[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in children are an increasingly recognized serious safety problem worldwide, but are often preventable. Central venous catheter bundles have proved effective to prevent such infections. Successful implementation requires changes in the hospital system as well as in healthcare professionals' behaviour. The aim of the study is to evaluate process and outcome of implementation of a state-of-the-art central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle in a large university children's hospital.Methods/ design: An interrupted time series design will be used; the study will encompass all children who need a central venous catheter. New state-of-the-art central venous catheter bundles will be developed. The Pronovost-model will guide the implementation process. We developed a tailored multifaceted implementation strategy consisting of reminders, feedback, management support, local opinion leaders, and education. Primary outcome measure is the number of catheter-associated infections per 1000 line-days. The process outcome is degree of adherence to use of these central venous catheter bundles is the secondary outcome. A cost-effectiveness analysis is part of the study. Outcomes will be monitored during three periods: baseline, pre-intervention, and post-intervention for over 48 months.
This model-based implementation strategy will reveal the challenges of implementing a hospital-wide safety program. This work will add to the body of knowledge in the field of implementation. We postulate that healthcare workers' willingness to shift from providing habitual care to state-of-the-art care may reflect the need for consistent care improvement. Trial registration: Dutch trials registry, trial # 3635.Trial registration: Dutch trials registry (www.trialregister.nl), trial # 3635.
BMC Health Services Research 10/2013; 13(1):417. · 1.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies on the long-term effects of short bowel syndrome (SBS) on the quality of life are scarce. Therefore, we determined health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents with a history of infantile SBS compared with that of same-aged controls drawn from the general population.
Cross-sectional assessment (2005-2007) of HRQoL in children with a history of infantile SBS treated in their first year of life, born between 1987 and 2002, using generic HRQoL measures was performed. Children aged 5 to 18 years and their parents filled out the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Differences in scores between subjects and controls were analyzed using independent sample t tests.
Thirty-one children with a history of SBS (19 girls and 12 boys; mean age, 11.8 ± 4.2 years) participated, giving an overall response rate of 70%. The children and their parents reported significantly lower HRQoL than 275 healthy age-matched children and their parents (P < .05).
Children with a history of infantile SBS have a lower HRQoL than healthy age-matched controls. This difference lasts beyond childhood and way beyond the period of intestinal rehabilitation early in life. These findings highlight the need for targeted interventions to address these dimensions of impaired HRQoL.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 07/2012; 47(7):1309-16. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgeons prefer to close ostomies at least 6 weeks after the primary operation because of the anticipated postoperative abdominal adhesions. Limited data support this habit. Our aim was to evaluate adhesion formation-together with an analysis of resource consumption and costs-in patients with necrotizing enterocolitis who underwent early closure (EC), compared with a group of patients who underwent late closure (LC).
Chart reviews and cost analyses were performed on all patients with necrotizing enterocolitis undergoing ostomy closure from 1997 to 2009. Operative reports were independently scored for adhesions by 2 surgeons.
Thirteen patients underwent EC (median, 39 days; range, 32-40), whereas 62 patients underwent LC (median, 94 days; range, 54-150). Adhesion formation in the EC group (10/13 patients, or 77%) was not significantly different (P = 1.000) from the LC group (47/59 patients, or 80%). No differences were found in the costs of hospital stay, surgical interventions, and outpatient clinic visits.
Ostomy closure within 6 weeks of the initial procedure was not associated with more adhesions or with changes in direct medical costs. Therefore, after stabilization of the patient, ostomy closure can be considered within 6 weeks during the same admission as the initial laparotomy.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 04/2012; 47(4):658-64. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relatively few attempts to measure the effects on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of informal caregivers within the context of economic evaluations have been reported. This paper is an exploratory attempt to find suitable methods to assess caregivers' HRQoL, using a population of parents of children with major congenital anomalies.
A total of 306 parents of children born with either congenital anorectal malformations (ARM) or congenital diaphragmatic hernia were surveyed. They rated their current HRQoL on the EQ-VAS. After that, they rated their HRQoL again on the assumption that someone would take over their caregiving activities completely and free of charge. Finally, the parents classified their HRQoL on the EQ-5D. The caregivers' scores on the EQ-VAS and the EQ-5D were compared with scores elicited in the general population.
Most parents indicated that their HRQoL would not change if someone else took on their caregiving activities. Some methodological issues may have influenced this outcome, such as difficulties in self-assessing HRQoL changes due to caregiving, process utility, protest answers, and difficulties in understanding the hypothetical question. The HRQoL of the parents was relatively low compared with population statistics, especially in the parents of children with ARM and in mothers. This can be illustrated by the difference between the mean EQ-5D score of the mothers aged 25-34 years of the children with ARM and that of the general population (0.83 vs. 0.93; P = 0.002).
Significant HRQoL differences exist between parents caring for children with congenital anomalies and the general population. It would be useful to further improve our understanding of the HRQoL impact of informal caregiving, separating 'caregiving effects' from 'family effects', and distinguishing parent-child relationships from other caregiving situations. This study underlines the importance of considering caregivers, also in the context of economic evaluations. It indicates that general HRQoL measures, as used in patients, may be able to detect HRQoL effects in caregivers, which facilitates the incorporation in common economic evaluations of HRQoL effects in carers. Analysts and policy makers should be aware that if HRQoL improvement is an important aim, they should register HRQoL changes not only in patients but also in their caregivers.
Quality of Life Research 08/2011; 21(5):849-61. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nowadays, the belief is widespread that a safety culture is crucial to achieving patient safety, yet there has been virtually no analysis of the safety culture in pediatric hospital settings so far. Our aim was to measure the safety climate in our unit, compare it with benchmarking data, and identify potential deficiencies.
Prospective longitudinal survey study at two points in time.
Pediatric surgical intensive care unit at a Dutch university hospital.
All unit personnel.
To measure the safety climate, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire was administered to physicians, nurses, nursing assistants, pharmacists, technicians, and ward clerks in both May 2006 and May 2007. This questionnaire assesses caregiver attitudes through use of the six following scales: teamwork climate, job satisfaction, perceptions of management, safety climate, working conditions, and stress recognition. Earlier research showed that the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire has good psychometric properties and produced benchmarking data that can be used to evaluate strengths and weaknesses in a given clinical unit against peers.
The response rates for the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire were 85% (May 2006) and 74% (May 2007). There were mixed findings regarding the difference between physicians and nurses: on three scales (i.e., teamwork climate, safety climate, and stress recognition), physicians scored better than nurses at both points in time. On another two scales (i.e., perceptions of management and working conditions), nurses consistently had higher mean scale scores. Probably due to the small number of physicians, only some of these differences between physicians and nurses reached the level of statistical significance. Compared to benchmarking data, scores on perceptions of management were higher than expected (p < .01), whereas scores on stress recognition were low (p < .001). The scores on the other scales were somewhat above (job satisfaction), close to (teamwork climate, safety climate), or somewhat below (working conditions) what was expected on the basis of benchmarking data, but no persistent significant differences were observed on these scales.
Although on most domains the safety culture in our unit was good when compared to benchmark data, there is still room for improvement. This requires us to continue working on interventions intended to improve the safety culture, including crew resource management training, safety briefings, and senior executive walk rounds. More research is needed into the impact of creating a safety culture on patient outcomes.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 05/2011; 12(6):e310-6. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate compliance and costs of referral of nonurgent children, who present at the emergency department, to the general practitioner cooperative (GPC).
In a prospective observational before-after study, during 6 months in 2008, the triage nurse discussed referral to the GPC with parents, when self-referred children with a nontraumatic problem, aged 3 months-16 years were triaged as nonurgent (levels 4 and 5) according to the Manchester Triage System. A telephone follow-up was performed 2-4 days after referral. Real costs were calculated for emergency department consultation (preintervention period) and GPC referral (postintervention period). Compliance of referral was studied for 4 days a week.
One hundred and forty patients were referred to the GPC, of which 101 out of 140 patients (72%) attended a follow-up. After discharge seven patients (7%) had an unscheduled revisit. No patients were subsequently hospitalized. In total 275 patients were included to study compliance, with 28 (10%) reported missing. Ninety-five out of 247 (38%) patients were referred to the general practitioner and 46 out of 247 parents (19%) refused referral. For 106 out of 247 patients (43%) referral was not initiated by the nurse mainly because of comorbidity. Mean costs per patient were €106 for the preintervention period and €101 for the postintervention period.
Compliance of referring low urgent patients is low, mainly because it was difficult for nursing staff to refer. Total overall cost benefit is minimal. Cost savings may be achieved in different settings, where general practitioner services are colocated and where large numbers can be referred.
European Journal of Emergency Medicine 05/2011; 19(1):14-9. · 0.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, there are hardly any data on the treatment costs of infantile short bowel syndrome (SBS), despite growing interest in evidence-based and cost-effective medicine. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate resource consumption and costs, next to studying nutritional and growth outcomes, in children with SBS who were treated by an interdisciplinary short bowel team.
Data were collected for 10 children with infantile SBS (<or=1 year of age) born between 2002 and 2007. Data included demographic and medical data of the first admission and data on resource consumption, growth, and type of nutrition for the total follow-up period. Real economic costs were calculated in Euro (euro) and US dollar ($).
Seven of the 10 patients were discharged with home parenteral nutrition. Total follow-up varied between 9 months and 5.5 years (median, 1.5 years). Six patients could be weaned off parenteral nutrition and 5 patients off enteral tube feeding, resulting in full oral intake. Seven patients had normal growth. Median duration of initial hospital admission was 174 days, and average costs of initial admission amounted to euro166,045 ($218,681). Average total costs were euro269,700 ($355,195), reaching to a maximum of euro455,400 ($599,762). These costs mainly comprised hospital admissions (82%), followed by nutrition (12%), surgical interventions (5%), and outpatient visits (1%).
This study is among the first to describe resource consumption and costs in infants with SBS, examining real economic costs and extending beyond the initial hospitalization. Treatment of SBS requires considerable resource consumption, especially when patients depend on parenteral nutrition. Because the costs mainly comprise those of hospital admissions, early home parenteral nutrition could contribute to costs reduction. Interdisciplinary teams have the potential to facilitate early home parenteral nutrition and thus may reduce health care costs.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 03/2010; 45(3):490-8. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility of infants' weaning of opioids and sedatives at home.
Retrospective observational study.
Level 3 pediatric intensive care unit.
Neonates treated for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
Eligible infants were discharged early and further weaned of analgesics and/or sedatives at home.
Of the 30 neonates treated for CDH with ECMO from 2003 to 2005, 15 survived. Five of these were weaned at home, on the guidance of telephone contact once a week. The mean infusion rates of morphine and midazolam for these children were significantly higher than those for other infants. Weaning at home took 11, 42, 107, 173, and 180 days, respectively, in the resultant mean savings on hospitalization costs per patient amounted to Euro150, 000.
The results indicate that home weaning reduced the length of hospital stay by a median of 107 days for the five infants in this study, and thereby considerably reduced healthcare costs. Parents need to be informed clearly about possible withdrawal symptoms and should consent in this strategy. The strategy of final weaning with the aid of weekly telephone consultations with a consultant pediatric intensivist was feasible for these parents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since 1999 a multidisciplinary follow-up programme for parents and children with major anatomical congenital anomalies is in place in our hospital, run by a dedicated team. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the services of this team from a parental perspective.
Parents completed a questionnaire including open and closed questions about satisfaction with the various professional disciplines involved in the follow-up, statements on usefulness of the follow-up services and suggestions for improvement.
Four hundred and sixty-nine surveys were sent out, of which 71% were returned. Non-responding parents included significantly more parents of non-Dutch origin (P= 0.038) and parents who never responded to invitations for follow-up examinations (P < 0.001). Parental satisfaction differed for the various disciplines. Eighty per cent of the parents were (very) satisfied with the social worker, compared with 92% with nurses. More than half of the parents agreed that the follow-up services give peace of mind. Almost a quarter of parents, however, considered the follow-up services as redundant. The children of these parents had significantly shorter intensive care unit stay (P= 0.02), were older at the time of the questionnaire (P= 0.04), of higher socio-economic status (P= 0.001) and less likely to be of non-Dutch origin (P= 0.008). Sixty-one per cent of the parents had contacted the 24-h helpline. Ninety per cent of the parents were satisfied with the intensive care unit, almost 80% with the general ward.
Overall, parents were satisfied with the services of the follow-up team. Some parents, however, saw room for improvement related to better communication, recognizability of the team and better planning and organization.
Child Care Health and Development 08/2009; 36(1):101-9. · 1.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In many countries of the Western world, the role of health technology assessment (HTA) in funding decisions of medical technologies is increasing. HTAs are expected to support decision-makers in delineating the collectively funded benefits package. To maximize their potential, it is essential that assessments are valid, reliable and timely, and that it is transparent how information provided in assessments is used in decision-making. Against this background, this article aims to review the current state of affairs regarding the use of HTA in the area of medical specialist care in The Netherlands and to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the HTA-based system for priority setting. The reason to do so was the introduction of a new hospital financing system in The Netherlands, which allowed for expansion of the HTA system that already existed for pharmaceuticals to medical specialist care. A comprehensive account of the HTA system for medical specialist care was created using the so-called Hutton framework, followed by an exploration of its strengths and weaknesses. An important lesson to be learned from the early Dutch experiences with HTA in the area of medical specialist care is that the nature and complexity of health technologies in this area create practical problems regarding the amount and quality of available data needed to make the HTA-based system work. This hampers an unambiguous interpretation of assessment data and thus calls for stronger requirements regarding transparency and stakeholder participation. Future work focusing on the role of HTA in funding decisions is needed to provide insights in best practices for HTA systems in circumstances where a delicate balance needs to be achieved between promoting innovation, supporting effective and timely decision-making and preventing the coverage of technologies that represent a waste of resources.
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research 03/2009; 9(1):85-94. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper is a report of a study to evaluate how often and for what reason parents of children born with severe anatomical congenital anomalies use a 24-hour telephone helpline, and to identify differences between callers and non-callers.
Children born with severe congenital anomalies often remain dependent on medical care and technology after discharge. Adequate medical consultation in the home situation may lower parental burden.
Observational study of telephone contacts from 2000 to 2006 with parents of congenital anomaly patients discharged home after neonatal intensive care admission. Frequency of telephone calls was categorized per type of anomaly. Resulting interventions in terms of consultation and hospital admission were recorded. Finally, costs of personnel needed to provide 24-hour telephone helpline availability were calculated.
A total of 670 calls occurred outside office hours, from 34.4% of all parents; 23.7% of these calls concerned feeding problems. Parents of children with oesophageal atresia, urogenital malformation and congenital diaphragmatic hernia called most frequently (44.3-50.6%). Non-callers were more often first-time parents, divorced/separated or immigrants. Nurses handled 24.5% of calls by themselves and 20.2% of calls led to emergency room consultations resulting in 4.9% admissions. First contact took place at median age 3 months, last contact at median age 8 months. Total personnel costs amounted to euro27,191 per year.
A 24-hour telephone helpline provides easy access to medical and supportive care for parents of children with congenital anomalies at relatively low cost. Nurses can effectively run this telephone helpline with paediatrician back-up.
Journal of Advanced Nursing 01/2009; 64(6):625-31. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mortality rates in neonatal surgery have dropped markedly, illustrating the enormous progress made. Yet, new questions have arisen. To mention one, health care budgets have tightened. It follows that the effects of medical interventions should be weighted against their costs. As evidence was particularly sparse, we set out to analyse cost-effectiveness of neonatal surgery. The purpose of this article is to summarise our findings and to review recent studies. Moreover, this article explains the relevance of cost-effectiveness analysis and explores how cost-effectiveness interacts with other determinants of health care priority setting. Our research revealed that treatments for two common diagnostic categories in neonatal surgery (congenital anorectal malformations and congenital diaphragmatic hernia) produce good cost-effectiveness. Other groups also published cost-effectiveness studies in the field of neonatal surgery, although their number is still small. Contemporaneously, the economic aspects of health care have captured the interest of policy makers. Importantly, this is not to say that there are no other factors playing a role in priority setting, foremost among which are ethical questions and arguments of equity. This article concludes that, according to present evidence, neonatal surgery yields good value for money and contributes to equity in health.
Pediatric Surgery International 03/2008; 24(2):119-27. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The economic consequences of interventions to promote rational, evidence-based use of laboratory tests by physicians are not yet fully understood. We evaluated the cost consequences of a computer-based, guideline-driven decision-support system (CDSS) for ordering blood tests in primary care.
We installed the CDSS in 118 practices [159 general practitioners (GPs)] throughout The Netherlands and calculated the costs of the intervention in this group. During a period of 6 months before and 6 months after installation of the CDSS, the test-ordering behavior of 87 (109 GPs) of these 118 study practices was studied and the results were compared with those of a nonhistorical control group that did not receive the CDSS. In addition the costs of laboratory requests were calculated for both groups.
Total intervention costs, comprising development costs and installation costs, amounted to 79,000 euro (670 euro per practice). Whereas the introduction of the CDSS did not affect the number of order forms submitted to the laboratories, it did reduce the number of blood tests per order form. As a result, the CDSS yielded mean savings on the costs of laboratory requests of 847 euro per practice per 6 months.
This study demonstrates that providing electronic decision support for ordering blood tests in primary care represents an economically promising concept. Savings on laboratory costs are achievable and not offset by disproportionally high intervention costs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The criterion of medical need figures prominently in the Dutch model for reimbursement decisions as well as in many international models for health care priority setting. Nevertheless the conception of need remains too vague and general to be applied successfully in priority decisions. This contribution explores what is wrong with the proposed definitions of medical need and identifies features in the decision-making process that inhibit implementation and usefulness of this criterion. In contrast to what is commonly assumed, the problem is not so much a failure to understand the nature of the medical need criterion and the value judgments involved. Instead the problem seems to be a mismatch between the information regarding medical need and the way in which these concerns are incorporated into policy models. Criteria--medical need, as well as other criteria such as effectiveness and cost-effectiveness--are usually perceived as "hurdles," and each intervention can pass or fail assessment on the basis of each criterion and therefore be included or excluded from public funding. These models fail to understand that choices are not so much between effective and ineffective treatments, or necessary and unnecessary ones. Rather, choices are often between interventions that are somewhat effective and/or needed. Evaluation of such services requires a holistic approach and not a sequence of fail or pass judgments. To improve applicability of criteria that pertain to medical need we therefore suggest further development of these criteria beyond their original binary meaning and propose meaningful ways in which these criteria can be integrated into policy decisions.
The European Journal of Health Economics 04/2005; 6(1):2-7. · 2.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine short term and long term health related quality of life (HRQoL) of survivors of congenital anorectal malformations (ARM) and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and to compare these patients' HRQoL with that of the general population.
HRQoL was measured in 286 ARM patients and 111 CDH patients. All patients were administered a symptom checklist and a generic HRQoL measure. For the youngest children (aged 1-4) the TAIQOL (a preliminary version of the TAPQOL) was used, for the other children (aged 5-15) the TACQOL questionnaire, and for adults (aged >16) the SF-36.
As appeared from the symptom checklists, many patients remained symptomatic into adulthood. In the youngest ARM patients (aged 1-4 years), generic HRQoL was severely affected, but the older ARM patients showed better HRQoL. In the CDH patients, the influence of symptoms on HRQoL seemed less profound. The instruments we used revealed little difference between adults treated for ARM or CDH and the general population.
These results show that for two neonatal surgical procedures, improved survival does not come at the expense of poor HRQoL in adults. Even though there is considerable suffering in terms of both morbidity and mortality in the youngest group, the ultimate prognosis of survivors of the two studied congenital malformations is favourable. This finding can be used to reassure parents of patients in need of neonatal surgery for one of these conditions about the prospects for their child.
Archives of Disease in Childhood 10/2004; 89(9):836-41. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Netherlands, the Priorities in Healthcare [Keuzen in de Zorg] Committee proposed that the prioritisation of healthcare interventions should in part be based on the criterion 'necessity'. However, this criterion has hardly ever been used. It was proposed that 'necessity' should be defined in terms of disease severity. This concept examines the fraction of expected quality-adjusted life years (QALY) that a patient will lose if the condition concerned is not treated. The following two possible applications for healthcare policy were studied. Firstly, relatively necessary care could be fully reimbursed, whereas less necessary care would only be reimbursed in part. Secondly, for relatively necessary interventions a lower cost-effectiveness threshold (relatively high costs per QALY for necessary care) could be accepted. In these cases the concept of disease severity provides a new feasible interpretation of the criterion 'necessity'.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 12/2002; 146(48):2312-5.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cost-effectiveness of medical interventions is becoming an important issue for decision makers. Until recently, evidence of the cost-effectiveness of neonatal surgery was largely lacking. The authors analyzed the cost-effectiveness of neonatal surgery and subsequent treatment for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).
Both costs incurred inside and outside the health care sector (eg, out-of-pocket expenses and productivity losses) were included. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire. Descriptive quality-of-life data were collected using a disease-specific questionnaire. Both costs and effects basically were measured in a life-time setting.
Total costs of treatment average euro 42,658, mainly consisting of costs of the initial hospitalization. Productivity losses in both the patients and their caregivers appear to be minor. Treated CDH patients, even adults, suffer from respiratory difficulties and stomach aches. According to the EQ-5D, however, their quality of life does not differ from the general population, suggesting that these symptoms barely affect overall quality of life. Treatment results in a gain of 17.5 QALYs. Costs per QALY amount to euro 2,434.
Treatment for CDH has favorable cost-effectiveness. Considering the growing importance of cost-effective medicine, these are important and encouraging results. Health economics outlines the inevitability of making choices that directly affect patient care and places relative values on different health care programs. The results of this study provide convincing evidence that treatment for CDH is indeed cost effective.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 10/2002; 37(9):1245-52. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The progress made in all fields of medicine, including neonatal surgery, has contributed to the rise in healthcare costs. Although neonatal surgery may provide survival gains, these could be at the expense of worse quality of life caused by impairment after surgery. For example, congenital anorectal malformations (CAM) are complex anomalies, and the surgical techniques available have their limitations in achieving continence. It therefore seems justifiable to consider what the effects of treatment are in relation to the costs. Evidence of the cost-effectiveness of neonatal surgery, however, is lacking.
The authors analyzed both direct and indirect, medical and nonmedical costs in patients who had undergone treatment for CAM. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire. Descriptive quality-of-life data were collected using a disease-specific questionnaire and a medical consumption questionnaire.
Mean costs of treatment are calculated at Euro 31,593. Treated CAM patients suffer stool difficulties and their medical consumption is relatively high. The EQ-5D, however, shows that the quality of life of CAM patients is only slightly lower than that of the general population (0.88 v 0.93). Treatment results in a gain of 12.7 QALYs. Costs per QALY of treatment for CAM amount to Euro 2,482.
Treatment for CAM has a favorable cost-effectiveness ratio compared with other evaluated healthcare programs. Bearing in mind the increasing political interest in evidence-based and cost-effective medicine, the results are encouraging.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 11/2001; 36(10):1471-8. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary
CVZ has asked us to provide a comparison of criteria and procedures that different countries use to determine entitlements to medical specialist care. This question was asked within the context of the recent introduction of the DBC (diagnosis treatment combinations) system as an alternative to existing methods of financing of hospital services.
The analysis covered priority systems in nine countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK. To meaningfully compare existing criteria and procedures of different countries and analyze the possibilities and limitations of priority setting systems, we used an
analytical framework for international comparison recently developed by Hutton and co-workers (Hutton et al., 2006). The framework was created to encompass the many aspects of fourth hurdle systems. It can deal with the legal and political characteristics at the system level and the detailed nuances of varying assessment and decision-making procedures at the decisional level. It analyses priority systems at two
1. Policy implementation: the establishment of the fourth hurdle system as a policy decision of the government, the policy objectives of the system, its legal status, and its relationships with the remainder of the health system, with other public sector bodies, and with other stakeholders, such as industry and patient groups;
2. Individual technology decision: the processes by which individual technologies are dealt with by the system, for example, assessment processes, how decisions are made, and how they are