J R Parikh

National Institute of Occupational Health, Amadavad, Gujarāt, India

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Publications (12)6.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: An epidemiological study was undertaken in Gujarat, India to study the acute and chronic health effects of occupational exposure to green tobacco. Non-Flue Cured Virginia (FCV) tobacco is the main crop in many districts of Central Gujarat. Three villages were selected from Anand district for the study and a random sample of 685 exposed workers were examined. Six hundred and fifty-five control workers with the same socio-economic status were examined from two villages where tobacco was not cultivated. The overall prevalence of green tobacco sickness (GTS) was 47.0% among tobacco workers. The prevalence in women workers was 55.7% while in men workers it was 42.66%. To detect the chronic health effects prevalence of hypertension, electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities, and eye problems in all the workers and reproductive abnormalities in women workers, all subjects received a medical examination. The data were compared in exposed and control group but they were non-significant statistically. No case of tobacco amblyopia was detected. The prevalence of GTS among non-FCV tobacco workers is high. However, from viewpoint of severity it can be considered as mild acute nicotine toxicity, which is relieved without medication. No significant difference is observed as regards to chronic health effects among tobacco workers and control workers.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 07/2005; 47(6):494-9. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A solid-phase extraction method using Drug Test-1 column containing chemically modified silica as a solid support for sample clean up and reversed phase ion-paired high-pressure liquid chromatography method have been developed for the simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine from the urine samples. Mobile phase was consisted of acetate buffer (containing 0.03 M sodium acetate and 0.1 M acetic acid) pH 3.1 and acetonitrile (78:22% (v/v)) containing 0.02 M sodium octanosulfonate as an ion pair agent. pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 3.6 with triethylamine for better resolution and to prevent peak tailing. The linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-10 microg/ml concentrations of nicotine and cotinine standards. The correlation coefficients were 0.998 for cotinine and 0.999 for nicotine. The recoveries were obtained in the range of 79-97% with average value of 85% for nicotine and in the range of 82-98% with average value of 88% for cotinine. The limit of detection was 2 ng/ml for cotinine and 5 ng/ml for nicotine with 2 ml urine for extraction, calculated by taking signal to noise ratio 10:3. The intra-day co-efficient of variation (CV) were <4 and 7% and inter-day CV were <9 and 7% for nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The method was applied to the urine samples of tobacco harvesters, who suffer from green tobacco sickness (GTS) to check the absorption of nicotine through dermal route during the various processes of tobacco cultivation due to its good reproducibility and sensitivity.
    Journal of Chromatography B 04/2004; 802(2):323-8. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of rubber gloves reduced nicotine and cotinine absorption among 29 tobacco harvesters, as evidenced by the urinary excretion rate of nicotine and cotinine. Approximately 20% (n = 6) of the subjects reported that symptoms disappeared when they used gloves, but the remaining 23 workers complained of an occasional headache even when using gloves. Wearing of boots and socks as well as gloves prevented the symptoms and significantly decreased nicotine and cotinine excretion. This suggests that nicotine is absorbed through the feet.
    Archives of Environmental Health An International Journal 01/1991; 46(5):316-7.
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    ABSTRACT: An epidemiological study was carried out in three textile mills of Ahmedabad. A total of 214 cotton dust exposed and 184 control subjects were examined for pulmonary function tests. Pulmonary function tests included forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second. The pulmonary function tests were carried out before starting the shift and after 7 hours of exposure on a vitalograph spirometer. The study shows that among the cotton dust exposed workers byssinotics behave distinctly and show the maximum acute and chronic changes in pulmonary functions. It seems that the effect of cotton dust exposure on the byssinotic subjects is more predominant than the effect of smoking.
    The Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine 02/1990; 40(2):71-4.
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    ABSTRACT: In an epidemiological study carried out in three textile mills at Ahmedabad, India, 929 workers were examined from the spinning departments. The mean prevalence of byssinosis in the blow section was 29.62%, whereas in the card section it was 37.83%. The concentrations of cotton dust (dust less fly) were high in the blow and card sections (4.00 mg/m3 in the blow and 3.06 mg/m3 in the card section). This study suggests that the prevalence of byssinosis is not low in the textile mills of India as reported in many earlier Indian studies.
    British journal of industrial medicine 12/1989; 46(11):787-90.
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    ABSTRACT: Blood histamine levels were measured by the bioassay of histamine (on an isolated strip of guinea pig ileum) in workers exposed to cotton dust in a textile mill in Ahmedabad. Byssinotic subjects showed very high levels of blood histamine as compared to nonbyssinotic and control subjects. The blood histamine levels were not well correlated to the dust concentrations or duration of exposure but rather to the day of the week (ie, first, second, third, etc., after weekend break) on which the samples were collected. The blood histamine levels were high on the first day of the work week, when byssinotics complained most of their symptoms.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 02/1987; 12(4):439-43. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two types of gloves were provided to 85 non-Virginia tobacco harvesters who complained of having "green symptoms." Results show that the use of gloves causes a significant reduction in nicotine absorption as reflected by the nicotine and cotinine excretion rates and also the reduction in the prevalence of "green symptoms," since contact with the leaves and leaf-sap and the abrasions of the palms was avoided by their use. It was found that the use of rubber gloves afforded protection among 93% of the subjects, while with cotton gloves the proportion was somewhat less (78.5%). Cotton gloves were more comfortable but nondurable while the rubber ones were durable but not so comfortable.
    Archives of Environmental Health An International Journal 01/1987; 42(2):121-4.
  • The Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine 02/1986; 36(1):24-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Occupational health problems among 100 tobacco processing workers were investigated. Symptoms, including vomiting, giddiness, headache, etc. were found among 69 exposed subjects. It was also observed that the excretion rate of nicotine and cotinine increased among exposed subjects. Biochemical parameters were found to be within the normal range. Electrocardiographic findings were non-specific and clinically there was no evidence of hypertension or ischemic heart disease. Therefore, the symptoms in tobacco processing workers might possibly result from mild nicotine toxicity.
    Archives of Environmental Health An International Journal 01/1985; 40(6):318-21.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of organochlorine insecticides for public health programs is indisputably necessary in developing countries. Thus, there is a need to evaluate human response to these chemicals under local field conditions. The effects of a short-term, 16-wk exposure to hexachlorocyclohexane has been evaluated and compared in malaria spraymen with and without any previous occupational exposure to this insecticide by measuring the pre- and post-exposure serum hexachlorocyclohexane concentration. A significant increase in original serum hexachlorocyclohexane concentration. A significant increase in original serum hexachlorocyclohexane concentration was observed in subjects on their first occupational exposure (5X), compared to those with previous exposure (3X). All workers reached approximately the same serum levels within 16 wk, regardless of their history of previous exposure.
    Archives of Environmental Health An International Journal 01/1982; 37(1):41-4.
  • The Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine 08/1980; 30(3):113-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Occupational sickness among tobacco farmers due to the handling of green tobacco leaves is termed "green symptom." This symptom was investigated among 197 Indian tobacco workers and it was found that 88.83% of the workers were suffering from green symptom when exposed to green tobacco leaves during their occupational operation. Nicotine concentration of the urine was estimated only among male subjects who were smokers. During the exposure period (when subjects were suffering from green symptom), more than a three-fold increase in nicotine concentration in the urine was observed. Both cured and uncured leaves may cause such sickness.
    Journal of occupational medicine.: official publication of the Industrial Medical Association 02/1979; 21(1):45-7.