Julie A Karl

University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

Are you Julie A Karl?

Claim your profile

Publications (26)126.11 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deep sequencing has revolutionized major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I analysis of nonhuman primates by enabling high-throughput, economical, and comprehensive genotyping. Full-length MHC class I cDNA sequences, which are required to generate reagents such as MHC-peptide tetramers, cannot be directly obtained by short read deep sequencing. We combined data from two next-generation sequencing platforms to discover novel full-length MHC class I mRNA/cDNA transcripts in Chinese rhesus macaques. We first genotyped macaques by Roche/454 pyrosequencing using a 530-bp amplicon spanning the densely polymorphic exons 2 through 4 of the MHC class I loci that encode the peptide-binding region. We then mapped short paired-end 250 bp Illumina sequence reads spanning the full-length transcript to each 530-bp amplicon at high stringency and used paired-end information to reconstruct full-length allele sequences. We characterized 65 full-length sequences from six Chinese rhesus macaques. Overall, approximately 70 % of the alleles distinguished in these six animals contained new sequence information, including 29 novel transcripts. The flexibility of this approach should make full-length MHC class I allele genotyping accessible for any nonhuman primate population of interest. We are currently optimizing this method for full-length characterization of other highly polymorphic, duplicated loci such as the MHC class II DRB and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors. We anticipate that this method will facilitate rapid expansion and near completion of sequence libraries of polymorphic loci, such as MHC class I, within a few years.
    Immunogenetics 11/2013; · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use of Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) for infectious disease immunity research is increasing, despite the relative lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I immunogenetics information available for this population. We determined transcript-based MHC class I haplotypes for 385 Chinese rhesus macaques from five different experimental cohorts, providing a concise representation of the full complement of MHC class I major alleles expressed by each animal. In total, 123 Mamu-A and Mamu-B haplotypes were defined in the full Chinese rhesus macaque cohort. We then performed an analysis of haplotype frequencies across the experimental cohorts of Chinese rhesus macaques, as well as a comparison against a group of 96 Indian rhesus macaques. Notably, 35 of the 51 Mamu-A and Mamu-B haplotypes observed in Indian rhesus macaques were also detected in the Chinese population, with 85% of the 385 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques expressing at least one of these class I haplotypes. This unexpected conservation of Indian rhesus macaque MHC class I haplotypes in the Chinese rhesus macaque population suggests that immunologic insights originally gleaned from studies utilizing Indian rhesus macaques may be more applicable to Chinese rhesus macaques than previously appreciated and may provide an opportunity for studies of CD8+ T cell responses between populations. It may also be possible to extend these studies across multiple species of macaques, as we found evidence of shared ancestral haplotypes between Chinese rhesus and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques.
    G3-Genes Genomes Genetics 05/2013; · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene products control the repertoire of T cell responses that an individual may create against pathogens and foreign tissues. This text will review the current understanding of MHC genetics in nonhuman primates, with a focus on Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). These closely related macaque species provide important experimental models for studies of infectious disease pathogenesis, vaccine development, and transplantation research. Recent advances resulting from the application of several cost effective, high-throughput approaches, with deep sequencing technologies have revolutionized our ability to perform MHC genotyping of large macaque cohorts. Pyrosequencing of cDNA amplicons with a Roche/454 GS Junior instrument, provides excellent resolution of MHC class I allelic variants with semi-quantitative estimates of relative levels of transcript abundance. Introduction of the Illumina MiSeq platform significantly increased the sample throughput, since the sample loading workflow is considerably less labor intensive, and each instrument run yields approximately 100-fold more sequence data. Extension of these sequencing methods from cDNA to genomic DNA amplicons further streamlines the experimental workflow and opened opportunities for retrospective MHC genotyping of banked DNA samples. To facilitate the reporting of MHC genotypes, and comparisons between groups of macaques, this text also introduces an intuitive series of abbreviated rhesus MHC haplotype designations based on a major Mamu-A or Mamu-B transcript characteristic for ancestral allele combinations. The authors believe that the use of MHC-defined macaques promises to improve the reproducibility, and predictability of results from pre-clinical studies for translation to humans.
    ILAR journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 01/2013; 54(2):196-210. · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deep sequencing technology is revolutionizing our understanding of HIV/SIV evolution. It is known that acute SIV sequence variation within CD8 T lymphocyte (CD8-TL) epitopes is similar among MHC-identical animals, but we do not know whether this persists into the chronic phase. We now determine whether chronic viral variation in MHC-identical animals infected with clonal SIV is similar throughout the entire coding sequence when using a sensitive deep sequencing approach. We pyrosequenced the entire coding sequence of the SIV genome isolated from a unique cohort of four SIVmac239-infected, MHC-identical Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCM) 48 weeks after infection; one MCM in the cohort became an elite controller. Among the three non-controllers, we found that genome-wide sequences were similar between animals and we detected increased sequence complexity within 64% of CD8-TL epitopes when compared to Sanger sequencing methods. When we compared sequences between the MHC-matched controller and the three non-controllers, we found the viral population in the controller was less diverse and accumulated different variants than the viral populations in the non-controllers. Importantly, we found that initial PCR amplification of viral cDNA did not significantly affect the sequences detected, suggesting that data obtained by pyrosequencing PCR-amplified viral cDNA accurately represents the diversity of sequences replicating within an animal. This demonstrates that chronic sequence diversity across the entire SIV coding sequence is similar among MHC-identical animals with comparable viral loads when infected with the same clonal virus stock. Additionally, our approach to genome-wide SIV sequencing accurately reflects the diversity of sequences present in the replicating viral population. In sum, our study suggests that genome-wide pyrosequencing of immunodeficiency viruses captures a thorough and unbiased picture of sequence diversity, and may be a useful approach to employ when evaluating which sequences to include as part of a vaccine immunogen.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e47818. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The relative contribution of direct and indirect allorecognition pathways to chronic rejection of allogeneic organ transplants in primates remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated T and B cell alloresponses in cynomolgus monkeys that had received combined kidney/bone marrow allografts and myeloablative immunosuppressive treatments. We measured donor-specific direct and indirect T cell responses and alloantibody production in monkeys (n = 5) that did not reject their transplant acutely but developed chronic humoral rejection (CHR) and in tolerant recipients (n = 4) that never displayed signs of CHR. All CHR recipients exhibited high levels of anti-donor Abs and mounted potent direct T cell alloresponses in vitro. Such direct alloreactivity could be detected for more than 1 y after transplantation. In contrast, only two of five monkeys with CHR had a detectable indirect alloresponse. No indirect alloresponse by T cells and no alloantibody responses were found in any of the tolerant monkeys. Only one of four tolerant monkeys displayed a direct T cell alloresponse. These observations indicate that direct T cell alloresponses can be sustained for prolonged periods posttransplantation and result in alloantibody production and chronic rejection of kidney transplants, even in the absence of detectable indirect alloreactivity.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2011; 187(9):4589-97. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years, the use of cynomolgus macaques in biomedical research has increased greatly. However, with the exception of the Mauritian population, knowledge of the MHC class II genetics of the species remains limited. Here, using cDNA cloning and Sanger sequencing, we identified 127 full-length MHC class II alleles in a group of 12 Indonesian and 12 Vietnamese cynomolgus macaques. Forty two of these were completely novel to cynomolgus macaques while 61 extended the sequence of previously identified alleles from partial to full length. This more than doubles the number of full-length cynomolgus macaque MHC class II alleles available in GenBank, significantly expanding the allele library for the species and laying the groundwork for future evolutionary and functional studies.
    Immunogenetics 05/2011; 63(9):611-8. · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While HIV-1-specific cellular immunity is thought to be critical for the suppression of viral replication, the correlates of protection have not yet been determined. Rhesus macaques (RM) are an important animal model for the study and development of vaccines against HIV/AIDS. Our laboratory has helped to develop and study DNA-based vaccines in which recent technological advances, including genetic optimization and in vivo electroporation (EP), have helped to dramatically boost their immunogenicity. In this study, RMs were immunized with a DNA vaccine including individual plasmids encoding SIV gag, env, and pol alone, or in combination with a molecular adjuvant, plasmid DNA expressing the chemokine ligand 5 (RANTES), followed by EP. Along with standard immunological assays, flow-based activation analysis without ex vivo restimulation and high-throughput gene expression analysis was performed. Strong cellular immunity was induced by vaccination which was supported by all assays including PBMC microarray analysis that identified the up-regulation of 563 gene sequences including those involved in interferon signaling. Furthermore, 699 gene sequences were differentially regulated in these groups at peak viremia following SIVmac251 challenge. We observed that the RANTES-adjuvanted animals were significantly better at suppressing viral replication during chronic infection and exhibited a distinct pattern of gene expression which included immune cell-trafficking and cell cycle genes. Furthermore, a greater percentage of vaccine-induced central memory CD8+ T-cells capable of an activated phenotype were detected in these animals as measured by activation analysis. Thus, co-immunization with the RANTES molecular adjuvant followed by EP led to the generation of cellular immunity that was transcriptionally distinct and had a greater protective efficacy than its DNA alone counterpart. Furthermore, activation analysis and high-throughput gene expression data may provide better insight into mechanisms of viral control than may be observed using standard immunological assays.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e19681. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MHC class I proteins are partly responsible for shaping the magnitude and focus of the adaptive cellular immune response. In humans, conventional wisdom suggests that the HLA-A, -B, and -C alleles are equally expressed on the majority of cell types. While we currently have a thorough understanding of how total MHC class I expression varies in different tissues, it has been difficult to examine expression of single MHC class I alleles due to the homogeneity of MHC class I sequences. It is unclear how cDNA species are expressed in distinct cell subsets in humans and particularly in macaques which transcribe upwards of 20 distinct MHC class I alleles at variable levels. We examined MHC gene expression in human and macaque leukocyte subsets. In humans, while we detected overall differences in locus transcription, we found that transcription of MHC class I genes was consistent across the leukocyte subsets we studied with only small differences detected. In contrast, transcription of certain MHC cDNA species in macaques varied dramatically by up to 45% between different subsets. Although the Mafa-B134:02 RNA is virtually undetectable in CD4+ T cells, it represents over 45% of class I transcripts in CD14+ monocytes. We observed parallel MHC transcription differences in rhesus macaques. Finally, we analyzed expression of select MHC proteins at the cell surface using fluorescent peptides. This technique confirmed results from the transcriptional analysis and demonstrated that other MHC proteins, known to restrict SIV-specific responses, are also differentially expressed among distinct leukocyte subsets. We assessed MHC class I transcription and expression in human and macaque leukocyte subsets. Until now, it has been difficult to examine MHC class I allele expression due to the similarity of MHC class I sequences. Using two novel techniques we showed that expression varies among distinct leukocyte subsets of macaques but does not vary dramatically in the human cell subsets we examined. These findings suggest pathogen tropism may have a profound impact on the shape and focus of the MHC class I restricted CD8+ T cell response in macaques.
    BMC Immunology 01/2011; 12:39. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques are the preferred animal model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines that elicit CD8(+) T cell responses. Unlike humans, whose CD8(+) T cell responses are restricted by a maximum of six HLA class I alleles, macaques express up to 20 distinct major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) sequences. Interestingly, only a subset of macaque MHC-I sequences are transcriptionally abundant in peripheral blood lymphocytes. We hypothesized that highly transcribed MHC-I sequences are principally responsible for restricting SIV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. To examine this hypothesis, we measured SIV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in MHC-I homozygous Mauritian cynomolgus macaques. Each of eight CD8(+) T cell responses defined by full-proteome gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay were restricted by four of the five transcripts that are transcriptionally abundant (>1% of total MHC-I transcripts in peripheral blood lymphocytes). The five transcriptionally rare transcripts shared by these animals did not restrict any detectable CD8(+) T cell responses. Further, seven CD8(+) T cell responses were defined by identifying peptide binding motifs of the three most frequent MHC-I transcripts on the M3 haplotype. Combined, these results suggest that transcriptionally abundant MHC-I transcripts are principally responsible for restricting SIV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. Thus, only a subset of the thousands of known MHC-I alleles in macaques should be prioritized for CD8(+) T cell epitope characterization.
    Journal of Virology 01/2011; 85(7):3250-61. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To test the graft-promoting effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a cynomolgus monkey model of islet/bone marrow transplantation. Cynomolgus MSCs were obtained from iliac crest aspirate and characterized through passage 11 for phenotype, gene expression, differentiation potential, and karyotype. Allogeneic donor MSCs were cotransplanted intraportally with islets on postoperative day (POD) 0 and intravenously with donor marrow on PODs 5 and 11. Recipients were followed for stabilization of blood glucose levels, reduction of exogenous insulin requirement (EIR), C-peptide levels, changes in peripheral blood T regulatory cells, and chimerism. Destabilization of glycemia and increases in EIR were used as signs of rejection; additional intravenous MSCs were administered to test the effect on reversal of rejection. MSC phenotype and a normal karyotype were observed through passage 11. IL-6, IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor, TGF-β, hepatocyte growth factor, and galectin-1 gene expression levels varied among donors. MSC treatment significantly enhanced islet engraftment and function at 1 month posttransplant (n = 8), as compared with animals that received islets without MSCs (n = 3). Additional infusions of donor or third-party MSCs resulted in reversal of rejection episodes and prolongation of islet function in two animals. Stable islet allograft function was associated with increased numbers of regulatory T-cells in peripheral blood. MSCs may provide an important approach for enhancement of islet engraftment, thereby decreasing the numbers of islets needed to achieve insulin independence. Furthermore, MSCs may serve as a new, safe, and effective antirejection therapy.
    Diabetes 10/2010; 59(10):2558-68. · 7.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of the challenge dose and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IB alleles were analyzed in 112 Mauritian cynomolgus monkeys vaccinated (n = 67) or not vaccinated (n = 45) with Tat and challenged with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) 89.6P(cy243.) In the controls, the challenge dose (10 to 20 50% monkey infectious doses [MID(50)]) or MHC did not affect susceptibility to infection, peak viral load, or acute CD4 T-cell loss, whereas in the chronic phase of infection, the H1 haplotype correlated with a high viral load (P = 0.0280) and CD4 loss (P = 0.0343). Vaccination reduced the rate of infection acquisition at 10 MID(50) (P < 0.0001), and contained acute CD4 loss at 15 MID(50) (P = 0.0099). Haplotypes H2 and H6 were correlated with increased susceptibility (P = 0.0199) and resistance (P = 0.0087) to infection, respectively. Vaccination also contained CD4 depletion (P = 0.0391) during chronic infection, independently of the challenge dose or haplotype.
    Journal of Virology 09/2010; 84(17):8953-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I alleles of nonhuman primates have been associated with disease susceptibility, resistance, and resolution. Here, using high-resolution pyrosequencing, we characterized MHC class I transcripts expressed in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCM), a nonhuman primate population with restricted MHC diversity. Using this approach, we identified 67 distinct MHC class I transcripts encoded by the seven most frequent MCM MHC class I haplotypes, 40 (60%) of which span the complete open reading frames. These results double the number of MHC class I sequences previously defined by cloning and Sanger sequencing of cDNA-PCR products and provide a rapid, high-throughput, and economical method for MHC characterization. Overall, this approach significantly expanded our knowledge of MCM haplotypes and will facilitate future studies on disease pathogenesis and protective cellular immunity.
    Immunogenetics 09/2010; 62(11-12):773-80. · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The high frequency of memory T cells present in primates is thought to represent a major barrier to tolerance induction in transplantation. Therefore, it is crucial to characterize these memory T cells and determine their functional properties. High numbers of memory T cells were detected in peripheral blood and all lymphoid tissues except lymph nodes, which were essentially the site of naïve T cells. The majority of CD8(+) memory T cells were effector memory cells located in the blood and bone marrow while most CD4(+) memory T cells were central memory cells present in the spleen. Next, memory T cells from over 100 monkeys were tested for their response to alloantigens by ELISPOT. Memory alloreactivity mediated via direct but not indirect allorecognition was detected in all animals. The frequency of allospecific memory T cells varied dramatically depending upon the nature of the responder/stimulator monkey combination tested. MHC gene matching was generally associated with a low-memory alloreactivity. Nevertheless, low anamnestic alloresponses were also found in a significant number of fully MHC-mismatched monkey combinations. These results show that selected donor/recipient combinations displaying a low memory alloresponsiveness can be found. These combinations may be more favorable for transplant tolerance induction.
    American Journal of Transplantation 06/2010; 10(6):1375-84. · 6.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The importance of a broad CD8 T lymphocyte (CD8-TL) immune response to HIV is unknown. Ex vivo measurements of immunological activity directed at a limited number of defined epitopes provide an incomplete portrait of the actual immune response. We examined viral loads in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-homozygous and MHC-heterozygous Mauritian cynomolgus macaques. Chronic viremia in MHC-homozygous macaques was 80 times that in MHC-heterozygous macaques. Virus from MHC-homozygous macaques accumulated 11 to 14 variants, consistent with escape from CD8-TL responses after 1 year of SIV infection. The pattern of mutations detected in MHC-heterozygous macaques suggests that their epitope-specific CD8-TL responses are a composite of those present in their MHC-homozygous counterparts. These results provide the clearest example of MHC heterozygote advantage among individuals infected with the same immunodeficiency virus strain, suggesting that broad recognition of multiple CD8-TL epitopes should be a key feature of HIV vaccines.
    Science translational medicine 03/2010; 2(22):22ra18. · 10.76 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genetics dictate adaptive cellular immune responses, making robust MHC genotyping methods essential for studies of infectious disease, vaccine development and transplantation. Nonhuman primates provide essential preclinical models for these areas of biomedical research. Unfortunately, given the unparalleled complexity of macaque MHCs, existing methodologies are inadequate for MHC typing of these key model animals. Here we use pyrosequencing of complementary DNA-PCR amplicons as a general approach to determine comprehensive MHC class I genotypes in nonhuman primates. More than 500 unique MHC class I sequences were resolved by sequence-based typing of rhesus, cynomolgus and pig-tailed macaques, nearly half of which have not been reported previously. The remarkable sensitivity of this approach in macaques demonstrates that pyrosequencing is viable for ultra-high-throughput MHC genotyping of primates, including humans.
    Nature medicine 10/2009; 15(11):1322-6. · 27.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) provide important animal models in biomedical research, but utility of this species for HIV and other disease pathogenesis research is limited by incomplete knowledge of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genetics. Here, we describe comprehensive MHC class I genotyping of 24 pig-tailed macaques, using pyrosequencing to evaluate a 367- bp complementary DNA (cDNA)-PCR amplicon spanning the highly polymorphic peptide-binding region of MHC class I transcripts. We detected 29 previously described Mane transcripts, 90 novel class I sequences, and eight shared MHC class IB haplotypes. We used this genotyping data to inform full-length MHC class I cDNA allele discovery, characterizing 66 novel full-length transcripts. These new full-length sequences nearly triple the number of Mane-B cDNA sequences previously characterized. The comprehensive genotypes and full-length Mane transcripts described herein add value to pig-tailed macaques as model organisms in biomedical research; furthermore, the coordinated method for MHC genotyping and allele discovery is extensible to other less well-characterized nonhuman primate species.
    Immunogenetics 09/2009; 61(10):689-701. · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region of nonhuman primates (NHPs) is highly polymorphic and has undergone complex segmental duplications such that the number of expressed genes differs between individuals. In addition the relative abundance of transcripts varies more than 100-fold between NHP class I genes. This unparalleled complexity makes rapid, efficient class I genotyping difficult for NHPs. The 'gold standard' of cDNA library construction, screening and sequencing is both costly and labor-intensive. Several rapid genotyping methods have been utilized, but all require some degree of prior sequence knowledge. Here, we describe a method for sequence-based MHC class I genotyping which reduces cost by (1) pooling molecularly barcoded class I cDNA-PCR amplicons for cloning and (2) targeting sequencing of a region of concentrated polymorphism spanning the two exons encoding the peptide binding domain. This method can efficiently genotype both known and novel MHC class I alleles. In addition, full-length cDNA amplicons with novel sequences can be resequenced in their entireties to expand the repertoire of characterized MHC class I sequences for NHPs.
    Methods 06/2009; 49(1):11-7. · 3.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vaccines that elicit CD8(+) T-cell responses are routinely tested for immunogenicity in nonhuman primates before advancement to clinical trials. Unfortunately, the magnitude and specificity of vaccine-elicited T-cell responses are variable in currently utilized nonhuman primate populations, owing to heterogeneity in major histocompatibility (MHC) class I genetics. We recently showed that Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCM) have unusually simple MHC genetics, with three common haplotypes encoding a shared pair of MHC class IA alleles, Mafa-A*25 and Mafa-A*29. Based on haplotype frequency, we hypothesized that CD8(+) T-cell responses restricted by these MHC class I alleles would be detected in nearly all MCM. We examine here the frequency and functionality of these two alleles, showing that 88% of MCM express Mafa-A*25 and Mafa-A*29 and that animals carrying these alleles mount three newly defined simian immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. The epitopes recognized by each of these responses accumulated substitutions consistent with immunologic escape, suggesting these responses exert antiviral selective pressure. The demonstration that Mafa-A*25 and Mafa-A*29 restrict CD8(+) T-cell responses that are shared among nearly all MCM indicates that these animals are an advantageous nonhuman primate model for comparing the immunogenicity of vaccines that elicit CD8(+) T-cell responses.
    Journal of Virology 05/2009; 83(12):6011-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background  Mauritian cynomolgus macaques have greatly restricted genetic diversity in the MHC region compared to other non-human primates; however, the frequency of common MHC haplotypes among captive-bred populations has not been reported.Methods  Microsatellite PCR was used to determine MHC haplotype frequencies among captive macaques at a UK breeding facility. Allele-specific PCR and reference strand conformational analysis were used to determine the allele expression profile of a subset of animals.Results  Haplotypes H3 (21%) and H1 (19%) were most common in the captive population of Mauritian cynomolgus macaques. Predicted alleles were detected by allele-specific PCR-SSP in 98% of animals. Allele expression profiles were similar in animals with identical haplotypes.Conclusions  Mauritian cynomolgus macaques in the UK breeding facility have restricted MHC diversity comparable to a previously described population. Microsatellite-derived haplotypes are highly predictive of allele expression. A selective breeding program has been established to produce MHC-identical animals for biomedical research.
    Journal of Medical Primatology 01/2009; 38(1):1 - 14. · 1.11 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) provide increasingly common models for infectious disease research. Several geographically distinct populations of these macaques from Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius are available for pathogenesis studies. Though host genetics may profoundly impact results of such studies, similarities and differences between populations are often overlooked. In this study we identified 47 full-length MHC class I nucleotide sequences in 16 cynomolgus macaques of Filipino origin. The majority of MHC class I sequences characterized (39 of 47) were unique to this regional population. However, we discovered eight sequences with perfect identity and six sequences with close similarity to previously defined MHC class I sequences from other macaque populations. We identified two ancestral MHC haplotypes that appear to be shared between Filipino and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, notably a Mafa-B haplotype that has previously been shown to protect Mauritian cynomolgus macaques against challenge with a simian/human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV(89.6P). We also identified a Filipino cynomolgus macaque MHC class I sequence for which the predicted protein sequence differs from Mamu-B*17 by a single amino acid. This is important because Mamu-B*17 is strongly associated with protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge in Indian rhesus macaques. These findings have implications for the evolutionary history of Filipino cynomolgus macaques as well as for the use of this model in SIV/SHIV research protocols.
    Immunogenetics 01/2009; 61(3):177-87. · 2.89 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

526 Citations
126.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2013
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2012
    • Wisconsin National Primate Research Center
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2011
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States