[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Castleman disease (CD), described as a heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disorder, can be divided into different subtypes according to clinical appearance (unicentric and multicentric form) and histopathological features (hyaline vascular, plasma cell, mixed type, human herpesvirus 8-associated and multicentric not otherwise specified). Unicentric CD is known to be usually of the hyaline vascular variant, plasma cell and mixed type of this form are quite uncommon. Malignancies are mainly associated with the multicentric form. We report a rare case of unicentric mixed variant CD evolving into intrabronchial, extramedullary plasmacytoma.Intrabronchial mass with consequential obstruction of the left main bronchus, left lung atelectasis and mediastinal lymphadenomegaly was detected by chest CT in our patient suffering from cough and hemoptysis. Pulmonectomy was performed, histopathological and immunhistochemical analysis of lymph nodes revealed mixed type of CD with interfollicular monotypic plasma cell proliferation. The intrabronchial mass consisted of monotypic plasma cells confirming plasmacytoma. Systemic involvement was not confirmed by further tests.Although malignancies more often present in multicentric CD that usually belongs to the plasma cell subtype, this case confirms the neoplastic potential of the rarest, unicentric mixed variant of CD.Virtual slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2872096831190851.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease involving several organs, including the lungs. Previous results confirmed changes of peripheral T cell subsets in lupus patients; however no data are available about their possible relationship with pulmonary involvement.
To determine pulmonary manifestations and potential relationship in changes of peripheral CD4+ T cell subsets.
Patients with SLE (N=28) were enrolled in complex pulmonary examination. Patients were divided into groups with pleuropulmonary manifestations (SLEpulm N=13 age: 44.9±3.3 years, female: male=11:2) or without (SLEc N=15 age: 27.2±3.7 years, female: male=12:3). Peripheral blood was taken for T helper (Th)1, Th2, Th17, CD4+CD25hi+ and regulatory T (Treg: CD4+CD25hi+CD127-) cell analysis from SLE patients and healthy volunteers (controls, N=40).
SLEpulm patients were older, had more pulmonary symptoms and significantly decreased pO2 as compared to SLEc group. Ventilatory disorder was present in 92% of SLEpulm patients, with significantly decreased lung volumes, signs of airway involvement and decrease in DLco. Significant increase in Th1/Th2, while decrease in Th17/Treg ratios was present in all SLE compared to controls. In SLEpulm CD4+CD25hi+ subset without changes in Treg number was significantly increased as compared to SLEc and this subgroup of T cell showed significant positive correlation with dynamic lung function parametes and DLco (p<0.05).
In lupus patients pleuropulmonary manifestations are prevalent and lung function and blood gas measurements should be regularly performed in the daily clinical assessment. Significant increase of activated CD4+CD25hi+ T cells, but nor Treg is associated with decreased lung function parameters in SLEpulm patients.
Respiratory medicine 01/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncontrolled asthma is a risk factor for pregnancy-related complications. Hyaluronic acid (HA), a potential peripheral blood marker of tissue fibrosis in various diseases, promotes eosinophil survival and plays a role in asthmatic airway inflammation as well as in physiological processes necessary to maintain normal pregnancy; however the level of circulating HA in asthma and asthmatic pregnancy is unknown. We investigated HA levels in asthmatic patients (N = 52; asthmatic pregnant (AP) N = 16; asthmatic non-pregnant (ANP) N = 36) and tested their relationship to asthma control. Serum HA level was lower in AP than in ANP patients (27 [24.7-31.55] vs. 37.4 [30.1-66.55] ng/mL, p = 0.006); the difference attenuated to a trend after its adjustment for patients' age (p = 0.056). HA levels and airway resistance were positively (r = 0.467, p = 0.004), HA levels and Asthma Control Test (ACT) total score inversely (r = -0.437, p = 0.01) associated in ANP patients; these relationships remained significant even after their adjustments for age. The potential value of HA in the determination of asthma control was analyzed using ROC analysis which revealed that HA values discriminate patients with ACT total score ≥20 (controlled patients) and <20 (uncontrolled patients) with a 0.826 efficacy (AUC, 95% CI: 0.69-0.97, p = 0.001) when 37.4 ng/mL is used as cut-off value in ANP group, and with 0.78 efficacy (AUC, 95% CI: 0.65-0.92, p = 0.0009) in the whole asthmatic cohort. In conclusion circulating HA might be a marker of asthma control, as it correlates with airway resistance and has good sensitivity in the detection of impaired asthma control. Decrease of HA level in pregnancy may be the consequence of pregnancy induced immune tolerance.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94678. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate patients' inhaler competence and satisfaction with the Easyhaler(®) dry powder inhaler.
Two open, uncontrolled, non-randomised studies.
Real life based on patients attending 56 respiratory clinics in Hungary.
Patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 1016).
In a 3-month study, adult patients (age range 18-88 years; n = 797) received twice-daily inhalations of formoterol via Easyhaler(®), and in a consequential study (from one visit to another, with 3-12 months in-between) children and adolescents (age range 4-17 years; n = 219) received salbutamol via Easyhaler(®) as needed.
Control of six Easyhaler(®) handling steps and patients' satisfaction with Easyhaler(®) based on questionnaires.
Correct performances (minimum and maximum of the six steps) were noticed after one demonstration in 92-98 % of the adults, 87-99 % of the elderly, 81-96 % of the children and 83-99 % of the adolescents. These figures had markedly increased at the last visit. Repeat instructions were necessary in 26 % of the cases. Investigators found Easyhaler(®) easy to teach in 87 % of the patients and difficult in only 0.5 %. Patients found Easyhaler(®) easy to learn and use, and the patients' (and parents') satisfaction with the inhaler was very high. Lung function values [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF)] improved statistically significantly during the studies, indicating good inhaler competence and treatment adherence.
Investigators found Easyhaler(®) easy to teach and patients found it easy to use, and their satisfaction with the device was high.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous experimental data suggest that steroids might have protective effects during hypoxic/ischemic injury of various organs. In this study, the association between dexamethason (Dexa) treatment and the anti-apoptotic SGK-1 was tested in ischemic renal injury. In vitro, HK-2 cells were exposed to 24 h hypoxia, and the effect of Dexa incubation on SGK-1 expression / activation and on cell death was studied. In an in vivo rat model of unilateral renal IR, animals were treated with Dexa, and serum renal function parameters, tissue injury and SGK-1 expression and localization were examined after different reperfusion times (2 h, 4 h and 24 h). Dexa at a dose of 2 mg/L exerted a protective effect on cell survival assessed by LDH release and vital staining paralleled by marked up-regulation of SGK-1. In rats, 2 mg/kg Dexa treatment 24 h prior to ischemia resulted in less severe tissue injury and ameliorated urea nitrogen levels 24 h after reperfusion. Furthermore, SGK-1 expression and phosphorylation were higher in Dexa animals demonstrated by Western blot and immunofluorescence technique. Our results provide novel data on the signalling mechanism of Dexa under hypoxia / ischemia and further support that Dexa emerges as an attractive pharmacological agent for the prevention of ischemic injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small airways disease plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma, but assessment of small airways impairment is not easy in everyday clinical practice. The small airways can be examined by several invasive and noninvasive methods, most of which can at present be used only in the experimental setting. Inhalers providing extrafine inhaled corticosteroid particle sizes may achieve sufficient deposition in the peripheral airways. Many studies have reported the beneficial effects of extrafine inhaled corticosteroids on inflammation, ie, on dysfunction in both the central and distal airways in asthmatics, and there are some data on asthma phenotypes in which the small airways seem to be affected more than in other phenotypes, including nocturnal asthma, severe steroid-dependent or difficult-to-treat asthma, asthma complicated by smoking, elderly asthmatic patients and/or patients with fixed airflow obstruction, and asthmatic children. The relevant randomized controlled clinical trials indicate that the efficacy of extrafine and nonextrafine inhaled corticosteroid formulations is similar in terms of primary endpoints, but there are certain clinically important endpoints for which the extrafine formulations show additional benefits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma has a high burden of morbidity if not controlled and may frequently complicate pregnancy, posing a risk for pregnancy outcomes. Elevated plasma level of the inflammatory biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is related to a worse prognosis in many conditions such as infectious, autoimmune, or pregnancy-related diseases; however the value of suPAR in asthma and asthmatic pregnancy is unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the suPAR, CRP and IL-6 levels in asthma (asthmatic non-pregnant, ANP; N = 38; female N = 27) and asthmatic pregnancy (AP; N = 15), compared to healthy non-pregnant controls (HNP; N = 29; female N = 19) and to healthy pregnant women (HP; N = 58). The relationship between suPAR levels and asthma control was also evaluated. The diagnostic efficacy of suPAR in asthma control was analyzed using ROC analysis. IL-6 and CRP levels were comparable in all study groups. Circulating suPAR levels were lower in HP and AP than in HNP and ANP subjects, respectively (2.01 [1.81-2.38] and 2.39 [2.07-2.69] vs. 2.60 [1.82-3.49] and 2.84 [2.33-3.72] ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.0001). suPAR and airway resistance correlated in ANP (r = 0.47, p = 0.004). ROC analysis of suPAR values in ANP patients with PEF above and below 80% yielded an AUC of 0.75 (95% CI: 0.57-0.92, p = 0.023) and with ACT total score above and below 20 an AUC of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.64-0.95, p = 0.006). The cut-off value of suPAR to discriminate between controlled and not controlled AP and ANP was 4.04 ng/mL. In conclusion, suPAR may help the objective assessment of asthma control, since it correlates with airway resistance and has good sensitivity in the detection of impaired asthma control. Decrease in circulating suPAR levels detected both in healthy and asthmatic pregnant women presumably represents pregnancy induced immune tolerance.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60697. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The casual and severity distribution of allergic rhinitis (AR) in Hungary is unknown.The aim of this survey was to evaluate symptom perception, disease severity, concomitant asthma frequency and the impact of AR on everyday life activities in a cross-sectional, multicenter study in Hungary under the supervision of Hungarian Respiratory Society. METHODS: Data were recorded by 933 AR patients (65.93% women) and their treating specialists. The perceptions of patients regarding the symptoms (nasal, ocular and others) of AR and its severity, together with its impact on everyday life were assessed. Physicians recorded data regarding the diagnosis and severity of AR, and comorbidities. RESULTS: 52.5% of patients suffered from seasonal AR, 35.1% from perennial AR. A large proportion of patients had moderate to severe disease (MS-AR) (57.34%), persistent disease (98.0%) and concomitant asthma (53.32% in the mild, 57.52% in the MS-AR group). MS-AR was more frequent among women. Despite the treatment used, in MS-AR the proportions of patients reporting moderate to severe rhinorrhoea, nasal obstruction, ocular itching/redness, watering, itchy throat and sneezing were as high as 52.0%, 54.0%, 33.8%, 26.5%, 44.0% and 31.2%, respectively. Overall, there was a poor agreement between disease severity reported by patients and specialists. The adherence to oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids was found to be between 50 and 65%; mostly depending on the dosage form. CONCLUSIONS: AR remains a significant health problem in Hungary because of the burden of symptoms, high rate of concomitant asthma and the significant proportion of MS-AR affecting general well being.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthmatic inflammation during pregnancy poses a risk for maternal and fetal morbidities. Circulating T cell immune phenotype is known to correlate with airway inflammation (detectable by fractional concentration of nitric oxide present in exhaled breath (FENO)) in non-pregnant allergic asthmatics. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of peripheral T cell phenotype to FENO and clinical variables of asthma during pregnancy.We examined 22 pregnant women with allergic asthma in the 2nd/3rd trimester. The prevalence of Th1, Th2, regulatory T (Treg) and natural killer (NK) cell subsets was identified with flow cytometry using cell-specific markers. FENO, Asthma Control Test (ACT) total score and lung function were evaluated.Peripheral blood Th1, Th2, Treg, and NK cell prevalence were not significantly correlated to airway inflammation assessed by FENO in asthmatic pregnant women (all cells p > 0.05; study power > 75%). However, an inverse correlation was detected between Th2 cell prevalence and ACT total scores (p = 0.03) in asthmatic pregnancy.Blunted relationship between T cell profile and airway inflammation may be the result of pregnancy induced immune tolerance in asthmatic pregnancy. On the other hand, increased Th2 response impairs disease control that supports direct relationship between symptoms and cellular mechanisms of asthma during pregnancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Active oncotherapy, combination chemotherapy of lung cancer is accompanied with many side effects which may impair patients' quality of life and compromise the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Most side effects of chemotherapy are preventable or treatable with optimal supportive care which enhances success in patient care and treatment. The aim of this review is to summarize the most important conditions that may be associated with combined chemotherapy of lung cancer from the practical point of view.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solid organ transplantation is the standard of care for selected patients with severe vital organ dysfunction. The need for immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection is a common characteristic of recipients. Immunosuppression increases the risk of infections, especially with low virulence opportunistic pathogens. Infections following solid organ transplantation mainly affect the lungs and the airways. Establishing the diagnosis includes a wide spectrum of pulmonary diagnostics, high standard microbiological analysis and various imaging methods. With the improvement of treatment options, the number of kidney, liver, heart and lung transplant recipients is increasing and, therefore, more and more physicians may meet pulmonary complications in these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inducible heat shock protein (HSP)72 plays a central role in antitumor immunomodulation. HSP72 expression was assessed on tumor samples of 43 patients with advanced and metastatic small cell lung cancer (SCLC) by immunohistochemistry and HSP72 [HSPA1B A(1267)G] polymorphism was determined. HSP72 expression of SCLC cells was significantly decreased in GG as compared to cells of AA or AG genotype patients, and was associated with significantly shorter survival in GG patients as compared to carriers of the A allele. Decreased HSP72 expression of SCLC cells associated with HSP72 GG genotype is a negative prognostic factor for survival in SCLC patients.
Cancer Investigation 04/2012; 30(4):317-22. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma is a common chronic disease that may complicate pregnancy and a risk factor for complications; however, immunological mechanisms of the bilateral interactions between asthma and pregnancy are not fully understood. Healthy gestation is characterized by a sensitive balance of T(h)1/T(h)2/T(h)17/regulatory T (Treg) cells that may be altered in asthmatic pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of these cell subsets in asthmatic compared with healthy pregnancy. The prevalence of T(h)1, T(h)2, T(h)17 and Treg lymphocytes was identified by cell surface and intracellular marker staining in blood samples of 24 healthy non-pregnant (HNP), 23 healthy pregnant (HP), 15 asthmatic non-pregnant (ANP) and 15 asthmatic pregnant (AP) women using flow cytometry. The T(h)1/T(h)2 cell ratio was decreased in both HP and ANP compared with HNP women; however, no further decrease was observed in the AP group. The T(h)17/Treg ratio was decreased in HP, but not in AP women, compared with HNP data. Healthy pregnancy increased Treg cell prevalence compared with HNP data (4.64% versus 2.98%; P < 0.05), and this pregnancy-induced elevation was absent in AP women (2.52% versus 4.64%; P < 0.05). T(h)17 cell prevalence was similar in the HP and HNP groups (2.78% versus 3.17%; P > 0.05). Asthma increased T(h)17 prevalence in non-pregnant patients (3.81% versus 3.17%; P < 0.05), and this asthma-specific increase of T(h)17 cell prevalence was also observed in AP patients (AP versus HP: 3.44% versus 2.78%; P < 0.05). The abnormal asthma-dependent T(h)17 elevation together with blunted Treg increase may play a role in the compromised immune tolerance characterizing asthmatic pregnancy.
International Immunology 09/2011; 23(11):669-77. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal ischemia reperfusion injury induces gender-dependent heat-shock protein 72 expression, which maintains membrane localization of renal Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α1. The erythropoietin has a protecting effect against ischemia reperfusion injury in various organs. In this study, we investigated whether erythropoietin exerts a beneficial effect against post-ischemic renal injury. Furthermore, we studied the erythropoietin signaling on heat-shock protein 72 and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α1 expression and localization.
In male and female Wistar rats, rHuEPO (1000 IU/bwkg intraperitoneal) or vehicle was administered 24 hours prior to unilateral left renal ischemia reperfusion (50 minutes). Kidneys were subsequently removed at hours 2 or 24 of the reperfusion; sham-operated rats served as controls (C) (n = 8/group). We measured serum erythropoietin, renal function, evaluated histological injury, and observed heat-shock protein 72 as well as Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α1 protein level and localization. Additional groups were followed for 7-day survival.
Erythropoietin treatment was associated with better post-ischemic survival and less impaired renal function in males while diminishing the renal structural damage in both sexes. Endogenous erythropoietin was higher in males and increased in both genders after erythropoietin treatment. The erythropoietin treatment elevated protein levels of heat-shock protein 72 and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α1 in 24 hours in males, whereas in females, the already higher expression of heat-shock protein 72 and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α1 was not increased. Moreover, erythropoietin prevented ischemia reperfusion induced Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α1 translocation from the basolaterale membrane in males.
Erythropoietin diminishes gender difference in the susceptibility to renal post-ischemic injury and reduces post-ischemic structural damage while preserving kidney function, particularly in males. This additional protection may be associated with a heat-shock protein 72-mediated effect on Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α1 expression and translocation.
Surgery 07/2011; 150(1):39-47. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung cancer carries a relatively high risk of chemotherapy-induced anemia, one of the most frequent hematological complications. Previous data show a lack of optimal anemia correction in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. This paper analyzes real-life data considering the prevalence and severity of chemotherapy-induced anemia, together with the frequency and efficacy of erythropoietin treatment of anemia in Hungarian lung cancer patients.
Data of 482 patients with histological or cytological confirmed lung cancer receiving chemotherapy were collected retrospectively between 1 January and 31 December, 2008. In all, 83 (17%) of them developed chemotherapy-induced moderate to severe anemia (44.6% male, 55.4% female; mean age 70 ± 8.6 years; NSCLC 67.5%, small cell lung cancer 32.5%).
More than 50% of the patients suffering from moderate to severe chemotherapy-induced anemia (hemoglobin below 10 g/dl) did not receive erythropoietin treatment. Chemotherapy had to be postponed due to anemia in 32.26% of the patients receiving erythropoietin supplementation, while this was seen in 41.94% of the group without erythropoietin treatment (p < 0.05). In patients not receiving erythropoietin, the severity of anemia increased, while erythropoietin treated patients maintained acceptable hemoglobin levels after the end of the chemotherapy.
The data draws attention to the fact that nowadays chemotherapy-induced anemia is not treated according to current guidelines in many lung cancer cases in Hungary.
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 07/2011; 10(4):503-7. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung transplantation is the only treatment for end-stage lung disease in selected patients. After lung transplantation, patient recovery is often slow owing to severe underlying diseases in the patient producing hypoxemia before, during, and after surgery, as well as infections and rejection episodes. Postoperative breathing and ventillatory disorders are also associated with diaphragmatic dysfunction and/or phrenic nerve damage.
Herein we have reported a case of a 35-year-old man undergoing bilateral lung transplantation owing to worsening of chronic respiratory failure from cystic fibrosis. After uncomplicated surgery, weaning was delayed due to nighttime dyspnea and hypoxemia attributed to diaphragm dysfunction. After improvement of diaphragm function, the symptoms persisted, requiring noninvasive nocturnal ventilatory support. Polysomnography confirmed severe mixed sleep apnea.
Effective treatment with noninvasive bi-level positive airway pressure spontaneous/timed mode (BiPAP S/T) ventilation during the nights rendered the patient symptom free. Polysomnography confirmed successful treatment.
Disordered breathing while sleeping is common after solid organ transplantation. BiPAP S/T ventilator therapy was effective to the treat dominantly central sleep apnea in our patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After lung transplantation, a high level of immunosuppression is needed to prevent rejection. This demand renders recipients more sensitive to infections. As pulmonary infections are a major clinical problem during the first postoperative year after lung transplantation, preventive treatment and regular surveillance examinations are needed for immediate, adequate therapy. We describe the airway pathogens registered during the first posttransplantation year among our 12 lung transplant recipients since December 2008. Samples were obtained for microbiologic analysis from the upper and lower respiratory tracts and from serum as part of routine care. During the first year after transplantation the most frequent pathogens were fungi (Candida albicans 82%; Aspergillus 50%), Pneumocystis (8%), gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas spp 60%; Klebsiella 25%, Acinetobacter 17%; Escherichia Coli 17%; and Enterococcus faecalis 25%), and Staphylococcus aureus (50%, including methicillin-resistant strains 25%). This pathogen spectrum in the first postoperative year after lung transplantation was similar to other centers. Colonization with Pseudomonas or fungi presented early and was prevalent among our patients.