Gary M Shaw

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States

Are you Gary M Shaw?

Claim your profile

Publications (353)1120.49 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gastroschisis is unique because of its substantial risk in pregnancies of adolescent women. Adolescents may have poor diet quality, which places them at higher risk of gastroschisis.
    The Journal of nutrition. 11/2014; 144(11):1781-6.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preterm birth is an important marker of health and has a prevalence of 12-13% in the U.S. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic contaminants that form during the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, such as coal, diesel and gasoline. Studies suggest that exposure to PAHs during pregnancy is related to adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between exposure to PAHs during the pregnancy and preterm birth.
    Environmental research. 10/2014; 135C:221-226.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pesticide exposures are ubiquitous and of substantial public concern. We examined the potential association of congenital heart defects with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications in the San Joaquin Valley, California.
    Environmental research. 09/2014; 135C:133-138.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Adverse associations between maternal pesticide exposure and neural tube defects (NTDs) have been suggested but not consistently observed. This study used data from the multisite National Birth Defects Prevention Study to examine associations between maternal periconceptional (1 month preconception through 2 months postconception) occupational pesticide exposure and NTDs. Methods: Mothers of 502 NTD cases and 2950 unaffected live-born control infants with estimated delivery dates from 1997 through 2002 were included. Duration, categorical intensity scores, and categorical frequency scores for pesticide classes (e.g., insecticides) were assigned using a modified, literature-based job-exposure matrix and maternal-reported occupational histories. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated based on fitted multivariable logistic regression models that described associations between maternal periconceptional occupational pesticide exposure and NTDs. The aORs were estimated for pesticide exposure (any [yes/no] and cumulative exposure [intensity × frequency × duration] to any pesticide class, each pesticide class, or combination of pesticide classes) and all NTD cases combined and NTD subtypes. Results: Positive, but marginally significant or nonsignificant, aORs were observed for exposure to insecticides + herbicides for all NTD cases combined and for spina bifida alone. Similarly, positive aORs were observed for any exposure and cumulative exposure to insecticides + herbicides + fungicides and anencephaly alone and encephalocele alone. All other aORs were near unity. Conclusion: Pesticide exposure associations varied by NTD subtype and pesticide class. Several aORs were increased, but not significantly. Future work should continue to examine associations between pesticide classes and NTD subtypes using a detailed occupational pesticide exposure assessment and examine pesticide exposures outside the workplace. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 08/2014; · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background It has been observed in several studies that infants with anotia/microtia are more common among Hispanics compared with other racial/ethnic groups. We examined the association between selected Hispanic ethnicity and acculturation factors and anotia/microtia in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.Methods We examined data from mothers of 351 infants with isolated anotia/microtia and 8435 unaffected infants from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study with an expected delivery date from 1997 to 2007. Sociodemographic, maternal, and acculturation factors (e.g., age, maternal education, household income, body mass index, gestational diabetes, folic acid, smoking, alcohol intake, study center, parental birthplace, and years lived in the United States, maternal language) were assessed as overall risk factors and also as risk factors among subgroups of Hispanics (United States- and foreign-born) versus non-Hispanic whites.ResultsCompared with non-Hispanic whites, both United States- and foreign-born Hispanic mothers demonstrated substantially higher odds of delivering infants with anotia/microtia across nearly all strata of sociodemographic and other maternal factors (adjusted odds ratios range: 2.1–11.9). The odds of anotia/microtia was particularly elevated among Hispanic mothers who emigrated from Mexico after age five (adjusted odds ratios = 4.88; 95% confidence interval = 2.93–8.11) or who conducted the interview in Spanish (adjusted odds ratios = 4.97; 95% confidence interval = 3.00–8.24).Conclusion We observed that certain sociodemographic and acculturation factors are associated with higher risks of anotia/microtia among offspring of Hispanic mothers. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 07/2014; · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We used exome sequencing to study a non-consanguineous family with two children who had anterior segment dysgenesis, sclerocornea, microphthalmia, hypotonia and developmental delays. Sanger sequencing verified two Peroxidasin (PXDN) mutations in both sibs-a maternally inherited, nonsense mutation, c.1021C>T predicting p.(Arg341*), and a paternally inherited, 23-basepair deletion causing a frameshift and premature protein truncation, c.2375_2397del23, predicting p.(Leu792Hisfs*67). We re-examined exome data from 20 other patients with structural eye defects and identified two additional PXDN mutations in a sporadic male with bilateral microphthalmia, cataracts and anterior segment dysgenesis-a maternally inherited, frameshift mutation, c.1192delT, predicting p.(Tyr398Thrfs*40) and a paternally inherited, missense substitution that was predicted to be deleterious, c.947 A>C, predicting p.(Gln316Pro). Mutations in PXDN were previously reported in three families with congenital cataracts, microcornea, sclerocornea and developmental glaucoma. The gene is expressed in corneal epithelium and is secreted into the extracellular matrix. Defective peroxidasin has been shown to impair sulfilimine bond formation in collagen IV, a constituent of the basement membrane, implying that the eye defects result because of loss of basement membrane integrity in the developing eye. Our finding of a broader phenotype than previously appreciated for PXDN mutations is typical for exome-sequencing studies, which have proven to be highly effective for mutation detection in patients with atypical presentations. We conclude that PXDN sequencing should be considered in microphthalmia with anterior segment dysgenesis.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 18 June 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.119.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 06/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between increased first trimester fetal nuchal translucency (NT) measurement and major non-cardiac structural birth defects in euploid infants.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 06/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Prevalence of gastroschisis has inexplicably been increasing over the past few decades. Our intent was to explore whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with risk of gastroschisis. Methods: We used population-based data, accompanied by detailed information from maternal interviews as well as information on residential proximity to a large number of commercial pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley of California (). Cases were 156 infants/fetuses with gastroschisis and controls were 785 infants without birth defects. Results: Among 22 chemical pesticide groups analyzed, none had an elevated odds ratio with an associated confidence interval that excluded 1.0, although exposure to the triazine group showed borderline significance. Among 36 specific pesticide chemicals analyzed, only exposure to petroleum distillates was associated with an elevated risk, odds ratio = 2.5 (1.1-5.6). In general, a substantially different inference was not derived when analyses were stratified by maternal age or when risk estimation included adjustment for race/ethnicity, body mass index, folic acid supplement use, and smoking. Conclusion: Our study rigorously adds to the scant literature on this topic. Our a priori expectation was that we would observe certain pesticide compounds to be particularly associated with young age owing to the disproportionate risk observed for young women to have offspring with gastroschisis. We did not observe an exposure profile unique to young women. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 06/2014; · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While some of the highest maternal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in the workplace, there is only one previous study of occupational PAH exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to extend this literature using interview data combined with detailed exposure assessment.
    Occupational and environmental medicine. 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Findings from studies examining risk of preterm birth associated with elevated prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) have been inconsistent.Methods Within a large population-based cohort, we explored associations between prepregnancy BMI and spontaneous preterm birth across a spectrum of BMI, gestational age, and racial/ethnic categories. We analysed data for 989 687 singleton births in California, 2007–09. Preterm birth was grouped as 20–23, 24–27, 28–31, or 32–36 weeks gestation (compared with 37–41 weeks). BMI was categorised as <18.5 (underweight); 18.5–24.9 (normal); 25.0–29.9 (overweight); 30.0–34.9 (obese I); 35.0–39.9 (obese II); and ≥40.0 (obese III). We assessed associations between BMI and spontaneous preterm birth of varying severity among non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic Black women.ResultsAnalyses of mothers without hypertension and diabetes, adjusted for age, education, height, and prenatal care initiation, showed obesity categories I–III to be associated with increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth at 20–23 and 24–27 weeks among those of parity 1 in each race/ethnic group. Relative risks for obese III and preterm birth at 20–23 weeks were 6.29 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.06, 12.9], 4.34 [95% CI 2.30, 8.16], and 4.45 [95% CI 2.53, 7.82] for non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics, respectively. A similar, but lower risk, pattern was observed for women of parity ≥2 and preterm birth at 20–23 weeks. Underweight was associated with modest risks for preterm birth at ≥24 weeks among women in each racial/ethnic group regardless of parity.Conclusions The association between women's prepregnancy BMI and risk of spontaneous preterm birth is complex and is influenced by race/ethnicity, gestational age, and parity.
    Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 06/2014; · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 06/2014; · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to determine whether pregnancies resulting in early preterm birth (PTB) (<30 weeks) were more likely than term pregnancies to have elevated midtrimester serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels combined with lipid patterns suggestive of hyperlipidemia. In 2 nested case-control samples drawn from California and Iowa cohorts, we examined the frequency of elevated midpregnancy serum TNF-α levels (in the fourth quartile [4Q]) and lipid patterns suggestive of hyperlipidemia (eg, total cholesterol, low-density-lipoproteins, or triglycerides in the 4Q, high-density lipoproteins in the first quartile) (considered independently and by co-occurrence) in pregnancies resulting in early PTB compared with those resulting in term birth (n = 108 in California and n = 734 in Iowa). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated in logistic regression models were used for comparisons. Early preterm pregnancies were 2-4 times more likely than term pregnancies to have a TNF-α level in the 4Q co-occurring with indicators of hyperlipidemia (37.5% vs 13.9% in the California sample (adjusted OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-16.3) and 26.3% vs 14.9% in the Iowa sample (adjusted OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.3). No differences between early preterm and term pregnancies were observed when TNF-α or target lipid abnormalities occurred in isolation. Observed differences were not explicable to any maternal or infant characteristics. Pregnancies resulting in early PTB were more likely than term pregnancies to have elevated midpregnancy TNF-α levels in combination with lipid patterns suggestive of hyperlipidemia.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 05/2014; · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background We examined the association of maternal stressful life events and social support with risks of birth defects using National Birth Defects Prevention Study data, a population-based case–control study.Methods We examined seven stressful life events and three social support questions applicable to the periconceptional period, among mothers of 552 cases with neural tube defects (NTDs), 413 cleft palate (CP), 797 cleft lip ± cleft palate (CLP), 189 d-transposition of the great arteries (dTGA), 311 tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), and 2974 non-malformed controls. A stressful life events index equalled the sum of ‘yes’ responses to the seven questions. Social support questions were also summed to form an index. Data were analyzed using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for maternal race-ethnicity, age, education, body mass index, smoking, drinking, and intake of vitamin supplements.ResultsAssociations with the stress index tended to be higher with higher scores, but few 95% CIs excluded one. A four-point increase in the index was moderately associated with NTDs (OR 1.5, [95% CI 1.1, 2.0]) and CLP (OR 1.3, [95% CI 1.0, 1.7]). The social support index tended to be associated with reduced risk but most 95% CIs included one, with the exception of dTGA (OR for a score of 3 vs 0 was 0.5 [95% CI 0.3, 0.8]).Conclusions Maternal periconceptional stressful life events, social support, and the two factors in combination were at most modestly, if at all, associated with risks of the studied birth defects.
    Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 05/2014; · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic literature suggests exposure to air pollutants is associated with fetal development. To investigate maternal exposures to air pollutants during weeks two through eight of pregnancy and congenital heart defects. Mothers from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a nine-state case-control study, were assigned one-week and seven-week averages of daily maximum concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide and 24-hour measurements of fine and coarse particulate matter using the closest air monitor within 50 km to their residence during early pregnancy. Depending upon the pollutant, a maximum of 4632 live-birth controls and 3328 live-birth, fetal-death or electively terminated cases had exposure data. Hierarchical regression models, adjusted for maternal demographics, tobacco and alcohol use, were constructed. Principal component analysis was used to assess these relationships in a multipollutant context. Positive associations were observed between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and coarctation of the aorta and pulmonary valve stenosis. Exposure to fine particulate matter was positively associated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome but inversely associated with atrial septal defects. Examining individual exposure-weeks suggested associations between pollutants and defects that were not observed using the seven-week average. Associations between left ventricular outflow tract obstructions and nitrogen dioxide and hypoplastic left heart syndrome and particulate matter were supported by findings from the multipollutant analyses, although estimates were attenuated at the highest exposure levels. Utilizing daily maximum pollutant levels and exploring individual exposure-weeks revealed some positive associations between certain pollutants and defects and suggested potential windows of susceptibility during pregnancy.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 04/2014; · 7.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Maternal use of corticosteroids during early pregnancy has been inconsistently associated with orofacial clefts in the offspring. A previous report from the National Birth Defect Prevention Study (NBDPS), using data from 1997 to 2002, found an association with cleft lip and palate (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–2.6), but not cleft palate only (odds ratio, 0.5, 95%CI, 0.2–1.3). From 2003 to 2009, the study population more than doubled in size, and our objective was to assess this association in the more recent data.Methods The NBDPS is an ongoing multi-state population-based case-control study of birth defects, with ascertainment of cases and controls born since 1997. We assessed the association of corticosteroids and orofacial clefts using data from 2372 cleft cases and 5922 controls born from 2003 to 2009. Maternal corticosteroid exposure was based on telephone interviews.ResultsThe overall association of corticosteroids and cleft lip and palate in the new data was 1.0 (95% CI, 0.7–1.4). There was little evidence of associations between specific corticosteroid components or timing and clefts.Conclusion In contrast to the 1997 to 2002 data from the NBDPS, the 2003 to 2009 data show no association between maternal corticosteroid use and cleft lip and palate in the offspring. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2014. © 2014 The Authors Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 04/2014; · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital heart defects are the most common malformation, and are the foremost causes of mortality in the first year of life. Among congenital heart defects, conotruncal defects represent about 20% and are severe malformations with significant morbidity. Insulin gene enhancer protein 1 (ISL1) has been considered a candidate gene for conotruncal heart defects based on its embryonic expression pattern and heart defects induced in Isl1 knockout mice. Nevertheless no mutation of ISL1 has been reported from any human subject with a heart defect. From a population base of 974,579 births during 1999–2004, we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to screen for microdeletions/duplications of ISL1 among 389 infants with tetralogy of Fallot or d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA). We also sequenced all exons of ISL1. We identified a novel 20-kb microdeletion encompassing the entire coding region of ISL1, but not including either flanking gene, from an infant with d-TGA. We confirmed that the deletion was caused by nonhomologous end joining mechanism. Sequencing of exons of ISL1 did not reveal any subject with a novel nonsynonymous mutation. This is the first report of an ISL1 mutation of a child with a congenital heart defect.
    Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine. 03/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with an increased risk of anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), or cleft palate only. We used population-based data along with detailed information from maternal interviews. Exposure estimates were based on residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley, California (1997-2006). Analyses included 73 cases with anencephaly, 123 with spina bifida, 277 with CLP, and 117 with cleft palate only in addition to 785 controls. A total of 38% of the subjects were exposed to 52 chemical groups and 257 specific chemicals. There were relatively few elevated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals that excluded 1 after adjustment for relevant covariates. Those chemical groups included petroleum derivatives for anencephaly, hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides for spina bifida, and 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides and dithiocarbamates-methyl isothiocyanate for CLP. The specific chemicals included 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, methomyl, imidacloprid, and α-(para-nonylphenyl)-ω-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) phosphate ester for anencephaly; the herbicide bromoxynil octanoate for spina bifida; and trifluralin and maneb for CLP. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 to 5.1. Given that such odds ratios might have arisen by chance because of the number of comparisons, our study showed a general lack of association between a range of agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects.
    American journal of epidemiology 02/2014; · 5.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence exists for an association between use of vitamin supplements with folic acid in early pregnancy and reduced risk for offspring with conotruncal heart defects. A few observations have been made about nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism other than folate. Our prospective study attempted to extend information on nutrition and conotruncal heart defects by measuring analytes in mid-pregnancy sera. This study included data from a repository of women's mid-pregnancy serum specimens based on screened pregnancies in California from 2002-2007. Each woman's specimen was linked with delivery information to determine whether her fetus had a conotruncal heart defect or another structural malformation, or was nonmalformed. We identified 140 conotruncal cases and randomly selected 280 specimens as nonmalformed controls. Specimens were tested for a variety of analytes, including homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, folate, vitamin B12 , pyridoxal phosphate, pyridoxal, pyridoxic acid, riboflavin, total choline, betaine, methionine, cysteine, cystathionine, arginine, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine. We did not observe statistical evidence for substantial differences between cases and controls for any of the measured analytes. Analyses specifically targeting B-vitamins also did not reveal differences between cases and controls. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 02/2014; · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Birth defects are a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The vast majority of birth defects are nonsyndromic, and although their etiologies remain mostly unknown, evidence supports the hypothesis that they result from the complex interaction of genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Since our last review published in 2002 describing the basic tools of genetic epidemiology used to study nonsyndromic structural birth defects, many new approaches have become available and have been used with varying success. Through rapid advances in genomic technologies, investigators are now able to investigate large portions of the genome at a fraction of previous costs. With next-generation sequencing, research has progressed from assessing a small percentage of single-nucleotide polymorphisms to assessing the entire human protein-coding repertoire (exome)-an approach that is starting to uncover rare but informative mutations associated with nonsyndromic birth defects. Herein, we report on the current state of the genetic epidemiology of birth defects and comment on future challenges and opportunities. We consider issues of study design, and we discuss common variant approaches, including candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies. We also discuss the complexities embedded in exploring interactions between genes and the environment. We complete our review by describing new and promising next-generation sequencing technologies and examining how the study of epigenetic mechanisms could become the key to unraveling the complex etiologies of nonsyndromic structural birth defects.
    JAMA pediatrics. 02/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) was added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for Newborns in the United States in 2011. Many states have recently adopted or are considering requirements for universal CCHD screening through pulse oximetry in birth hospitals. Limited previous research is directly applicable to the question of how many US infants with CCHD might be identified through screening. OBJECTIVES To estimate the proportion of US infants with late detection of CCHD (>3 days after birth) based on existing clinical practice and to investigate factors associated with late detection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Descriptive and multivariable analysis. Data were obtained from a multisite population-based study of birth defects in the United States, the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). We included all live-born infants with estimated dates of delivery from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2007, and nonsyndromic, clinically verified CCHD conditions potentially detectable through screening via pulse oximetry. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The main outcome measure was the proportion of infants with late detection of CCHD through echocardiography or at autopsy under the assumption that universal screening at birth hospitals might reduce the number of such late diagnoses. Secondary outcome measures included prevalence ratios for associations between selected demographic and clinical factors and late detection of CCHD. RESULTS Of 3746 live-born infants with nonsyndromic CCHD, late detection occurred in 1106 (29.5% [95% CI, 28.1%-31.0%]), including 6 (0.2%) (0.1%-0.4%) first receiving a diagnosis at autopsy more than 3 days after birth. Late detection varied by CCHD type from 9 of 120 infants (7.5% [95% CI, 3.5%-13.8%]) with pulmonary atresia to 497 of 801 (62.0% [58.7%-65.4%]) with coarctation of the aorta. In multivariable analysis, late detection varied significantly by CCHD type and study site, and infants with extracardiac defects were significantly less likely to have late detection of CCHD (adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.49-0.69]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We estimate that 29.5% of live-born infants with nonsyndromic CCHD in the NBDPS received a diagnosis more than 3 days after birth and therefore might have benefited from routine CCHD screening at birth hospitals. The number of infants in whom CCHD was detected through screening likely varies by several factors, including CCHD type. Additional population-based studies of screening in practice are needed.
    JAMA pediatrics. 02/2014;

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,120.49 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • 2009–2014
    • Stanford Medicine
      • • Division of Neonatal and Developmental Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Stanford, California, United States
    • Stanford University
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Neonatal and Developmental Medicine
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • Division of Biostatistics
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
    • Children’s Heart Institute
      Leesburg, Virginia, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Division of Nutritional Sciences
      Austin, Texas, United States
    • University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Little Rock, AR, United States
    • University of Iowa
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Iowa City, IA, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      • • Division of Pediatric Surgery
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland
      Oakland, California, United States
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • Laboratory of Pediatrics and Neurology
      Nijmegen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2009–2012
    • Texas Department of State Health Services
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • California Department of Public Health
      • Genetic Disease Screening Program
      Richmond, California, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • • Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences
      • • Human Genetics Center
      Houston, TX, United States
    • Children's Hospital Central California
      Madera, California, United States
    • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
      • Medical Genetics Institute
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2002–2012
    • Texas A&M University System Health Science Center
      • Institute of Biosciences and Technology
      Bryan, TX, United States
  • 1996–2012
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • • National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
      • • Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
      • • National Center for Environmental Health
      Atlanta, MI, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research (DESPR)
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2005–2011
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2010
    • Children's Hospital Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2004–2010
    • Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute
      Oakland, California, United States
  • 1990–2010
    • March of Dimes Foundation
      White Plains, New York, United States
  • 1996–2009
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • School of Public Health
      Berkeley, CA, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Torrance, CA, United States
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2002–2006
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1998–2006
    • Texas A&M University
      • Center for Environmental and Rural Health
      College Station, TX, United States
  • 2003–2005
    • State of California
      California City, California, United States
  • 1993
    • Battelle Memorial Institute
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 1991
    • California Department of Health Care Services
      Sacramento, California, United States