Yan-Yan Gu

Peking University, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (4)14.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Primarily, E2F factors such as E2F1, -2, and -3 stimulate cell-cycle progression, while ARF tumor suppressor mediates growth suppression. The ARF gene can be induced by oncogenic signal through activating E2F-dependent transcription. In turn, ARF may target E2F for its degradation via a p53-dependent mechanism. However, it remains unclear how the cell keeps the balance between the functional opposites of E2F and ARF. In this study, we demonstrate that p14ARF interacts with E2F1-3 factors to directly repress their transcriptional activities through forming p14ARF-E2F/partner-DNA super complexes, regardless of E2F protein degradation. The inhibition of E2F transcriptional activities by p14ARF in this manner occurs commonly in a variety of cell types, including p53-deficient and p53-wild type cells. Thus, E2F-mediated activation of the ARF gene and ARF-mediated functional inhibition of E2F compose a feedback loop, by which the two opposites act in concert to regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis, depending on the cellular context and the environment.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 01/2010; 109(4):693-701. DOI:10.1002/jcb.22446 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 8-Chloro-adenosine (8-Cl-Ado) inhibits tumor cell proliferation by inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. We speculate that upregulation of p14ARF by E2F1 might contribute to 8-Cl-Ado-induced late apoptosis. Hoechst staining, cell proliferation and TUNEL assays, real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA interference were employed in investigating the role of induction of p14ARF by E2F1 in 8-Cl-Ado-induced apoptosis in human lung cancer H1299 cells. Exposure of H1299 to 8-Cl-Ado led to apoptosis after long exposure (48 h), revealed by the appearance of nucleus fragmentation and apoptotic bodies and the activation of procaspase-3 pathway. Western blotting and RT-PCR showed that the upregulation of p14ARF was in parallel with E2F1 expression during exposure. Furthermore, induction of p14ARF was attributed to increased E2F1 expression, evidenced by E2F1 transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation/real-time quantitative PCR. Knockdown of p14ARF expression in H1299 decreased TUNEL-positive cell numbers and relatively increased survival cell numbers during 8-Cl-Ado exposure, indicating insensitivity of p14ARF-knocked down cells to 8-Cl-Ado. Induction of p14ARF by E2F1 contributes to 8-Cl-Ado-induced late apoptosis.
    Chemotherapy 08/2009; 55(5):335-43. DOI:10.1159/000230697 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A key feature of actin is its ability to bind and hydrolyze ATP. 8-Chloro-adenosine (8-Cl-Ado), which can be phosphorylated to the moiety of 8-Cl-ATP in living cells, inhibits tumor cell proliferation. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that 8-Cl-Ado can interfere with the dynamic state of actin polymerization. We found that 8-Cl-Ado inhibited the growth of human lung cancer cell line A549 and H1299 in culture, and arrested the target cells in G2/M phase evidenced by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Immunocytochemistry showed that the normal organization of microfilaments was disrupted in 8-Cl-Ado-exposed cells, which is accompanied by the decrease of cell size and the alteration of cell shape, and by aberrant mitosis and apoptosis in targeted cells. Furthermore, in vitro light scattering assays revealed that 8-Cl-ATP could directly inhibit the transition of G-actin to F-actin. DNase I inhibition assays showed that the G/F-actin ratio, a surrogate marker of actin polymerization status in living cells, was significantly increased in 8-Cl-Ado-exposed A549 and H1299 cells, compared to the G/F-actin ratio in unexposed cells. Taken together, these results indicate that 8-Cl-Ado exposure can alter the dynamic properties of actin polymerization, disrupt the dynamic instability or the rearrangement ability of actin filaments. Therefore, our data suggest that 8-Cl-Ado may exert its cytotoxicity at least partly by interfering with the dynamic instability of microfilaments, which may correlate with its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation and cell death.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 09/2006; 72(5):541-50. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2006.05.026 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 8-Chloro-adenosine (8-Cl-Ado) is a potent chemotherapeutic agent whose cytotoxicity in a variety of tumor cell lines has been widely investigated. However, the molecular mechanisms are uncertain. In this study, we found that exposure of human lung cancer cell lines A549 (p53-wt) and H1299 (p53-depleted) to 8-Cl-Ado induced cell arrest in the G2/M phase, which was accompanied by accumulation of binucleated and polymorphonucleated cells resulting from aberrant mitosis and failed cytokinesis. Western blotting showed the loss of phosphorylated forms of Cdc2 and Cdc25C that allowed progression into mitosis. Furthermore, the increase in Ser10-phosphorylated histone H3-positive cells revealed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting suggested that the agent-targeted cells were able to exit the G2 phase and enter the M phase. Immunocytochemistry showed that microtubule and microfilament arrays were changed in exposed cells, indicating that the dynamic instability of microtubules and microfilaments was lost, which may correlate with mitotic dividing failure. Aberrant mitosis resulted in mitotic catastrophe followed by varying degrees of apoptosis, depending on the cell lines. Thus, 8-Cl-Ado appears to exert its cytotoxicity toward cells in culture by inducing mitotic catastrophe.
    Neoplasia 11/2004; 6(6):802-12. DOI:10.1593/neo.04247 · 5.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

62 Citations
14.97 Total Impact Points

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Institutions

  • 2010
    • Peking University
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2009
    • Capital Medical University
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2006
    • Peking University Health Science Center
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China