4 to the LPS receptor TLR4-MD-2 was demonstrated by coprecipitation of Gb4 with recombinant MD-2 and by native PAGE. A docking model also supported these data. Taken together with colocalization of TLR4-MD-2 with Gb4 in lipid rafts after LPS stimulation, it was suggested that Gb4 competes with LPS for binding to TLR4-MD-2. Finally, administration of Gb4 significantly protected mice from LPS-elicited mortality. These results suggest that Gb4 is an endogenous ligand for TLR4-MD-2 and is capable of attenuating LPS toxicity, indicating the possibility for its therapeutic application in endotoxin shock.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression and implication of carbohydrate antigens in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in oral cavity was examined. In the cell lines, type 2H and Lewis y antigens were markedly expressed. In the tissues from SCC patients and benign disorders, type 2H was highly expressed in hyperplasia (96.4 %), displasia (92.9 %) and SCC (100 %). Lewis y was, in turn, expressed mainly in cancer tissues (91.3 %), suggesting that Lewis y is a cancer-associated antigen. Normal oral mucosa showed no expression of these blood group antigens. Surprisingly, Lewis y antigen disappeared in the invasion sites where Ki-67 was definitely stained. Over-expression of Lewis y with manipulation of a fucosyltransferase cDNA resulted in suppression of cell growth and invasion, and knockdown of Lewis y also brought about increased cell growth and invasion. In either situations, no changes in the expression of sialyl-Lewis x could be found. Lowered tumor growth and invasion into surrounding tissues were also shown in Lewis y-positive SCC grafts in nu/nu mice. All these results together with alternative staining between Lewis y and Ki-67 in cancer tissues and FUT1 transfectants suggested that loss of Lewis y is a crucial event for the late stage of SCCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to analyze the mechanisms for cancer metastasis, high metastatic sublines (H7-A, H7-Lu, H7-O, C4-sc, and C4-ly) were obtained by repeated injection of mouse Lewis lung cancer sublines H7 and C4 into C57BL/6 mice. These sublines exhibited increased proliferation and invasion activity in vitro. Ganglioside profiles exhibited lower expression of GM1 in high metastatic sublines than the parent lines. Then, we established GM1-Si-1 and GM1-Si-2 by stable silencing of GM1 synthase in H7 cells. These GM1-knockdown clones exhibited increased proliferation and invasion. Then, we explored genes that markedly altered in the expression levels by DNA microarray in the combination of C4 vs. C4-ly or H7 vs. H7 (GM1-Si). Consequently, pp-GalNAc-T13 gene was identified as up-regulated genes in the high metastatic sublines. Stable transfection of pp-GalNAc-T13 cDNA into C4 (T13-TF) resulted in increased invasion and motility. Then, immunoblotting and flow cytometry using various antibodies and lectins were performed. Only anti-trimeric Tn antibody (mAb MLS128), showed increased expression levels of trimeric Tn antigen in T13-TF clones. Moreover, immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting was performed by mAb MLS128, leading to the identification of an 80 kDa band carrying trimeric Tn antigen, i.e. Syndecan-1. Stable silencing of endogenous pp-GalNAc-T13 in C4-sc (T13-KD) revealed that primary tumors generated by subcutaneous injection of T13-KD clones showed lower coalescence to fascia and peritoneum, and significantly reduced lung metastasis than control clones. These data suggested that high expression of pp-GalNAc-T13 gene generated trimeric Tn antigen on Syndecan-1, leading to the enhanced metastasis.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2012; 419(1):7-13. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that mutant mice of the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase gene (beta3Gn-T5) respond well to T-cell dependent and independent antigens. Here, we examined the effectiveness of anti-ganglioside antibody generation by immunization of beta3Gn-T5 mutant mice with liposome-embedded glycosphingolipids such as GD1a and GT1b. Consequently, the mutant mice showed a more efficient generation of anti-GD1a or anti-GT1b antibodies than wild-type mice in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using sera during immunization. Thus, the beta3Gn-T5 deficient mutant mice proved more responsive than wild-type mice to not only protein antigens, but also to carbohydrates in glycolipids. Furthermore, about 50% of monoclonal antibodies generated using splenocytes of the immunized mutant mice were of the IgG class. Besides general high responsiveness to proteins and glycolipids, it could be expected that the mutant mice of beta3Gn-T5 would be useful in the generation of monoclonal antibodies towards lacto-/neolacto-series glycolipids, since these mutants lack lacto-/neolacto-series glycolipids. In fact, they showed a good serum response in immuno-fluorescence assay with cultured living cells when immunized by glycolipids extracted from ovarian cancer cell lines. These results suggested that beta3Gn-T5 mutant mice are useful for the generation of anti-glycolipid antigens with lacto-/neolacto-core structures expressed in cancer cells.
Nagoya journal of medical science 08/2011; 73(3-4):137-46.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efficient generation of useful monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with high performance in cancer therapeutics has been expected. Generation of mAbs reactive with globotriaosylceramide (Gb3/CD77) was compared between A/J mice and Gb3/CD77 synthase-deficient (A4GalT-knockout) mice by immunizing Gb3-liposome. Specificity and functions of established antibodies were examined by ELISA, TLC- immunostaining, cytotoxicity of cancer cells and immunoblotting. Compared with results with conventional mice, better generation of mAbs with higher functions has been achieved with A4GalT-knockout mice, i.e. acquisition of IgG class antibodies, activities in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and aggregation activity toward a Burkitt's lymphoma line Ramos. Binding of mAb k52 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins in Ramos cells. One of the strongest phosphorylation bands turned out to be c-Cbl. Pretreatment of B cell lines with mAbs resulted in the attenuation of BCR-mimicking signaling. All these results suggested that A4GalT-knockout mice are very useful to generate mAbs against globo-series glycolipids, and that suppressive signaling pathway driven by endogenous Gb3-ligand molecules might be present in B cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of studies have suggested functions of sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids (gangliosides) in the nervous system. However, results of analyses of the mutant mice lacking gangliosides suggested that they play crucial roles in the maintenance of integrity and repair of the nervous tissues. Furthermore, results of double knockout mice lacking all gangliosides except GM3 (GM3-only mice) suggested that deficiency of gangliosides induced complement activation and inflammation, leading to neurodegeneration. Generation of triple knockout mice by mating GM3-only mice and C3-deficient mice verified the involvement of complement systems in the inflammation and neurodegeneration. For the mechanisms of the complement activation, functional disorders of complement-regulatory proteins such as CD55 and CD59, which belong to GPI-anchored proteins, should be main factors. These results suggested that normal composition of gangliosides is essential for the maintenance of lipid rafts. Therefore, it was suggested that regulation of the complement systems and suppression of the inflammation should be important for the treatment of neurodegeneration, having common aspects with other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease.
Neurochemical Research 05/2011; 36(9):1578-86. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Certain glycosphingolipids play important roles as cellular receptor for bacterial toxins with high specificity and strong affinity. In particular AB(5) toxins exhibit typical modes of cell attachment with B5 and invasion and biological effects in cells with A subunit. Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is the prototype of a recently discovered AB(5) cytotoxin family produced by certain strains of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli, and shows highly specific serine protease activity toward endoplasmic reticulum chaperone Bip. Since this toxin bound to a mimic of ganglioside GM2, GM2 has been considered to be possible receptor for SubAB. Using six kinds of glycosylation-defective knockout mice lacking certain group of glycosphingolipids, sensitivity to SubAB in vivo was analyzed. Consequently, all mutant mice died at around 70h after intraperitoneal injection of 10 microg (or 7.5 microg) of SubAB as well as wild type mice. These results indicated none of glycolipids are not pivotal receptor for SubAB in the body.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2008; 378(2):179-81. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular mechanisms for both morphogenesis and carcinogenesis have frequently overlapped, and similar signaling pathways are often involved in these processes. Yamamoto et al. identified a novel protein that induces head formation in Xenopus (Yamamoto et al. Cell, 120, 223-225, 2005). This new protein, named Shisa, plays unique roles in head formation by suppressing the maturation processes of receptors for Wnt and FGF at the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we have identified a human homologue of the shisa gene (hu-shisa-2), and analyzed its expression in various human cancer cell lines by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. High levels of mRNA expression were observed in some neuroectoderm-derived human cancer cell lines and small cell lung cancer cell lines. Intracellular localization of hu-Shisa-2 protein was also analyzed, indicating that it is present in the endoplasmic reticulum. Over-expression of hu-Shisa-2 resulted in increased cell growth and invasion, suggesting that hu-Shisa-2 is involved in the evolution and/or progression of human cancers.
Nagoya journal of medical science 09/2008; 70(3-4):73-82.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fucosyl GM1 has been reported to be specifically expressed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. However, the genetic basis for the synthesis of fucosyl GM1 has not been investigated. We analyzed the glycosyltransferases responsible for the synthesis of fucosyl GM1 in SCLC cell lines. In four SCLC cell lines expressing fucosyl GM1, both FUT1 and FUT2 mRNAs were detected, indicating that either one or both of alpha1,2-fucosyltransferases may be involved in the expression of fucosyl GM1. However, three of these four lines contained function-loss mutations in the FUT2 coding region, suggesting that FUT1 is mainly involved in the alpha1,2-fucosylation of GM1. The expression levels of the GM1 synthase gene showed no correlation with those of fucosyl GM1, whereas the co-transfection of GM1 synthase cDNA with FUT1 or FUT2 into SK-LC-17 clearly enhanced the neo-expression of fucosyl GM1, indicating its essential role. In contrast, the co-transfection of GD3 synthase cDNA reduced the expression levels of fucosyl GM1 with FUT1 or FUT2. Consequently, FUT1 seems to mainly contribute to the expression of fucosyl GM1, although both FUT1 and FUT2 are capable of generating the antigen. These results should promote the functional analysis of fucosyl GM1 leading to the development of novel therapies for SCLC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine whether globotriaosylceramide (Gb3/CD77) is a receptor for verotoxins (VTs) in vivo, sensitivity of Gb3/CD77 synthase null mutant mice to VT-2 and VT-1 was analyzed. Although wild-type mice died after administration of 0.02 microg of VT-2 or 1.0 microg of VT-1, the mutant mice showed no reaction to doses as much as 100 times that administered to wild types. Expression analysis of Gb3/CD77 in mouse tissues with antibody revealed that low, but definite, levels of Gb3/CD77 were expressed in the microvascular endothelial cells of the brain cortex and pia mater and in renal tubular capillaries. Corresponding to the Gb3/CD77 expression, tissue damage with edema, congestion, and cytopathic changes was observed, indicating that Gb3/CD77 (and its derivatives) exclusively function as a receptor for VTs in vivo. The lethal kinetics were similar regardless of lipopolysaccharide elimination in VT preparation, suggesting that basal Gb3/CD77 levels are sufficient for lethal effects of VTs.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2006; 281(15):10230-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-GD2 ganglioside antibodies could be a promising, novel therapeutic approach to the eradication of human small cell lung cancers, as anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) induced apoptosis of small cell lung cancer cells in culture. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms for the apoptosis of these cells by anti-GD2 mAbs and elucidated the mechanisms by which apoptosis signals were transduced via reduction in the phosphorylation levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the activation of a MAPK family member, p38, upon the antibody binding. Knock down of FAK resulted in apoptosis and p38 activation. The inhibition of p38 activity blocked antibody-induced apoptosis, indicating that p38 is involved in this process. Immunoprecipitation-immunoblotting analysis of immune precipitates with anti-FAK or anti-integrin antibodies using an anti-GD2 mAb revealed that GD2 could be precipitated with integrin and/or FAK. These results suggested that GD2, integrin, and FAK form a huge molecular complex across the plasma membrane. Taken together with the fact that GD2+ cells showed marked detachment from the plate during apoptosis, GD2+ small cell lung cancer cells seemed to undergo anoikis through the conformational changes of integrin molecules and subsequent FAK dephosphorylation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2005; 280(33):29828-36. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent success in the cloning of glycosyl-transferase genes involved in the synthesis of GSLs has enabled us to modulate the expression profiles of GSLs in cultured cells and experimental animals, and allowed novel approaches to obtain clear elucidation of individual enzyme products by observing the resulting phenotypic changes in the mutant animals and transfected cells. In this review, recent progress in the study of glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis and modification of GSLs has been summarized with special emphasis on their function.
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 09/2004; 15(4):389-96. · 6.20 Impact Factor