[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced glycoxidation end-products (AGEs) are involved in age-related conditions and diabetic complications. Diet intake contributes to their circulating concentrations.
To measure serum and urinary AGEs in non-diabetic volunteers and relate their concentration to body composition, blood chemistry and dietary ingestion.
We studied 41 adult men (31 middle-aged adults and 10 elderly). A nutritional assessment including a dietary recall designed for detection of AGE ingestion (specifically carboxymethyl-lysine(CML)), and anthropometric measurements were performed. Also serum lipoproteins, insulin, glucose, leptin and C reactive protein (CRP). AGEs were measured in serum and urine samples using size exclusion chromatography and flow injection assay (FIA); the technical procedures were first employed in 11 heterogeneous diabetics, as positive controls for this methodology.
Serum and urinary chromatograms indicated that areas under the curve were not different in younger compared with elderly adults. AGEs did not correlate with dietary intake, body composition, nor metabolic parameters, however they correlated significantly with renal function and CRP concentration.
In these non-diabetic volunteers, with low CML intake, serum and urinary concentration of AGEs were not related to dietary intake. AGEs were related to renal function and CRP, but not to body composition, lipoproteins, insulin and glucose.
Biological research 02/2007; 40(2):203-12. · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the association of lean body mass with nutritional, social and economic factors and its functional consequences in free living healthy elderly subjects.
Healthy elderly subjects of low socioeconomic level were studied. Monthly income, marital status, anthropometric measures and fall risk were assessed. Mini Nutritional Assessment score was calculated. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured by double beam X ray absorptiomentry. Fasting serum lipids, fasting and postprandial insulin and glucose levels were measured. Hand grip, quadriceps and biceps strengths and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures were measured.
One hundred and nine subjects (56 women), aged 75 +/- 4 years old were studied. Lean body mass was 34.1 +/- 4 and 49.2 +/- 5.4 kg in women and men respectively (p < 0.001), fat mass was 22.8 +/- 7.1 and 20.7 +/- 6.4 kg in women and men respectively (p= NS). Lean body mass correlated with hand grip, quadriceps and biceps muscle strengths in men and with quadriceps and biceps strength in women. Men that exercised regularly had higher quadriceps strength and maximal expiratory pressure. Total body fat correlated positively with fasting and postprandial serum insulin levels.
In this sample, lean body mass is directly related to muscle strength mostly in men. On the other hand, total fat mass is related to serum insulin levels.
The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 02/2004; 8(5):374-8. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the effects of a one year nutritional supplementation and resistance training program on muscle strength and walking capacity in the elderly.
Elderly subjects from two outpatient clinics received a nutritional supplement, that provided 400 Kcal, 15 g/protein and 50% of vitamin DRVs per day. Half the subjects receiving and not receiving the supplement were randomly assigned to a resistance exercise training program with two sessions per week. Every six months, body composition using DEXA, limb muscle strength, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and walking capacity were assessed.
One hundred forty nine subjects were considered eligible and 101 (31 supplemented and trained, 28 supplemented, 16 trained and 26 without supplementation nor training) completed the year of follow up. Overall compliance with the supplement was 48 22 % and trained subjects attended 56 21% of programmed sessions. No changes in fat free mass were observed in any of the groups, but fat mass increased from 22.5 7.3 to 23.2 7.3 kg in all groups (p < 0.001). Upper and lower limb strength and walking capacity increased significantly in trained subjects whether supplemented or not. Maximal inspiratory pressure and right hand grip strength increased only in the supplemented and trained group.
Resistance training improved muscle strength and walking capacity.
The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 01/2004; 8(2):68-75. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body composition changes and loss of functionality in the elderly are related to substandard diets and progressive sedentariness. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an 18-mo nutritional supplementation and resistance training program on health functioning of elders. Healthy elders aged > or = 70 y were studied. Half of the subjects received a nutritional supplement. Half of the supplemented and nonsupplemented subjects were randomly assigned to a resistance exercise training program. Every 6 mo, a full assessment was performed. A total of 149 subjects were considered eligible for the study and 98 (31 supplemented and trained, 26 supplemented, 16 trained and 25 without supplementation or training) completed 18 mo of follow-up. Compliance with the supplement was 48%, and trained subjects attended 56% of programmed sessions. Activities of daily living remained constant in the supplemented subjects and decreased in the other groups. Body weight and fat-free mass did not change. Fat mass increased from 22.2 +/- 7.6 to 24.1 +/- 7.7 kg in all groups. Bone mineral density decreased less in both supplemented groups than in the nonsupplemented groups (ANOVA, P < 0.01). Serum cholesterol remained constant in both supplemented groups and in the trained groups, but it increased in the control group (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Upper and lower limb strength, walking capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure increased in trained subjects. In conclusion, patients who were receiving nutritional supplementation and resistance training maintained functionality, bone mineral density and serum cholesterol levels and improved their muscle strength.
Journal of Nutrition 09/2001; 131(9):2441S-6S. · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mild hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered a cardiovascular risk factor. However, recent prospective studies have not demonstrated that hyperhomocysteinemia or the underlying genetic defect on methylentetrahydrofolate reductase is associated with a higher risk of coronary or peripheral artery disease. We compared serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B(12) levels of patients with coronary and peripheral vascular disease with those of age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Subjects taking multivitamins, with diabetes mellitus, or serum creatinine levels over 1.5 mg/dL were excluded from the study. Homocysteine was measured by fluorimetric high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum folate and vitamin B(12) levels were measured by an ion-capture method. We studied 32 patients with peripheral vascular disease (10 female), aged 69.6 +/- 11 y, 24 age- and sex-matched control subjects, 52 patients with coronary artery disease (7 female), aged 59.5 +/- 10.4 y, and 42 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Serum homocysteine levels were 11.7 +/- 7.4 and 9.3 +/- 4.5 micromol/L in vascular patients and in the control counterparts, respectively (not significant). The levels for coronary patients and the control counterparts were 9.0 +/- 3.9 and 8.6 +/- 3.6 micromol/L, respectively (not significant). Folate levels were 4.48 +/- 2.42 and 7.14 +/- 4.04 ng/mL in vascular patients and control subjects, respectively (P < 0.02); the levels in coronary patients and control counterparts were 5.15 +/- 1.9 and 6.59 +/- 2.49 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.01). No differences in vitamin B(12) or tocopherol levels were observed between patients and control subjects. There were no differences in homocysteine levels, but lower serum folate levels were observed when comparing patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease and healthy control subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is usual in patients with alcoholic liver disease and is associated with a poor outcome. Nutritional support decreases nutrition-associated complications.
To demonstrate that nutritional support in ambulatory alcoholic cirrhotic patients improves host defenses.
Thirty-one male outpatients with alcoholic cirrhosis CHILD-PUGH B or C were included. Twenty-five subjects completed six months consuming daily a nutritional supplement (Ensure, 1000 Kcal and 35 g protein), in addition to their regular diet. At entrance and every three months, a clinical assessment, nutritional evaluation and indirect calorimetry were performed. Liver function tests and LPS-induced monocyte production of cytokines, salivary secretory IgA, lactulose/mannitol ratio and breath hydrogen tests were also measured in these intervals. Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity and IgG and IgM antibody response to endotoxin were assessed at entrance and at the end of the study.
Patients drank 85% of the provided supplement as an average. REE, total body fat and serum albumin increased, basal breath hydrogen decreased and cellular immunity improved significantly during the follow up period (p< or =0.03). All the other parameters remained unchanged throughout the study. Six patients (16.2%) died during the study, five due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
Nutritional support in alcoholic cirrhotic patients improves nutritional status and cell mediated immunity.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition 11/1999; 18(5):434-41. · 1.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a newly recognized cardiovascular risk factor that is present in 10 to 20% of European and North American individuals.
To measure homocysteine levels in healthy adults in Chile.
Serum homocysteine levels were measured in healthy adults using a fluorimetric HPLC method. Folic acid, vitamin. B12, serum lipids, creatinine and glucose were also assessed. All subjects answered a dietary habits questionnaire.
One hundred twenty eight subjects (90 female) aged 22 to 78 years old were studied. Homocysteine levels were 9.7 +/- 6.0 and 7.0 +/- 3.1 mumol/l in men and women respectively (p < 0.001). Folic acid levels were 6.1 +/- 2.7 and 6.1 +/- 2.9 ng/ml in men and women, and 24% of individuals had values below 4 ng/ml. Vitamin B12 levels were 393 +/- 147 and 393 +/- 163 pg/ml in the same groups. There was a negative correlation between homocysteine and folic acid levels and a positive correlation between homocysteine and creatinine levels.
Homocysteine levels in healthy Chilean individuals are similar to those reported abroad. Low folic acid levels were found in 24% of subjects.
Revista medica de Chile 09/1998; 126(8):905-10. · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic alcoholism may increase intestinal permeability. However, there are few studies of intestinal permeability in chronic alcoholic subjects.
To study intestinal permeability in chronic alcoholic patients without clinical evidences of liver damage, during early abstinence, and in normal subjects.
Thirty seven male subjects were studied, 18 controls and 19 alcoholics. All subjects underwent an anthropometric assessment and dietary history. Lactulose/mannitol test was performed during the third day of abstinence in alcoholics. After an 8 hour overnight fast, subjects drank 200 ml of a solution containing 5 g lactulose and 5 g mannitol. Subsequently, urine was collected during the following 5 hours, where both sugars were measured by gas chromatography.
Median values of lactulose/mannitol ratio were similar in alcoholics and controls (0.011, range 0.005-0.071 vs 0.014, range 0.005-0.027 respectively). However, absolute urinary excretion of both lactulose and mannitol was lower in alcoholics. There was no relationship between nutritional status and urinary excretion of lactulose, mannitol or lactulose/mannitol ratio.
In these alcoholic patients, no changes were observed in intestinal permeability.
Revista medica de Chile 06/1997; 125(6):653-8. · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcoholism is a serious public health problem in Chile and the best treatment strategy for this problem is far from being clear.
To assess the long term results of an alcoholism rehabilitation program.
One hundred eighty two alcoholics admitted for treatment of their alcoholism were followed during two years in a special clinic. The effects of length of alcoholism, withdrawal symptoms on admission and the presence of histological liver damage on long term outcome were assessed using life table analysis.
During the two years period, 75% of patients were lost from control and 63% relapsed in their alcoholic ingestion. None of the above mentioned parameters had an effect on relapse or loss from follow up.
There are high attrition and failure rates and the length of alcoholism, degree of initial withdrawal and liver damage do not influence the long term results of this program.
Revista medica de Chile 04/1997; 125(3):311-6. · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An elevation of serologic markers of hepatic fibrogenesis has been reported in liver diseases of different etiologies. Among these, the N-terminal type III procollagen (P-III-P) and the P1 proteolytic fragment of laminin (P1 laminin) increase in alcoholic liver damage, in proportion to the progression of this condition.
To study serum levels of P-III-P and P1 laminin in asymptomatic alcoholics with and without liver damage and decompensated alcoholic cirrhotics, compared to normal controls.
Serum P-III-P and laminin levels were measured in asymptomatic alcoholics during detoxification treatment. Liver biopsies were obtained, in order to detect liver damage, which was graded with a numeric score, considering values over 6 as severe damage. Serum fibrogenesis markers were also measured in a group of decompensated alcoholic cirrhotics.
P-III-P levels were significantly higher in cirrhotic patients compared to alcoholics with or without liver damage and to normal controls. Laminin was not different between groups. P-III-P did not correlate with histologic score in asymptomatic patients.
In this study P-III-P and P1 laminin were not usefull discriminators of severe liver damage among asymptomatic alcoholics; their levels were found to rise significantly only when liver disease has become clinically evident.
Revista medica de Chile 02/1997; 125(1):15-21. · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excessive ethanol ingestion induces hypoandrogenism in male subjects. To confirm its presence and to study its relationship with the degree of liver damage and alcohol abstinence, plasma sex hormones were measured in alcoholic patients without liver failure, after two different abstinence periods. Patients were 30 male chronic alcoholics admitted to the Alcoholism Ward for treatment of their addiction. On admission, we measured: testosterone (T), estradiol (E), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG). A liver biopsy was also performed. These measurements were repeated at discharge and were also done in 15 normal volunteers. On admission (mean abstinence 1.9 +/- 1.7 days) total T was similar to controls, FSH was lower (p < 0.02) and high levels of SHBG were found (3.5 fold increase, as compared to controls). Histologically, 9 patients had normal liver; 14 had moderate alterations and 7 showed marked alterations. Hormonal values were not different in these 3 groups. At discharge, 11.1 +/- 4.7 days after admission, T, E and FSH did not show significant changes but LH decreased (8.2 +/- 5.2 mIU/ml vs 12.9 +/- 4.1, p < 0.001); SHBG also decreased (65.4 +/- 21.6 nmol/l vs 117.2 +/- 33.3, p < 0.001) to values that still were twice those of controls. It is concluded that alcoholic patients without clinical signs of liver failure have normal plasma testosterone levels, irrespective of their histologic liver alterations and high plasma SHBG levels that decreased significantly after a short abstinence. The concomitant LH decrease suggests that hypoandrogenism is likely in these patients. Fast changes in SHBG levels rise the possibility that this protein is candidate marker of alcoholism.
Journal of endocrinological investigation 09/1995; 18(8):638-44. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol ingestion promotes lipoperoxidation and alters cellular antioxidant mechanisms. Alpha-tocopherol levels decrease in alcoholics as severity of liver damage increases. The aim of this protocol was to study the effects of a long-term oral 500 mg vitamin E daily supplementation in decompensated ambulatory alcoholic cirrhotics.
67 subjects were included in this double blind trial; 33 patients received vitamin E and 34 patients received placebo tablets of identical appearance during 1 year. Each month, the patients were seen by a nurse practitioner who was in charge of detecting alcohol ingestion and checking adherence to treatment. Every 3 months, the patients underwent a medical examination, and blood samples were taken for clinical laboratory analysis and serum vitamin E measurement.
Alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly lower in patients with more severe liver disease. This difference was not significant when vitamin E levels were corrected by cholesterol. Oral supplementation significantly increased serum vitamin E levels in the experimental group. Alcohol ingestion and hospitalization rates were similar in both groups. Life table analysis did not show significant differences in mortality between the two groups.
Vitamin E supplementation with adequate doses of an alpha-tocopheryl acetate formulation during 1 year did not influence hepatic laboratory parameters, mortality or hospitalization rates of decompensated alcoholic cirrhotics, although serum levels of the vitamin significantly increased.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition 05/1995; 14(2):192-6. · 1.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to measure the effect of chronic alcohol intake on leucine turnover in outpatients with stable alcoholic liver cirrhosis.
Protein turnover rate was measured using L [1-14C] leucine in ten outpatients with proven alcoholic cirrhosis and in five healthy controls. After the performance of the turnover, the patients were divided in two groups depending on the evidence of alcohol ingestion in the previous month.
Non-abstinent patients had a significantly higher leucine flux and non-oxidative disposal (73.8 +/- 25.4 and 65.9 +/- 21.6) than abstinent cirrhotic patients (48.9 +/- 9.5 and 43.7 +/- 9.0) and normal controls 37.3 +/- 8.9 and 31.1 +/- 7.6 mumol/m2/min (p < 0.01). Leucine oxidation and serum leucine levels were similar in the three groups.
Alcohol intake in alcoholic cirrhotic patients has a catabolic effect that could be associated with the nutritional imbalances observed in alcoholic liver disease.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition 03/1995; 14(1):99-104. · 1.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied leucine turnover using a primed infusion of [1-14C]-L-leucine and glucose turnover using a primed infusion of [6-3H]-D-glucose in five alcoholic patients without liver damage and five age-matched controls. Infusions were maintained for 6 hr, and at the end of the 3rd hour, a 0.8 g/kg iv ethanol load was administered in 20 min. Leucine flux, nonoxidative disposal and oxidation rates, and glucose rate of appearance were calculated during the 3rd and 6th hours of infusion. Ethanol disappearance rate and the percentage completely metabolized to CO2 and H2O in 3 hr were also calculated. Compared with controls, alcoholics had significantly higher basal leucine flux (55.6 +/- 12 vs. 37.3 +/- 9.3 microM/m2/min) and nonoxidative disposal (48.7 +/- 8.7 vs. 31.1 +/- 7.5 microM/m2/min). No differences were observed in basal glucose appearance rates in alcoholics and controls (397.6 +/- 115.2 vs. 349.4 +/- 120.6 microM/m2/min). Compared with controls, alcoholics had a higher alcohol disappearance rate (2.72 +/- 0.59 vs. 1.84 +/- 0.43 mM/kg/min) and percentage of ethanol metabolized to CO2 and H2O in 3 hr (40.6 +/- 10.2 vs. 22.9 +/- 6.9%). After the ethanol load, both leucine turnover and glucose rate of appearance decreased significantly only in alcoholics. There was a positive correlation between the change in leucine flux and ethanol disappearance rate and percentage metabolized to CO2 and H2O in alcoholics.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 01/1994; 17(6):1295-300. · 3.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Looking for a noninvasive method to predict liver histologic alterations in alcoholic patients without clinical signs of liver failure, we studied 187 chronic alcoholics recently abstinent, divided in 2 series. In the model series (n = 94) several clinical variables and results of common laboratory tests were confronted to the findings of liver biopsies. These were classified in 3 groups: 1. Normal liver; 2. Moderate alterations; 3. Marked alterations, including alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Multivariate methods used were logistic regression analysis and a classification and regression tree (CART). Both methods entered gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), weight and age as significant and independent variables. Univariate analysis with GGT and AST at different cutoffs were also performed. To predict the presence of any kind of damage (Groups 2 and 3), CART and AST > 30 IU showed the higher sensitivity, specificity and correct prediction, both in the model and validation series. For prediction of marked liver damage, a score based on logistic regression and GGT > 110 IU had the higher efficiencies. It is concluded that GGT and AST are good markers of alcoholic liver damage and that, using sample cutoffs, histologic diagnosis can be correctly predicted in 80% of recently abstinent asymptomatic alcoholics.
Revista medica de Chile 05/1993; 121(4):369-78. · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A controlled trial on nutrition supplementation in ambulatory patients with decompensated alcoholic liver disease was carried out during 1 year. Fifty-one patients were studied; 26 were assigned to an experimental group receiving a daily supplement of 1000 kcal and 34 g of proteins given as a casein-based enteral nutrition product and 25 to a control group receiving one placebo capsule. Patients were examined in a special clinic once a month or more if required. Sixty-eight percent of patients admitted to alcohol ingestion or had alcohol in urine samples on at least one occasion. Dietary recalls showed a significantly higher protein and caloric intake in case patients subjects (p < .0001). Nine patients died during the study, three case patients and six control patients (p = NS). The frequency of hospitalizations was significantly less in the experimental group. This difference was attributed to a reduction in severe infections. Mid-arm circumference, serum albumin concentration, and hand grip strength improved earlier in case patients, although both groups had a significant improvement in these parameters. Bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase decreased and prothrombin time increased significantly in both groups during the study period, without differences between groups. It is concluded that nutrition support decreases nutrition-associated complications in patients with alcoholic liver disease.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 03/1993; 17(2):119-24. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A controlled trial on the use of Silymarin in patients with alcoholic liver disease was performed. Seventy two patients were admitted to the trial and randomly assigned to an experimental or controls group. Experimentals received 280 mg/day of Silymarin and controls an equal number of placebo tablets. Three patients on placebo and nine on Silymarin were lost from control (p = 0.035), remaining in control 34 patients receiving placebo and 25 patients receiving the drug. Both groups did not differ in their initial laboratory assessment and were followed up for an average of 15 months. Ten patients died during the follow up (5 in placebo and 5 in Silymarin); life table analysis did not show significant differences in mortality. Patients who died had lower serum albumin and prothrombin time and higher total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatases and CCLI on the initial clinical and laboratory assessment. Final laboratory values and their changes in those who survived did not differ between Silymarin and placebo. Twenty two patients on placebo (65%) and 14 on Silymarin (58%) recognized alcohol ingestion or had a positive urine sample analysis for alcohol during follow up. Those who abstained from alcohol had a significant fall in gamma glutamyl transferase during follow up. No other significant differences were observed between these two groups. It is concluded that in this trial, Silymarin did not change the evolution or mortality of alcoholic liver disease.
Revista medica de Chile 01/1993; 120(12):1370-5. · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hand dynamometer was used to measure muscle strength in 207 patients admitted to the Gastroenterology service of a general hospital. Validation of international standards in a normal population of both sexes and different ages revealed that our normals perform at the 25% percentile of international values. Results were correlated with other measurements of nutritional status, namely anthropometric measurements, serum albumin level and tuberculin test. Compared to normals, muscle strength was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in patients with body mass index under 19, cutaneous tricipital folding < 85%, brachial circumference < 85%, and serum albumin < 3.5 g/dl. No difference in muscle strength between tuberculin positive or negative subjects was observed. None of the nutritional parameter was helpful to predict complications in patients submitted to surgery. Thus, muscle strength is a useful parameter to evaluate nutritional status but, similar to other measurements, is not predictive of surgical complications.
Revista medica de Chile 06/1992; 120(6):615-20. · 0.37 Impact Factor