Aline Marighetto

French Institute of Health and Medical Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (46)173.74 Total impact

  • Aline Desmedt · Aline Marighetto · Gal Richter-Levin · Ludovic Calandreau ·
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    ABSTRACT: For centuries philosophical and clinical studies have emphasized a fundamental dichotomy between emotion and cognition, as, for instance, between behavioral/emotional memory and explicit/representative memory. However, the last few decades cognitive neuroscience have highlighted data indicating that emotion and cognition, as well as their underlying neural networks, are in fact in close interaction. First, it turns out that emotion can serve cognition, as exemplified by its critical contribution to decision-making or to the enhancement of episodic memory. Second, it is also observed that reciprocally cognitive processes as reasoning, conscious appraisal or explicit representation of events can modulate emotional responses, like promoting or reducing fear. Third, neurobiological data indicate that reciprocal amygdalar-hippocampal influences underlie such mutual regulation of emotion and cognition. While supporting this view, the present review discusses experimental data, obtained in rodents, indicating that the hippocampal and amygdalar systems not only regulate each other and their functional outcomes, but also qualify specific emotional memory representations through specific activations and interactions. Specifically, we review consistent behavioral, electrophysiological, pharmacological, biochemical and imaging data unveiling a direct contribution of both the amygdala and hippocampal-septal system to the identification of the predictor of a threat in different situations of fear conditioning. Our suggestion is that these two brain systems and their interplay determine the selection of relevant emotional stimuli, thereby contributing to the adaptive value of emotional memory. Hence, beyond the mutual quantitative regulation of these two brain systems described so far, we develop the idea that different activations of the hippocampus and amygdala, leading to specific configurations of neural activity, qualitatively impact the formation of emotional memory representations, thereby producing either adaptive or maladaptive fear memories.
    Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 08/2015; 18(3):1-12. DOI:10.3109/10253890.2015.1067676 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying the underlying cellular mechanisms of episodic memory is an important challenge, since this memory, based on temporal and contextual associations among events, undergoes preferential degradation in aging and various neuropsychiatric disorders. Memory storage of temporal and contextual associations is known to rely on hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity, which depends ex vivo on dynamic organization of surface NMDARs. Whether NMDAR surface trafficking sustains the formation of associative memory, however, remains unknown. We tested this hypothesis, using single nanoparticle imaging, electrophysiology, and behavioral approaches, in hippocampal networks challenged with a potent modulator of NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity and memory, 17β-estradiol (E2). We demonstrate that E2 modulates NMDAR surface trafficking, a necessary condition for E2-induced potentiation at hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 synapses. Strikingly, cornu ammonis 1 NMDAR surface trafficking controls basal and E2-enhanced mnemonic retention of temporal, but not contextual, associations. NMDAR surface trafficking and its modulation by the sex hormone E2 is a cellular mechanism critical for a major component of episodic memory, opening a new and noncanonical research avenue in the physiopathology of cognition. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Biological psychiatry 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.07.017 · 10.26 Impact Factor
  • Aline Desmedt · Aline Marighetto · Pier-Vincenzo Piazza ·
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    ABSTRACT: For over a century clinicians have consistently described the paradoxical co-existence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of sensory intrusive hypermnesia and declarative amnesia for the same traumatic event. Although this amnesia is considered as a critical aetiological factor of the development and/or persistence of PTSD, most current animal models in basic neuroscience have focused exclusively on the hypermnesia, i.e. the persistence of a strong fear memory, neglecting the qualitative alteration of fear memory. The latest is characterized by an underrepresentation of the trauma in the context-based declarative memory system in favour of its overrepresentation in a cue-based sensory/emotional memory system. Combining psychological and neurobiological data as well as theoretical hypotheses, this review supports the idea that contextual amnesia is at the core of PTSD and its persistence, and that altered hippocampal-amygdalar interaction may contribute to such pathological memory. In a first attempt to unveil the neurobiological alterations underlying PTSD-related hypermnesia/amnesia, we describe a recent animal model mimicking in mice some critical aspects of such abnormal fear memory. Finally, this line of argument emphasizes the pressing need for a systematic comparison between “normal”/adaptive vs. “abnormal”/maladaptive fear memory in order to identify biomarkers of PTSD while distinguishing them from general stress-related, potentially adaptive, neurobiological alterations.
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    ABSTRACT: The neuroimaging literature has shown consistent decreases in fMRI activity in the hippocampus of healthy older adults engaged in a navigation task. However, navigation in a virtual maze relies on spatial or response strategies known to depend on the hippocampus and caudate nucleus respectively. Therefore, since the proportion of people using spatial strategies decreases with normal aging, we hypothesized that it was responsible for the observed decreases in fMRI activity in the hippocampus reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on the hippocampus and caudate nucleus during navigation while taking into account individual navigational strategies. Young (N=23) and older adults (N=29) were tested using fMRI on the Concurrent Spatial Discrimination Learning Task (CSDLT), a radial task that dissociates between spatial and response strategies (in stage 2) after participants reached criteria (in stage 1). Success on stage 2 requires that participants have encoded the spatial relationship between the target object and environmental landmarks, i.e. the spatial strategy. While older adults required more trials, all participants reached criterion. fMRI results showed that, as a group, young adults had significant activity in the hippocampus activity as opposed to older adults who instead had significant activity in the caudate nucleus. Importantly, individual differences showed that the older participants who used a spatial strategy to solve the task had significant activity in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that the aging process involves a shift from using the hippocampus towards the caudate nucleus during navigation but that activity in the hippocampus is sustained in a subset of healthy older adults engaged in spatial strategies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Hippocampus 11/2013; 23(11). DOI:10.1002/hipo.22181 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The functional relevance of septo-hippocampal cholinergic (SHC) degeneration to the degradation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory (DM) in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains ill-defined. Specifically, selective SHC lesions often fail to induce overt memory impairments in animal models. In spite of apparent normal performance, however, neuronal activity within relevant brain structures might be altered by SHC disruption. We hypothesized that partial SHC degeneration may contribute to functional alterations within memory circuits occurring in aging before DM decline. In young adult mice, we studied the effects of behaviourally ineffective (saporin-induced) SHC lesions - similar in extent to that seen in aged animals - on activity patterns and functional connectivity between three main neural memory systems: the septo-hippocampal system, striatum and amygdala that sustain declarative, procedural and emotional memory, respectively. Animals were trained in a radial maze procedure dissociating the human equivalents of relational/DM and non-R/DM expressions in animals. Test-induced Fos activation pattern revealed that the partial SHC lesion significantly altered the brain's functional activities and connectivity (co-activation pattern) despite the absence of overt behavioural deficit. Specifically, hippocampal CA3 hyperactivity and abnormal septo-hippocampo-amygdalar inter-connectivity resemble those observed in aging and prodromal AD. Hence, SHC neurons critically coordinate hippocampal function in concert with extra-hippocampal structures in accordance with specific mnemonic demand. Although partial SHC degeneration is not sufficient to impact DM performance by itself, the connectivity change might predispose the emergence of subsequent DM loss when, due to additional age-related insults, the brain can no longer compensate the holistic imbalance caused by cholinergic loss.
    Neurobiology of Disease 01/2013; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2013.01.010 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: Kaouane.SOM

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    ABSTRACT: Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg(2+) has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the liver of aimara-fed mice, histological alterations were observed for an accumulated mercury concentration as low as 32 ng/g, dw, and metal deposits were observed within the cytoplasm of hepatic cells.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2012; 13(6):7710-38. DOI:10.3390/ijms13067710 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) leads to obesity and adverse neurocognitive outcomes. Childhood and adolescence are important periods of brain maturation shaping cognitive function. These periods could consequently be particularly sensitive to the detrimental effects of HFD intake. In mice, juvenile and adulthood consumption of HFD induce similar morphometric and metabolic changes. However, only juvenile exposure to HFD abolishes relational memory flexibility, assessed after initial radial-maze concurrent spatial discrimination learning, and decreases neurogenesis. Our results identify a critical period of development covering adolescence with higher sensitivity to HFD-induced hippocampal dysfunction at both behavioral and cellular levels. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Hippocampus 11/2012; 22(11):2095-100. DOI:10.1002/hipo.22032 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A radial maze concurrent spatial discrimination learning paradigm consisting of two stages was previously designed to assess the flexibility property of relational memory in mice, as a model of human declarative memory. Aged mice and young adult mice with damage to the hippocampus, learned accurately Stage 1 of the task which required them to learn a constant reward location in a specific set of arms (i.e., learning phase). In contrast, they were impaired relative to healthy young adult mice in a second stage when faced with rearrangements of the same arms (i.e., flexibility probes). This mnemonic inflexibility in Stage 2 is thought to derive from insufficient relational processing by the hippocampus during initial learning (Stage 1) which favors stimulus-response learning, a form of procedural learning. This was proposed as a model of the selective declarative and relational memory decline classically described in elderly people. As a first step to examine the validity of this model, we adapted this protocol to humans using a virtual radial-maze. (1) We showed that performance in the flexibility probes in young and older adults positively correlated with performance in a wayfinding task, suggesting that our paradigm assesses relational memory. (2) We demonstrated that older healthy participants displayed a deficit in the performance of the flexibility probes (Stage 2), similar to the one previously seen in aged mice. This was associated with a decline in the wayfinding task. (3) Our fMRI data in young adults confirmed that hippocampal activation during early discrimination learning in Stage 1 correlated with memory flexibility in Stage 2, whereas caudate nucleus activation in Stage 1 negatively correlated with subsequent flexibility. By enabling relational memory assessment in mice and humans, our radial-maze paradigm provides a valuable tool for translational research.
    Hippocampus 04/2012; 22(4):869-80. DOI:10.1002/hipo.20948 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by a hypermnesia of the trauma and by a memory impairment that decreases the ability to restrict fear to the appropriate context. Infusion of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus after fear conditioning induces PTSD-like memory impairments and an altered pattern of neural activation in the hippocampal-amygdalar circuit. Mice become unable to identify the context as the correct predictor of the threat and show fear responses to a discrete cue not predicting the threat in normal conditions. These data demonstrate PTSD-like memory impairments in rodents and identify a potential pathophysiological mechanism of this condition.
    Science 02/2012; 335(6075):1510-3. DOI:10.1126/science.1207615 · 33.61 Impact Factor
  • X Noguès · M.M. Corsini · A Marighetto · D.N. Abrous ·
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    ABSTRACT: Until recently, it was believed that the introduction of new neurons in neuronal networks was incompatible with memory function. Since the rediscovery of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, behavioral data demonstrate that adult neurogenesis is required for memory processing. We examine neurocomputational studies to identify which basic mechanisms involved in memory might be mediated by adult neurogenesis. Mainly, adult neurogenesis might be involved in the reduction of catastrophic interference and in a time-related pattern separation function. Artificial neuronal networks suggest that the selective recruitment of new-born or old neurons is not stochastic, but depends on environmental requirements. This leads us to propose the novel concept of "soft-supervision". Soft-supervision would be a biologically plausible process, by which the environment is able to influence activation and learning rules of neurons differentially.
    Behavioural brain research 08/2011; 227(2):418-25. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2011.08.009 · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Aline Marighetto · Laurent Brayda-Bruno · Nicole Etchamendy ·
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    ABSTRACT: In the present chapter, we describe our own attempts to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of memory in aging. First, we tried to improve animal models of memory degradations occurring in aging, and develop common behavioral tools between mice and humans. Second, we began to use these behavioral tools to identify the molecular/intracellular changes occurring within the integrate network of memory systems in order to bridge the gap between the molecular and system level of analysis. The chapter is divided into three parts (i) modeling aging-related degradation in declarative memory (DM) in mice, (ii) assessing the main components of working memory (WM) with a common radial-maze task in mice and humans and (iii) studying the role of the retinoid cellular signaling path in aging-related changes in memory systems.
    Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 07/2011; 10:67-89. DOI:10.1007/7854_2011_151
  • Jacques Micheau · Aline Marighetto ·
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    ABSTRACT: Even though "procholinergic" drugs are almost the sole kind of treatments currently used as cognitive enhancers in patients with Alzheimer's disease, the role of acetylcholine (ACh) in learning and memory is still poorly understood. In this short review, we focus on the septo-hippocampal cholinergic system and try to demonstrate that understanding ACh-memory relationships requires taking into account two characteristics of memory function. First, this function is polymorphic and relies on multiple neural systems. It appears that hippocampal ACh may not only modulate specific computational function of the hippocampus but also contributes to the functional coordination of multiple memory systems in a task-dependent manner. Second, memorization implies different phases which are differentially regulated by ACh. Namely, several lines of evidence suggest a "biphasic" involvement with hippocampal ACh facilitating memory encoding but hampering memory consolidation and retrieval, and low hippocampal ACh promoting consolidation of declarative memory. By spotting major determinants of memory modulation by hippocampal ACh, we hope that the present non exhaustive review will help to improve our understanding of the complexity of ACh-memory relationships.
    Behavioural brain research 12/2010; 221(2):424-9. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2010.11.052 · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • A. Marighetto · L. Brayda-Bruno · N. Etchamendy · N. Mons ·

    European Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2009; 19. DOI:10.1016/S0924-977X(09)70243-3 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A Molecular & Integrative Physiology 09/2008; 151(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cbpa.2008.05.082 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to further characterize the memory-enhancing profile of S 18986 a positive allosteric modulator of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors. S 18986 was studied in two mouse models of age-related memory deficits, using radial maze paradigms involving long-term/declarative memory and short-term/working memory. Aged mice exhibited severe deficits when compared with their younger counterparts in the two behavioural tests. S 18986 at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg selectively improved aged mouse performance in the test of long-term/declarative memory flexibility and exerted a beneficial effect on short-term retention of successive arm-visits in the short-term/working memory test. This study confirms the memory-enhancing properties of S 18986 and, in line with emerging data on multiple AMPA modulators, highlights the relevance of targeting AMPA receptors in the development of new memory enhancers.
    Behavioural Pharmacology 06/2008; 19(3):235-44. DOI:10.1097/FBP.0b013e3282feb0c1 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The comparative effects of a newly described specific alpha7 nAChR partial agonist, S 24795, and a cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, currently used as a symptomatic Alzheimer's disease treatment were studied in two mouse models of aging-related memory deficits. We employed radial arm-maze paradigms assessing short-term working memory (STWM, experiment A) and mnemonic flexibility, a cardinal property of long-term declarative (LTDM, experiment B). Both compounds were administered daily at 0.3 and 1 mg/kg subcutaneously (~3 weeks). In the STWM experiment, vehicle-treated aged mice displayed a severe and persistent deficit in the retention of successive arm visits in comparison to younger controls. S 24795 at 1 mg/kg (trends at 0.3 mg/kg) and donepezil at 0.3 mg/kg (but not 1 mg/kg) exerted beneficial effects on this deficit: The performance of aged mice treated with these drugs remarkably increased across the testing days and almost reached young adult performance level. In the critical test trials of memory flexibility (i.e., LTDM), in experiment B, S 24795 at 1 mg/kg (trends at 0.3 mg/kg) and donepezil at the dose of 1 mg/kg (but not 0.3 mg/kg) improved aged mice performance. This preclinical demonstration that S 24795 restored specific age-related memory deficits with as much efficacy as donepezil adds to recent literature in highlighting the potential interest of an alpha7 nAChR drug as a symptomatic AD therapeutic.
    Psychopharmacology 05/2008; 197(3):499-508. DOI:10.1007/s00213-007-1063-x · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The potential memory-enhancing properties of two dopamine agonists currently used in patients with Parkinson's disease, piribedil (1, 10 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously) and bromocriptine (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously), were evaluated in three experiments. Although piribedil (10 mg/kg) and bromocriptine equally enhanced spontaneous object recognition in young adult rats (experiment A), only piribedil displayed beneficial effects against aging-related memory impairments in two radial-maze experiments in mice. First (experiment B), a two-stage paradigm of spatial discrimination was used to assess relational/declarative memory in aged mice; piribedil (1 and 10 mg/kg) selectively and significantly improved the performances of aged mice in the critical tests for relational/declarative memory, whereas bromocriptine had no effect. Second, in a novel working memory task (experiment C), vehicle- or bromocriptine-treated aged mice displayed, compared with (vehicle) younger controls, a severe and persistent deficit in short-term retention of successive arm-visits, performing close to chance whichever the retention interval. Performances of piribedil (10 mg/kg) group remarkably improved across testing-days and reached young adults' level. The restoration of specific mnemonic impairments, in aged mice, highlights the memory-enhancing properties of piribedil. The efficacy of this drug in treating cognitive impairment of Parkinson's disease should now be assessed in more specific models.This work was published in an abstract form: ECNP Abstracts, 2005 (P8060 & P8065).
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 03/2008; 22(5):511-21. DOI:10.1177/0269881107083836 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing body of evidence indicates that the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) plays a role in adult brain plasticity by activating gene transcription through nuclear receptors. Our previous studies in mice have shown that a moderate downregulation of retinoid-mediated transcription contributed to aging-related deficits in hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term declarative memory (LTDM). Here, knock-out, pharmacological, and nutritional approaches were used in a series of radial-arm maze experiments with mice to further assess the hypothesis that retinoid-mediated nuclear events are causally involved in preferential degradation of hippocampal function in aging. Molecular and behavioral findings confirmed our hypothesis. First, a lifelong vitamin A supplementation, like short-term RA administration, was shown to counteract the aging-related hippocampal (but not striatal) hypoexpression of a plasticity-related retinoid target-gene, GAP43 (reverse transcription-PCR analyses, experiment 1), as well as short-term/working memory (STWM) deterioration seen particularly in organization demanding trials (STWM task, experiment 2). Second, using a two-stage paradigm of LTDM, we demonstrated that the vitamin A supplementation normalized memory encoding-induced recruitment of (hippocampo-prefrontal) declarative memory circuits, without affecting (striatal) procedural memory system activity in aged mice (Fos neuroimaging, experiment 3A) and alleviated their LTDM impairment (experiment 3B). Finally, we showed that (knock-out, experiment 4) RA receptor beta and retinoid X receptor gamma, known to be involved in STWM (Wietrzych et al., 2005), are also required for LTDM. Hence, aging-related retinoid signaling hypoexpression disrupts hippocampal cellular properties critically required for STWM organization and LTDM formation, and nutritional vitamin A supplementation represents a preventive strategy. These findings are discussed within current neurobiological perspectives questioning the historical consensus on STWM and LTDM system partition.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 02/2008; 28(1):279-91. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4065-07.2008 · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2005, 84% of Wayana Amerindians living in the upper marshes of the Maroni River in French Guiana presented a hair mercury concentration exceeding the limit set up by the World Health Organization (10 microg/g). To determine whether this mercurial contamination was harmful, mice have been fed diets prepared by incorporation of mercury-polluted fish from French Guiana. Four diets containing 0, 0.1, 1, and 7.5% fish flesh, representing 0, 5, 62, and 520 ng methylmercury per g, respectively, were given to four groups of mice for a month. The lowest fish regimen led to a mercurial contamination pressure of 1 ng mercury per day per g of body weight, which is precisely that affecting the Wayana Amerindians. The expression of several genes was modified with mercury intoxication in liver, kidneys, and hippocampus, even at the lowest tested fish regimen. A net genetic response could be observed for mercury concentrations accumulated within tissues as weak as 0.15 ppm in the liver, 1.4 ppm in the kidneys, and 0.4 ppm in the hippocampus. This last value is in the range of the mercury concentrations found in the brains of chronically exposed patients in the Minamata region or in brains from heavy fish consumers. Mitochondrial respiratory rates showed a 35-40% decrease in respiration for the three contaminated mice groups. In the muscles of mice fed the lightest fish-containing diet, cytochrome c oxidase activity was decreased to 45% of that of the control muscles. When mice behavior was assessed in a cross maze, those fed the lowest and mid-level fish-containing diets developed higher anxiety state behaviors compared to mice fed with control diet. We conclude that a vegetarian diet containing as little as 0.1% of mercury-contaminated fish is able to trigger in mice, after only one month of exposure, disorders presenting all the hallmarks of mercurial contamination.
    Environmental Health 02/2008; 7(1):53. DOI:10.1186/1476-069X-7-53 · 3.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
173.74 Total Impact Points


  • 2013-2015
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      • Neurocentre Magendie U862
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2012-2015
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2008-2012
    • University of Bordeaux
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France
  • 1994-2008
    • Université Bordeaux 1
      • UMR CNIC - Centre de Neurosciences Intégratives Cognitives
      Talence, Aquitaine, France
  • 2000-2007
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut des maladies neurodégénératives (MN)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1998
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Experimental Psychology
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom

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