C Arthur

Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Are you C Arthur?

Claim your profile

Publications (23)135.44 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Around 40-50% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who achieve a stable complete molecular response (CMR; undetectable breakpoint cluster region-Abelson leukemia gene human homolog 1 (BCR-ABL1) mRNA) on imatinib can stop therapy and remain in CMR, at least for several years. This raises the possibility that imatinib therapy may not need to be continued indefinitely in some CML patients. Two possible explanations for this observation are (1) CML has been eradicated or (2) residual leukemic cells fail to proliferate despite the absence of ongoing kinase inhibition. We used a highly sensitive patient-specific nested quantitative PCR to look for evidence of genomic BCR-ABL1 DNA in patients who sustained CMR after stopping imatinib therapy. Seven of eight patients who sustained CMR off therapy had BCR-ABL1 DNA detected at least once after stopping imatinib, but none has relapsed (follow-up 12-41 months). BCR-ABL1 DNA levels increased in all of the 10 patients who lost CMR soon after imatinib cessation, whereas serial testing of patients in sustained CMR showed a stable level of BCR-ABL1 DNA. This more sensitive assay for BCR-ABL1 provides evidence that even patients who maintain a CMR after stopping imatinib may harbor residual leukemia. A search for intrinsic or extrinsic (for example, immunological) causes for this drug-free leukemic suppression is now indicated.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 10/2010; 24(10):1719-24. · 10.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We conducted a trial in 103 patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) using imatinib 600 mg/day, with dose escalation to 800 mg/day for suboptimal response. The estimated cumulative incidences of complete cytogenetic response (CCR) by 12 and 24 months were 88% and 90%, and major molecular responses (MMRs) were 47% and 73%. In patients who maintained a daily average of 600 mg of imatinib for the first 6 months (n = 60), MMR rates by 12 and 24 months were 55% and 77% compared with 32% and 53% in patients averaging less than 600 mg (P = .037 and .016, respectively). Dose escalation was indicated for 17 patients before 12 months for failure to achieve, or maintain, major cytogenetic response at 6 months or CCR at 9 months but was only possible in 8 patients (47%). Dose escalation was indicated for 73 patients after 12 months because their BCR-ABL level remained more than 0.01% (international scale) and was possible in 45 of 73 (62%). Superior responses achieved in patients able to tolerate imatinib at 600 mg suggests that early dose intensity may be critical to optimize response in CP-CML. The trial was registered at www.ANZCTR.org.au as #ACTRN12607000614493.
    Blood 09/2008; 112(10):3965-73. · 9.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Liposomal daunorubicin (DaunoXome) was substituted for doxorubicin in the CHOP regimen, aiming to reduce toxicity and maintain or improve efficacy in elderly patients. Eligibility criteria included: age >or=60 years; previously untreated aggressive non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and performance status (PS) 0-2. Treatment was cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m(2), vincristine 1.4 mg/m(2) (maximum 2 mg), and DaunoXome 100 mg/m(2) i.v. on day 1, prednisolone 100 mg po on days 1-5 and G-CSF 5 microg/kg/day sc, for 6-8 cycles. For the 51 patients, median age was 70 years (range 60-88), 94% had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 55% were high-intermediate or high-risk according to the age-adjusted international prognostic index. A mean of 6 cycles was delivered, with dose reductions of DaunoXome in 8.3% of cycles. The combined CR and CRu rate was 65.2%, survival was 566 days and 5-year survival 35%. Three deaths occurred during treatment and may have been related to COP-X. Only 4 (7.8%) of the remaining patients had >or=10% reduction in LVEF. However, 35% of patients were hospitalised during treatment, mostly for febrile neutropenia. The response rate to COP-X was similar to that expected with CHOP, with low cardiac toxicity. The high rate of infectious complications suggests that the DaunoXome dose used may be too high for this patient group. These results support further investigation of this regimen in patients with aggressive NHL.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 05/2008; 49(5):924-31. · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the first years of imatinib treatment, BCR-ABL remained detectable in all but a small minority of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. We determined whether BCR-ABL continues to decline with longer imatinib exposure and the incidence and consequence of undetectable BCR-ABL. BCR-ABL levels were measured in a subset of 53 imatinib-treated IRIS trial patients for up to 7 years (29 first-line, 24 second-line). Levels were deemed undetectable using strict PCR sensitivity criteria. By 18 months, the majority achieved a 3-log reduction [major molecular response (MMR)]. BCR-ABL continued to decline but at a slower rate (median time to 4-log reduction and undetectable BCR-ABL of 45 and 66 months for first-line). The probability of undetectable BCR-ABL increased considerably from 36 to 81 months of first-line imatinib {7% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0-17%] versus 52% (95% CI, 32-72%)}. Undetectable BCR-ABL was achieved in 18 of 53 patients and none of these 18 lost MMR after a median follow-up of 33 months. Conversely, MMR was lost in 6 of 22 (27%) patients with sustained detectable BCR-ABL and was associated with BCR-ABL mutations in 3 of 6. Loss of MMR was recently defined as suboptimal imatinib response. There was no difference in the probability of achieving molecular responses between first- and second-line patients but first-line had a significantly higher probability of maintaining MMR [P = 0.03; 96% (95% CI, 88-100%) versus 71% (95% CI, 48-93%)]. With prolonged therapy, BCR-ABL continued to decline in most patients and undetectable BCR-ABL was no longer a rare event. Loss of MMR was only observed in patients with sustained detectable BCR-ABL.
    Clinical Cancer Research 01/2008; 13(23):7080-5. · 7.84 Impact Factor
  • A Spencer, K Reed, C Arthur
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vinorelbine and gemcitabine have demonstrable single-agent activity against lymphoma, show differing toxicity profiles and can be given in an outpatient setting. We have evaluated the feasibility of an outpatient-based combination of vinorelbine and gemcitabine with filgrastim support (VGF) in patients with advanced lymphoma. An open-label, single-arm study of 40 consecutive patients with relapsed (n = 24) or refractory (n = 16) lymphoma was undertaken. The median number of prior regimens was three (range 1-11) and 12 had undergone prior stem cell transplantation. Patients received vinorelbine 25 mg/m(2) and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle. Patients showing no response after two cycles (early response) were offered alternative therapy. Responding patients received two more cycles. Primary end-points were the early and overall response rates. One hundred and sixteen cycles of therapy were delivered. Hospital admissions were required following 27 treatment cycles (24%), predominantly following cycle 1. Febrile neutropenia followed 6% of cycles. The early and overall response rates on an intention-to-treat basis were 60 and 53%, respectively. Responses for peripheral T-cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma were particularly encouraging, 70 and 75%, respectively. With a median follow up of 34 months overall survival for the entire cohort at 2 years is 50%. Furthermore, for the 23 patients who did not receive high-dose consolidative therapy 2-year survival was 35%. Vinorelbine and gemcitabine with filgrastim support can be safely delivered in an outpatient setting and shows clinically meaningful activity against a range of advanced lymphoma subtypes.
    Internal Medicine Journal 12/2007; 37(11):760-6. · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intrinsic sensitivity to imatinib, based on measurement of inhibitory concentration 50% for imatinib, is variable in untreated patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This suggests that patient-tailored dosing may be more rational than a fixed dose for all. Dose optimization potentially could be based on accurate measurement of the level of BCR-ABL kinase inhibition achieved in vivo. In vivo kinase inhibition was measured by calculating the reduction in protein (p)--Crkl level in mononuclear blood cells taken from 49 CML patients at weekly intervals after imatinib therapy was commenced. Greater than 50% inhibition (> 50% reduction in p-Crkl from baseline) was achieved by 21% of patients by days 7 to 14 (and maintained in all patients on days 21 to 28) and an additional 24% of patients achieved more than 50% inhibition by days 21 to 28. Thus, overall 45% of patients achieved more than 50% inhibition. All of these patients achieved major molecular responses by 24 months compared with 56% of the patients who failed to achieve 50% kinase inhibition (P < .001). Patients with less than 50% kinase inhibition were also more likely to have suboptimal responses. In vivo BCR-ABL kinase inhibition can be assessed in the first month of imatinib therapy and may provide a valuable guide to optimization of dosage. The extent of BCR-ABL kinase inhibition is an excellent predictor of cytogenetic and molecular response. These observations suggest that dose adjustment based on in vivo measurements of drug-induced target inhibition could be applied in settings beyond imatinib and may be a more effective approach than using one dose for all patients in targeted anticancer therapy.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2007; 25(28):4445-51. · 18.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) confers a survival advantage for the minority of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who achieve a complete cytogenetic response. The question of whether IFN-alpha-responsive patients can experience further improvements with imatinib has not been answered. Imatinib offers clear quality of life advantages. Furthermore, patients who achieve a major molecular response (MMR) while receiving imatinib are likely to remain progression free. A total of 23 patients treated for a median of 4.5 years with IFN-alpha (range, 1.6-14.3 years) who had achieved a complete (Philadelphia chromosome [Ph] negative, n = 15 patients) or near-complete (1-10% Ph, n = 8 patients) cytogenetic response were studied. The primary objective was to determine whether ceasing therapy with IFN-alpha and switching to 12 months of imatinib treatment at a dose of 400 mg/day could improve the molecular response as assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of BCR-ABL transcript levels. Safety was also assessed. Every patient who had not achieved an MMR while receiving IFN-alpha (n = 16 patients) achieved an MMR after a median of 3 months of imatinib treatment. Significant BCR-ABL reductions (median, 63-fold; range, 18-425-fold) occurred in 15 of these patients. Every patient who had already achieved an MMR while receiving IFN-alpha (n = 7 patients) maintained an MMR while receiving imatinib. No patients discontinued imatinib due to toxicity, but 1 patient withdrew consent. These data suggest that switching IFN-alpha-responsive patients to imatinib leads to a rapid improvement in achieving an MMR, a response with established prognostic value, and is well tolerated. The study should help patients and their physicians make evidence-based decisions regarding the potential benefits and risks of switching to imatinib.
    Cancer 09/2007; 110(4):801-8. · 5.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether pegfilgrastim support would enable on-schedule delivery of dose-dense cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP-14) to elderly patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Thirty patients 60 years of age and older with aggressive NHL were evaluated after receiving up to six cycles of CHOP-14 supported with pegfilgrastim. The median age was 68 years (range 61 - 74). Forty-seven per cent of patients received full dose chemotherapy on schedule for all cycles (range 65 - 93). Chemotherapy was delayed in 10 patients and dose reduced in 15 patients. Hematological toxicity was the most common reason for delays and dose reduction. Six of nine patients (67%) achieved a peripheral blood CD34+ count of at least 20 cellsx106 L-1 on day 12 of cycle one. The delivery on schedule of dose-dense CHOP-14 to elderly patients with previously untreated aggressive NHL is safe and efficacious with once per cycle pegfilgrastim support.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 12/2006; 47(11):2344-50. · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Treatment with interferon and subcutaneous cytarabine produces superior cytogenetic responses in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) than treatment with interferon alone, but at the expense of greater toxicity. Cytarabine ocfosfate (YNK01) is an oral precursor of cytarabine that may overcome some of the inconvenience and toxicities associated with subcutaneous cytarabine administration. We studied the efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy with interferon-alpha-2b and YNK01 in patients with newly diagnosed, untreated CML. Forty patients were treated with interferon-alpha-2b (5 MU/m2/day) plus monthly courses of YNK01 (600 mg/day for 10 days) for 1 year. The 6-month complete haematological response rate was 63% and the 1-year major cytogenetic response rate was 30%, with 10% of cytogenetic responses being complete. With a median follow-up of 57 months, the estimated 5-year overall survival was 86% (95% confidence interval 70% to 94%). Treatment tolerability was poor, with toxicity leading to discontinuation of one or both drugs in 60% of cases. The median daily dose of interferon alpha-2b was 7.75 MU and the median dose of YNK01 was 600 mg/day for each 10-day treatment cycle. Interferon-alpha-2b and YNK01 produce cytogenetic responses comparable to those achieved with interferon-alpha-2b and parenteral cytarabine, although toxicity was excessive. Alternate dosing strategies may enhance the tolerability of YNK01.
    Annals of Oncology 01/2005; 15(12):1810-5. · 7.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mutations within the BCR-ABL kinase domain in imatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are the main mechanism of acquired resistance. The early detection of mutations should provide clinical benefit by allowing early intervention. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) results of BCR-ABL mRNA were correlated with mutation analysis in 214 patients treated with imatinib. We determined whether there was a difference in the incidence of mutations between the patients with a more than 2-fold rise in BCR-ABL and patients with stable or decreasing levels. Of the 56 patients with a more than 2-fold rise, 34 (61%) had detectable mutations (median rise, 3.0-fold; 25th-75th percentiles, 2.3-5.2). In 31 (91%) of these 34 patients, the mutation was present at the time of the rise and became detectable within 3 months in the remaining patients. Only 1 (0.6%) of 158 patients with stable or decreasing BCR-ABL levels had a detectable mutation, P less than .0001. Thus, a more than 2-fold rise identified 34 (97%) of 35 patients with a mutation. We conclude that a rise in BCR-ABL of more than 2-fold can be used as a primary indicator to test patients for BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations.
    Blood 12/2004; 104(9):2926-32. · 9.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prophylactic low dose i.v. ganciclovir in patients at risk after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is highly effective in the prevention of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease and infection. In this study, we sought to assess the tolerability of oral ganciclovir in patients after allogeneic BMT. CMV seropositive patients or those with CMV seropositive donors were randomised to be treated with i.v. ganciclovir 5 mg/kg three times weekly or oral ganciclovir 3 g daily from engraftment to day 84. The period of accrual was from May 1997 to October 1998. Patients were monitored for CMV infection by weekly serology. Thirty-one patients received oral ganciclovir and 27 patients received i.v. ganciclovir, the treatment groups being balanced for clinical characteristics and prognostic factors. Renal dysfunction, transfusion requirements and significant nausea and vomiting were not different. There were no documented cases of CMV disease during the study period although three patients developed CMV polymerase chain reaction positivity at various times. One patient treated with i.v. ganciclovir developed non-fatal gastrointestinal CMV disease after the study period on day 108. Eight patients in the oral group failed to complete planned therapy, whereas two patients failed to complete the i.v. course. We conclude that oral ganciclovir is a reasonable, well-tolerated alternative to i.v. ganciclovir for the prophylaxis of CMV disease after allogeneic BMT.
    Internal Medicine Journal 04/2004; 34(3):98-101. · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We analyzed molecular responses in 55 newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients enrolled in a phase 3 study (the IRIS trial) comparing imatinib to interferon-alfa plus cytarabine (IFN+AraC). BCR-ABL/BCR% levels were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and were significantly lower for the imatinib-treated patients at all time points up to 18 months, P<0.0001. The median levels for imatinib-treated patients continued to decrease and had not reached a plateau by 24 months. A total of 24 IFN+AraC-treated patients crossed over to imatinib. Once imatinib commenced, the median BCR-ABL/BCR% levels in these patients were not significantly different to those on first-line imatinib for the equivalent number of months. The incidence of progression in imatinib-treated patients, defined by hematologic, cytogenetic or quantitative PCR criteria, was significantly higher in the patients who failed to achieve a 1 log reduction by 3 months or a 2 log reduction by 6 months, P=0.002. A total of 49 patients were screened for BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations. Mutations were detected in two imatinib-treated patients who crossed over from IFN+AraC and both lost their imatinib response. In conclusion, first-line imatinib-treated patients had profound reductions in BCR-ABL/BCR%, which significantly exceeded those of IFN+AraC-treated patients and early measurements were predictive of subsequent response.
    Leukemia 12/2003; 17(12):2401-9. · 10.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Imatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients with acquired resistance commonly have detectable BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations. It is unclear whether patients who remain sensitive to imatinib also have a significant incidence of mutations. We evaluated 144 patients treated with imatinib for BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations by direct sequencing of 40 accelerated phase (AP), 64 late chronic phase (> or = 12 months from diagnosis, late-CP), and 40 early-CP patients. Mutations were detected in 27 patients at 17 different residues, 13 (33%) of 40 in AP, 14 (22%) of 64 in late-CP, and 0 of 40 in early-CP. Acquired resistance was evident in 24 (89%) of 27 patients with mutations. Twelve (92%) of 13 patients with mutations in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding loop (P-loop) died (median survival of 4.5 months after the mutation was detected). In contrast, only 3 (21%) of 14 patients with mutations outside the P-loop died (median follow-up of 11 months). As the detection of mutations was strongly associated with imatinib resistance, we analyzed features that predicted for their detection. Patients who commenced imatinib more than 4 years from diagnosis had a significantly higher incidence of mutations (18 [41%] of 44) compared with those treated within 4 years (9 [9%] of 100), P <.0001. Lack of a major cytogenetic response (MCR) was also associated with a higher likelihood of detecting a mutation; 19 (38%) of 50 patients without a MCR had mutations compared with 8 (8.5%) of 94 with an MCR, P <.0001. In conclusion, the detection of kinase domain mutations using a direct sequencing technique was almost always associated with imatinib resistance, and patients with mutations in the P-loop had a particularly poor prognosis.
    Blood 07/2003; 102(1):276-83. · 9.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Darbepoetin alfa is a novel erythropoiesis-stimulating protein with a prolonged serum half-life. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study investigated the efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa in anaemic patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies who were receiving chemotherapy. Patients were randomized in a 1:2:2:1 ratio to receive darbepoetin alfa 1.0 microg/kg (n = 11), 2.25 microg/kg (n = 22), 4.5 microg/kg (n = 22) or placebo (n = 11), administered subcutaneously once weekly for 12 weeks. No dose increases were allowed during the study. A higher proportion of patients achieved a haemoglobin response (defined as a >/= 2.0 g/dl increase from baseline) in the darbepoetin alfa 1.0 microg/kg (45%), 2.25 microg/kg (55%) and 4.5 microg/kg (62%) groups than in the placebo group (10%; P < 0.01). The mean change in haemoglobin from baseline to week 13 was 1.56 g/dl in the 1.0 microg/kg group, 1.64 g/dl in the 2.25 microg/kg group and 2.46 g/dl in the 4.5 microg/kg group, compared with a mean change of 1.00 g/dl in the placebo group. The overall safety profile of darbepoetin alfa in this study was similar to that of placebo. These results show that darbepoetin alfa effectively and safely increased haemoglobin concentrations in patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies. Confirmative studies at doses of 2.25 and/or 4.5 microg/kg/week in this population are warranted.
    British Journal of Haematology 10/2002; 119(1):79-86. · 4.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Point mutations were found in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding region of BCR/ABL in 12 of 18 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+) ALL) and imatinib resistance (defined as loss of established hematologic response), but they were found in only 1 of 10 patients with CML with imatinib refractoriness (failure to achieve cytogenetic response). In 10 of 10 patients for whom samples were available, the mutation was not detected before the initiation of imatinib therapy. Three mutations (T315I, Y253H, and F317L present in 3, 1, and 1 patients, respectively) have a predicted role in abrogating imatinib binding to BCR/ABL, whereas 3 other mutations (E255K, G250E, and M351T, present in 4, 2, and 2 patients, respectively) do not. Thus we confirm a high frequency of mutations clustered within the ATP-binding region of BCR/ABL in resistant patients. Screening may allow intervention before relapse by identifying emerging mutations with defined impacts on imatinib binding. Certain mutations may respond to higher doses of imatinib, whereas other mutations may mandate switching to another therapeutic strategy.
    Blood 06/2002; 99(9):3472-5. · 9.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Australian Leukaemia Study Group (ALSG) investigated whether G-CSF would accelerate haemopoietic recovery after induction treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) intensified with high-dose cytarabine, and therefore improve response rates and survival. Patients were randomised to receive lenograstim (glycosylated recombinant human G-CSF) 5 microg per kg body weight subcutaneously daily from day 8 after starting chemotherapy, or no cytokine, following chemotherapy with cytarabine 3 g/m2 every 12 h on days 1, 3, 5, and 7, together with idarubicin 9 or 12 mg/m2 on days 1, 2, and 3, plus etoposide 75 mg/m2 on days 1 to 7 inclusive. Patients had untreated AML, and were aged 16 to 60 years. Overall, 54 evaluable patients were randomised to receive lenograstim and 58 to no cytokine. Patients in the lenograstim arm had a significantly shorter duration of neutropenia <0.5 x 10(9)/l compared to patients in the no cytokine arm (median 18 vs 22 days; P = 0.0005), and also shorter duration of total leucopenia <1.0 x 10(9)/l (17 vs 19 days; P = 0.0002), as well as a reduction in duration of treatment with therapeutic intravenous antibiotics (20 vs 24 days; P= 0.015) and a trend to reduced number of days with fever >38.0 degrees C (9 vs 12 days; P = 0.18). There were no differences between the two groups in platelet recovery, red cell or platelet transfusions, or non-haematological toxicities. For patients achieving CR after their first induction course, a reduction in the time to the start of the next course of therapy was observed in the lenograstim arm, from a median of 40.5 days to a median of 36 days (P = 0.082). The overall complete response rates to chemotherapy were similar, 81% in the lenograstim arm vs 75% for the no cytokine arm (P = 0.5), and there was no significant difference in the survival durations. We conclude that the granulopoietic stimulating effect of G-CSF is observed after induction therapy for AML intensified by high-dose cytarabine, resulting in an improvement in a number of clinically important parameters with no major adverse effects.
    Leukemia 10/2001; 15(9):1331-8. · 10.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A retrospective comparison was carried out on adult patients receiving HLA-identical allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplants from siblings in Australia in 1996, comparing bone marrow with G-CSF-mobilised peripheral blood stem cells. A total of 131 transplant recipients from nine centres were included in this study, of whom 79 received bone marrow, 44 blood stem cells and eight both. All but three of the 131 patients had cyclosporin and methotrexate as graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. The minimum follow-up time for surviving patients is 27 months. Comparisons were carried out between the BM and PBSC groups. There were no significant differences between groups in age, sex, diagnosis, donor characteristics or pretransplant conditioning. Median time to neutrophil recovery of 0.5 x 10(9)/l was 14 days for PBSC recipients, compared to 19 days for marrow recipients (P < 0.0005). median time to platelet recovery of 20 x 10(9)/l was 17 days for PBSC recipients, compared to 28 days for marrow recipients (P < 0.0005). there were no significantly increased risks of either acute or chronic GVHD in the PBSC recipients. there were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of major transplant-related complications, disease-free survival or overall survival.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 08/2001; 28(1):21-7. · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the outcome of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for advanced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in 383 adult patients in nine Australian adult BMT centres between 1981 and 1997. The median overall survival for the group was 4.8 months, with an estimated 5-year survival of 18%. 28% of patients died of transplant-related toxicities within the first 100 d. Progressive disease was responsible for 48% of deaths. Multi-factor analysis demonstrated that AML (v ALL), disease status (second complete remission [CR2] v others), age (< 40 years) and duration of prior first complete remission (CR1) (> 6 months) were pre-transplant variables significantly associated with improved survival. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of any grade reduced the rate of relapse in both AML and ALL, but only grades I-II were associated with improved survival. Both limited and extensive chronic GVHD were associated with increased survival. Only patients with AML in untreated first relapse or CR2, with a duration of CR1 > 6 months, or patients with T ALL, had a 5-year survival > 20%. Transplants for AML in induction failure or pre-B ALL in untreated first relapse or CR2 had an intermediate outcome, with 5-year survival of 10-20%. A 5-year survival of < 10% was observed for patients transplanted for ALL in induction failure or for pre-B ALL or AML in refractory first relapse or beyond CR2. These results suggest that for most adult patients with advanced acute leukaemia an allograft offers only a small chance of cure.
    British Journal of Haematology 11/1999; 107(2):409-18. · 4.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mobilization of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) negative blood progenitors was attempted in 23 newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients using a regimen of cyclophosphamide (CY) 5 g/m2 and rHUG-CSF 150 microg/m2 daily. This regimen was well tolerated with no major adverse events reported. More than 2 x 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells were collected in 21 patients (91%). Predominantly Ph-negative mobilization (0-25% Ph-positive) was seen in 30% of cases overall and was confined to patients with a Sokal prognostic score < 1 (7/11 with Sokal score <1; 0/12 with Sokal score > or = 1). Within the low Sokal index group, a low WBC count pre-mobilization and a low WBC nadir both correlated strongly with Ph-negative mobilization (P = 0.006 and 0.02 respectively). Five of 19 patients receiving at least 6 months of Roferon A therapy post mobilization achieved a major cytogenetic response; all five patients were Ph-negative mobilizers. Therefore CML patients can be divided into a good-prognosis group in whom predominantly Ph-negative progenitors can be mobilized using a regimen of moderate intensity if haematological control is achieved pre-mobilization, and a poor-prognosis group for whom predominantly Ph-positive cells are mobilized with this regimen regardless of haematological control.
    British Journal of Haematology 04/1997; 96(3):635-40. · 4.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A multi-centre Australasian study of the efficacy of prophylactic ganciclovir in 88 recipients of marrow allografts at high risk for post-transplant cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease was conducted. The actuarial incidence of CMV disease was 10% in 74 recipients of HLA-identical family member transplants given ganciclovir but was 33% in 14 recipients of HLA-identical unrelated donor transplants given more immune-suppression pre- and post-transplant (P = 0.006). CMV disease developed in 4 of the 14 recipients of HLA-identical unrelated donor transplants at a median of 59 days post-transplant and was associated with concurrent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in 2 of the 4. CMV disease occurred in 5 of 74 recipients of an HLA-identical family member transplant at a median of 137 days post-transplant and was associated with concurrent moderate to severe GVHD in 4 of the 5. Thus the risk of CMV disease was higher in recipients who were not genotypically identical for HLA with their donors and who (in consequence) were given more immune-suppression than HLA-identical family member transplant recipients. Additionally, CMV disease can occur beyond the period of prophylactic ganciclovir administration (first 3 months post-transplant) in patients developing significant chronic GVHD and prophylaxis should be reintroduced at that time in such patients.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 10/1995; 16(3):401-5. · 3.54 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
135.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010
    • Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group
      East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2008
    • Austin Health
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1997–2008
    • Royal North Shore Hospital
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    • Royal Adelaide Hospital
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 2007
    • Alfred Hospital
      • Department of Clinical Haematology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2001
    • St. Vincent's Hospital Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia