[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome, an assemblage of risk factors, viz., obesity, dyslipidemia, carbohydrate intolerance, and hypertension, associated with development of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes, has become a major public health problem in the developed countries. However, data on its prevalence in worldwide populations, particularly in non-industrialized societies is sparse. We report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an island population of the eastern Adriatic coast of Croatia, a distinctly homogenous population living in relative isolation with a traditional way of life style pattern. The participants consist of 381 unrelated individuals (136 males, 245 females) from the island of Hvar, age 19 and above. Hvar is among the most populated Croatian islands with a total population of 11,459 individuals according to the 1991 census. Metabolic syndrome was assessed following the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria, with the exception of using body mass index and waist hip ratio as the predictors of obesity. Overall age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 26% (32% in males and 24% in females) with body mass index, and 42% (57% in males and 36% in females) with waist hip ratio as the measures of obesity. Pairwise correlations of the age and sex-adjusted individual components show that with the exception of fasting plasma glucose, the other components of metabolic syndrome are significantly associated with each other, suggesting their co-morbidity. In spite of adherence to a relatively traditional life-style pattern together with a "Mediterranean diet" and rural habitat, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is substantially high in the population of Hvar. It is likely that factors other than nutritional practices, that might include genetic susceptibility, could potentially be important in predisposition to metabolic syndrome.
Collegium antropologicum 04/2008; 32(1):85-91. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes deteriorates atherosclerotic changes in the arteries. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and localization of stenotic atherosclerotic lesions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in patients with diabetes. A prospective analysis of angiography findings was carried out in 150 diabetic and 150 non-diabetic patients with symptoms of cerebral ischemia using double-blind angiogram readings by two independent investigators. The degree of stenosis was determined using the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) criteria. Stenoses of the proximal arterial segment accounted for the majority of extracranial ICA stenoses, being more frequent in diabetic (left ICA 50.7%, right ICA 58.0%) than in the non-diabetic patients (left ICA 29.3%, right ICA 32.7%). Diabetic patients revealed a more significant rate of unilateral tandem ICA stenoses (14.0-21.3%), as well as a statistically significantly higher prevalence of intracranial ICA stenoses (left ICA 24.0% and right ICA 17.3%) than did non-diabetic patients (left and right ICA 3.3% each). Our results confirm that there is a morphological basis in ICA for increased incidence of ICA lesions in patients with diabetes as compared to those without it. Data on the incidence of stenotic ICA lesions in diabetes suggest the importance of assessing overall ICA status using digital subtraction angiography. Such an assessment is a precondition for an optimal therapeutic approach, especially in diabetic patients who are at an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease.
Collegium antropologicum 10/2007; 31(3):775-80. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence and localization of stenotic atherosclerotic lesions of supra-aortic arteries in diabetic patients according to age and sex. Angiograms obtained by digital subtraction angiography were analyzed in 150 diabetic patients (study group) and 150 non-diabetic patients (control group) with symptoms of cerebral ischemia. Diabetic patients were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of stenotic atherosclerotic lesions of the internal carotid artery. Lesions of the large supra-aortic arteries were significantly more common in the left than in the right side of the neck (p < 0.001), but the difference between the diabetic and the non-diabetic group did not reach statistical significance. Hemodynamic conditions were found to be more important than diabetes for the occurrence of atherosclerotic lesions in these arteries. Changes in the proximal segment of the left common carotid artery were the most common finding in diabetic patients, hence attention should be paid to this localization on control examinations.
Collegium antropologicum 10/2007; 31(3):723-32. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C-reactive protein (CRP) as a non-specific inflammatory biomarker has been demonstrated to actively contribute to all stages of atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between CRP concentrations and the severity of stenosis of cerebral arteries.
Lipid parameters and CRP levels were measured in the sera of 119 patients with stenosis of the extracranial cerebral arteries established by angiography and compared with the control group, with a normal appearance of the cerebral arteries on ultrasound examination. CRP concentrations were determined by a high-sensitivity assay.
CRP concentrations showed a statistically significant difference in the group of patients with cerebrovascular stenosis of more than 70% compared to the control group (median value 3.4 vs. 1.5 mg/l in the control group, p < 0.05). At logistic regression analysis, CRP was significantly associated with stenosis of more than 70%.
In addition to traditional biochemical risk markers, an elevated CRP level measured on automated analysers using a high-sensitivity assay may be useful in the detection of patients with severe stenosis of the cerebral arteries.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case-control association study was conducted to investigate a possible involvement of polymorphisms of three renin-angiotensin system genes: ACE (I/D and T-3892C), AGT (M235T and T174M), and AT1R (A1166C) in the early development of hypertension.
One hundred nineteen hypertensive and 125 normotensive participants aged 18 to 40 years were selected from a broader sample representative of the general population of Croatia. The selection criteria for hypertensive cases were systolic blood pressure (BP) higher than 140 mm Hg or diastolic BP higher than 90 mm Hg and a history of hypertension according to patient interview.
Among the polymorphisms investigated, only those located on the ACE gene were associated with hypertension. For ACE I/D, the odds ratio for hypertension of DD versus II homozygote individuals was 2.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-5.25) and for ACE T-3892C, the odds ratio of CC versus TT individuals was 2.32 (95% CI 1.05-5.10). Both polymorphisms of the ACE gene were in tight linkage disequilibrium. Of the investigated risk factors for hypertension, only body mass index (BMI) showed an influence on the early development of hypertension, acting independently of the ACE polymorphism. Their additive effect gives rise to 86% of hypertensives in subjects having both the DD genotype and BMI >or=30 kg/m(2).
The present study provides evidence of the association of the ACE gene polymorphisms and premature hypertension. In addition, BMI proved to be another important predictor of the disorder acting independently of the ACE gene.
American Journal of Hypertension 09/2006; 19(8):837-42. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the significance of the association between biochemical risk factors for cerebrovascular atherosclerosis (lipid parameters, lipoprotein(a), total homocysteine, total antioxidant status, trace elements, and electrolytes) and the degree of stenosis of cerebral arteries scored by digital subtraction angiography.
The study included 35 patients with angiographically established < 50% stenosis of cerebral arteries and 55 patients with > or =50% stenosis of cerebral arteries, including obliteration. The control group consisted of 51 patients with normal cerebral arteries on ultrasound examination. Biochemical parameters were measured in all participants according to the standard laboratory protocols.
Logistic regression analysis showed two independent and significant biochemical risk factors associated with the severity of cerebrovascular stenosis: lipoprotein(a) for patients with different degrees of stenosis, and total antioxidant status for patients with severe stenosis of more than 50%. Univariate statistical evaluation showed significantly higher homocysteine levels in the group of patients with > or =50% stenosis than in the control group (median 14.84 micromol/L vs median 12.40 micromol/L, p < 0.05).
Increased lipoprotein(a) and low total antioxidant status values seem to be the most significant independent biochemical risk factors for the development of cerebrovascular stenosis. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia seems to be an additional discriminating indicator of the severe cerebrovascular stenosis. These factors may be useful for early identification and recognition of patients with cerebrovascular atherosclerosis.
Croatian Medical Journal 12/2002; 43(6):696-701. · 1.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the liberation of occupied Croatian territories ended the war in the country in 1995, the Ministry of Health and Croatian Health Insurance Institute have agreed to create the new framework for developing a long-term strategy of public health planning, prevention and intervention. They provided financial resources to develop the First Croatian Health Project, the rest of the support coming from the World Bank loan and the National Institute of Public Health. A large cross-sectional study was designed aiming to assess health attitudes, knowledge, behaviour and risks in the post-war Croatian population. The large field study was carried out by the Institute for Anthropological Research with technical support from the National Institute of Public Health. The field study was completed between 1995-1997. It included about 10,000 adult volunteers from all 21 Croatian counties. The geographic distribution of the sample covered both coastal and continental areas of Croatia and included rural and urban environments. The specific measurements included antropometry (body mass index and blood pressure). From each examinee a blood sample was collected from which the levels of total plasma cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (High Density Lipoprotein), LDL-cholesterol (Low Density Lipoprotein), lipoprotein Lp(a), and haemostatic risk factor fibrinogen (F) were determined. The detailed data were collected on the general knowledge and attitudes on health issues, followed by specific investigation of smoking history, alcohol consumption, nutrition habits, physical activity, family history of chronic non-communicable diseases and occupational exposures. From the initial database a targeted sample of 5,840 persons of both sexes, aged 18-65, was created corresponding by age, sex and geographic distribution to the general Croatian population. This paper summarises and discusses the main findings of the project within this representative sample of Croatian population.
Collegium antropologicum 07/2001; 25(1):77-96. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein (a) concentrations in sera were determined on 536 healthy reference children and adolescents aged 8-19 years from Zagreb, Croatia. The frequency distribution showed that 20.4% boys and girls had lipoprotein (a) concentrations above 0.3 g/L what is considered as a cut-off value for the increased risk of early atherosclerosis. The results of correlation studies and factor analysis support the concept that the concentrations of lipoprotein (a) could be an independent risk factor and therefore may have a great value in the prediction of atherosclerosis early in life.
Collegium antropologicum 07/1999; 23(1):79-86. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concentrations of 34 biochemical constituents of sera were determined on 998 randomly selected urban school children and adolescents aged 8-18 years from Zagreb, Croatia. Reference intervals were obtained by using non-parametric methods to estimate 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of distribution as upper and lower normal reference intervals, according to the IFCC recommendations. These were compared to reference intervals in the healthy adult population, aged 20-30 years from the same geographical area. Serum glucose, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, iron, zinc, total serum proteins and electrophoretic fractions, and amylase, did not show age or sex differences; total serum bilirubin, total calcium, phosphate, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total iron binding capacity, unsaturated iron binding capacity, copper, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase had higher reference intervals than the adult population. Urea, creatinine, urate, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides had lower reference intervals than the adult population.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 06/1998; 36(5):327-37. · 3.01 Impact Factor