[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During fasting, induction of hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial to ensure proper energy homeostasis. Such induction is dysregulated in type 2 diabetes, resulting in the development of fasting hyperglycemia. Hormonal and nutrient regulation of metabolic adaptation during fasting is mediated predominantly by the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferative activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in concert with various other transcriptional regulators. Although CITED2 (CBP- and p300-interacting transactivator with glutamic acid- and aspartic acid-rich COOH-terminal domain 2) interacts with many of these molecules, the role of this protein in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis was previously unknown. Here we show that CITED2 is required for the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis through PGC-1α. The abundance of CITED2 was increased in the livers of mice by fasting and in cultured hepatocytes by glucagon-cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, and the amount of CITED2 in liver was higher in mice with type 2 diabetes than in non-diabetic mice. CITED2 inhibited the acetylation of PGC-1α by blocking its interaction with the acetyltransferase general control of amino acid synthesis 5-like 2 (GCN5). The consequent downregulation of PGC-1α acetylation resulted in an increase in its transcriptional coactivation activity and an increased expression of gluconeogenic genes. The interaction of CITED2 with GCN5 was disrupted by insulin in a manner that was dependent on phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-thymoma viral proto-oncogene (Akt) signaling. Our results show that CITED2 functions as a transducer of glucagon and insulin signaling in the regulation of PGC-1α activity that is associated with the transcriptional control of gluconeogenesis and that this function is mediated through the modulation of GCN5-dependent PGC-1α acetylation. We also found that loss of hepatic CITED2 function suppresses gluconeogenesis in diabetic mice, suggesting it as a therapeutic target for hyperglycemia.
Nature medicine 03/2012; 18(4):612-7. DOI:10.1038/nm.2691 · 28.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15), a member of the Krüppel-like factor family of transcription factors, has been found to play diverse roles in adipocytes in vitro. However, little is known of the function of KLF15 in adipocytes in vivo. We have now found that the expression of KLF15 in adipose tissue is down-regulated in obese mice, and we therefore generated adipose tissue-specific KLF15 transgenic (aP2-KLF15 Tg) mice to investigate the possible contribution of KLF15 to various pathological conditions associated with obesity in vivo. The aP2-KLF15 Tg mice manifest insulin resistance and are resistant to the development of obesity induced by maintenance on a high fat diet. However, they also exhibit improved glucose tolerance as a result of enhanced insulin secretion. Furthermore, this enhancement of insulin secretion was shown to result from down-regulation of the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) in white adipose tissue and a consequent reduced level of oxidative stress. This is supported by the findings that restoration of SCD1 expression in white adipose tissue of aP2-KLF15 Tg mice exhibited increased oxidative stress in white adipose tissue and reduced insulin secretion with hyperglycemia. Our data thus provide an example of cross-talk between white adipose tissue and pancreatic β cells mediated through modulation of oxidative stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15), a member of the KLF family of transcription factors, has been found to play diverse roles
in adipocytes in vitro. However, little is known of the function of KLF15 in adipocytes in vivo. We have now found that the
expression of KLF15 in adipose tissue is down-regulated in obese mice, and we therefore generated adipose tissue-specific
KLF15 transgenic (aP2-KLF15 Tg) mice in order to investigate the possible contribution of KLF15 to various pathological conditions
associated with obesity in vivo. The aP2-KLF15 Tg mice manifest insulin resistance and are resistant to the development of
obesity induced by maintenance on a high fat diet. However, they also exhibit improved glucose tolerance as a result of enhanced
insulin secretion. Furthermore, this enhancement of insulin secretion was shown to result from down-regulation of the expression
of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) in white adipose tissue and a consequent reduced level of oxidative stress. This is supported
by the findings that restoration of SCD1 expression in WAT of aP2-KLF15 Tg mice exhibited increased oxidative stress in WAT,
reduced insulin secretion with hyperglycemia. Our data thus provide an example of cross talk between white adipose tissue
and pancreatic β cells mediated through modulation of oxidative stress.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physical exercise ameliorates metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, but the molecular basis of these effects remains elusive. In the present study, we found that exercise up-regulates heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in skeletal muscle. To address the metabolic consequences of such gain of HB-EGF function, we generated mice that overexpress this protein specifically in muscle. The transgenic animals exhibited a higher respiratory quotient than did wild-type mice during indirect calorimetry, indicative of their selective use of carbohydrate rather than fat as an energy substrate. They also showed substantial increases in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. These changes were accompanied by increased kinase activity of Akt in skeletal muscle and consequent inhibition of Forkhead box O1-dependent expression of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 gene. Furthermore, mice with a high level of transgene expression were largely protected from obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance, even when maintained on a high-fat diet. Our results suggest that HB-EGF produced by contracting muscle acts as an insulin sensitizer that facilitates peripheral glucose disposal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) controls mitochondrial biogenesis and energy homeostasis. Although physical exercise induces PGC-1alpha expression in muscle, the underlying mechanism of this effect has remained incompletely understood. We recently identified a novel muscle-enriched isoform of PGC-1alpha transcript (designated PGC-1alpha-b) that is derived from a previously unidentified first exon. We have now cloned and characterized the human PGC-1alpha-b promoter. The muscle-specific transcription factors MyoD and MRF4 transactivated this promoter through interaction with a proximal E-box motif. Furthermore, either forced expression of Ca(2+)- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV), calcineurin A, or the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) kinase MKK6 or the intracellular accumulation of cAMP activated the PGC-1alpha-b promoter in cultured myoblasts through recruitment of cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) to a putative CRE located downstream of the E-box. Our results thus reveal a potential molecular basis for isoform-specific regulation of PGC-1alpha expression in contracting muscle.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2009; 381(4):537-43. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.02.077 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with various catabolic conditions, glucocorticoid excess induces skeletal muscle wasting by accelerating protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Although the transcriptional coactivator p300 has been implicated in this pathological process, regulatory mechanisms and molecular targets of its action remain unclear. Here we show that CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300-interacting transactivator with ED-rich tail 2 (Cited2), which binds to the cysteine-histidine-rich region 1 of p300 and CBP, regulates muscle mass in vitro. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of wild-type Cited2 significantly blocked morphological alterations of C2C12 myotubes with a concomitant decrease in myosin heavy chain protein in response to synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, which were attributable to the reduced induction of atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx. These myotube-sparing effects were less pronounced, however, with a carboxyl-terminally truncated mutant of Cited2 that lacked the ability to bind p300. These results suggest that the gain of Cited2 function counteracts glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy through inhibition of proteolysis mediated by p300-dependent gene transcription.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2008; 378(3):399-403. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.11.062 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Misfolding of proteins during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results in the formation of cytotoxic aggregates. The ER-associated degradation pathway counteracts such aggregation through the elimination of misfolded proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. We now show that SHP substrate-1 (SHPS-1), a transmembrane glycoprotein that regulates cytoskeletal reorganization and cell-cell communication, is a physiological substrate for the Skp1-Cullin1-NFB42-Rbx1 (SCF(NFB42)) E3 ubiquitin ligase, a proposed mediator of ER-associated degradation. SCF(NFB42) mediated the polyubiquitination of immature SHPS-1 and its degradation by the proteasome. Ectopic expression of NFB42 both suppressed the formation of aggresome-like structures and the phosphorylation of the translational regulator eIF2alpha induced by overproduction of SHPS-1 as well as increased the amount of mature SHPS-1 at the cell surface. An NFB42 mutant lacking the F box domain had no such effects. Our results suggest that SCF(NFB42) regulates SHPS-1 biosynthesis in response to ER stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SAP-1 (stomach cancer-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase-1) is a transmembrane-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that has been implicated as a negative regulator of integrin-mediated signaling. The potential role of this enzyme in hepatocarcinogenesis has now been investigated by examining its expression in 32 surgically excised human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens. Both immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed that normal liver tissue, as well as tissue affected by chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, contained substantial amounts of SAP-1. The expression level of SAP-1 in 75% of well-differentiated HCCs was similar to or higher than that observed in the surrounding noncancerous tissue. In contrast, the abundance of SAP-1 in 85.7% of moderately differentiated HCCs and in all poorly differentiated HCCs was greatly reduced compared with that in the adjacent tissue. Indeed, SAP-1 was almost undetectable in 83.3% of poorly differentiated HCCs. Furthermore, expression of recombinant SAP-1 in two highly motile human HCC cell lines resulted in a change in morphology and a marked reduction in both migratory activity and growth rate. In conclusion, these results indicate that SAP-1 expression is downregulated during the dedifferentiation of human HCC, and that this downregulation may play a causal role in disease progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SHPS-1 is a receptor-type glycoprotein that binds and activates the protein-tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2, and thereby negatively modulates intracellular signaling initiated by various cell surface receptors coupled to tyrosine kinases. SHPS-1 also regulates intercellular communication in the neural and immune systems through its association with CD47 (integrin-associated protein) on adjacent cells. Furthermore, recent studies with fibroblasts derived from mice expressing an SHPS-1 mutant that lacks most of the cytoplasmic region suggested that the intact protein contributes to cytoskeletal function. Mice homozygous for this SHPS-1 mutation have now been shown to manifest thrombocytopenia. These animals did not exhibit a defect in megakaryocytopoiesis or in platelet production. However, platelets were cleared from the bloodstream more rapidly in the mutant mice than in wild-type animals. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages from the mutant mice phagocytosed red blood cells more effectively than did those from wild-type mice; in addition, they exhibited an increase both in the rate of cell spreading and in the formation of filopodia-like structures at the cell periphery. These results indicate that SHPS-1 both contributes to the survival of circulating platelets and down-regulates the macrophage phagocytic response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stomach cancer-associated protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SAP-1), a transmembrane-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase, is thought to inhibit integrin signaling by mediating the dephosphorylation of focal adhesion-associated proteins. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of wild-type SAP-1, but not that of a catalytically inactive mutant of this enzyme, has now been shown to induce apoptosis in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This effect of SAP-1 was dependent on cellular caspase activities and was preceded by inactivation of two serine-threonine protein kinases, Akt and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), both of which function downstream of phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase to promote cell survival. Coexpression of constitutively active forms of PI 3-kinase or Akt (which fully restored Akt and ILK activities) resulted in partial inhibition of SAP-1-induced cell death. Furthermore, expression of a dominant negative mutant of PI 3-kinase did not induce cell death as efficiently as did SAP-1, although this mutant inhibited Akt and ILK activities more effectively than did SAP-1. Overexpression of SAP-1 had no substantial effect on Ras activity. These results suggest that SAP-1 induces apoptotic cell death by at least two distinct mechanisms: inhibition of cell survival signaling mediated by PI 3-kinase, Akt, and ILK and activation of a caspase-dependent proapoptotic pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SAP-1 (stomach cancer-associated protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1) is a transmembrane-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase that is abundant in the brain and certain cancer cell lines. With the use of a "substrate-trapping" approach, p130(cas), a major focal adhesion-associated phosphotyrosyl protein, has now been identified as a likely physiological substrate of SAP-1. Expression of recombinant SAP-1 induced the dephosphorylation of p130(cas) as well as that of two other components of the integrin-signaling pathway (focal adhesion kinase and p62(dok)) in intact cells. In contrast, expression of a substrate-trapping mutant of SAP-1 induced the hyperphosphorylation of these proteins, indicating a dominant negative effect of this mutant. Overexpression of SAP-1 induced disruption of the actin-based cytoskeleton as well as inhibited various cellular responses promoted by integrin-mediated cell adhesion, including cell spreading on fibronectin, growth factor-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, and colony formation. Finally, the enzymatic activity of SAP-1, measured with an immunocomplex phosphatase assay, was substantially increased by cell-cell adhesion. These results suggest that SAP-1, by mediating the dephosphorylation of focal adhesion-associated substrates, negatively regulates integrin-promoted signaling processes and, thus, may contribute to contact inhibition of cell growth and motility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transmembrane glycoprotein SHPS-1 binds the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 and serves as its substrate. Although SHPS-1 has been implicated in growth factor- and cell adhesion-induced signaling, its biological role has remained unknown. Fibroblasts homozygous for expression of an SHPS-1 mutant lacking most of the cytoplasmic region of this protein exhibited increased formation of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions. They spread more quickly on fibronectin than did wild-type cells, but they were defective in subsequent polarized extension and migration. The extent of adhesion-induced activation of Rho, but not that of Rac, was also markedly reduced in the mutant cells. Activation of the Ras–extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway and of c-Jun N-terminal kinases by growth factors was either unaffected or enhanced in the mutant fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that SHPS-1 plays crucial roles in integrin-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization, cell motility and the regulation of Rho, and that it also negatively modulates growth factor-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases.
The EMBO Journal 12/2000; 19(24):6721-6731. DOI:10.1093/emboj/19.24.6721 · 10.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SHP-2, a SRC homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase, mediates activation of Ras and mitogen-activated protein kinase by various mitogens and cell adhesion. Inhibition of endogenous SHP-2 by overexpression of a catalytically inactive (dominant negative) mutant in Chinese hamster ovary cells or Rat-1 fibroblasts has now been shown to induce a marked change in cell morphology (from elongated to less polarized) that is accompanied by substantial increases in the numbers of actin stress fibers and focal adhesion contacts. Overexpression of the SHP-2 mutant also increased the strength of cell-substratum adhesion and resulted in hyperphosphorylation of SHPS-1, a substrate of SHP-2 that contributes to cell adhesion-induced signaling. Inhibition of SHP-2 also markedly increased the rate of cell attachment to and cell spreading on extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and vitronectin, effects that were accompanied by enhancement of adhesion-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and p130Cas. In addition, cell migration mediated by fibronectin or vitronectin, but not that induced by insulin, was impaired by overexpression of the SHP-2 mutant. These results suggest that SHP-2 plays an important role in the control of cell shape by contributing to cytoskeletal organization, and that it is an important regulator of integrin-mediated cell adhesion, spreading, and migration as well as of tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion contact-associated proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case of malignant epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver in a 48-year-old woman with severe portal hypertension and marked deformity of the liver is presented. This woman had a history of mild liver dysfunction since the age of 30 years, and abdominal distention, esophageal varices, splenomegaly and ascites since October 1996. Imaging examinations revealed liver deformity with severe atrophy of the left lobe and the anterior segment of the right lobe. Celiac arteriography showed narrowing and upward deviation of the proper hepatic artery, and occlusion of the left and right anterior hepatic arteries. Since March 1997, hepatic venography showed stenosis in the right hepatic vein truncus. Budd-Chiari syndrome was clinically diagnosed. She died in June 1997. The autopsy disclosed massive tumor embolism in the left and right anterior portal branches, few in the hepatic artery, and occlusion of the left and right anterior hepatic arteries. The extensive tumor embolism resulted in portal hypertension, and atrophy of the left lobe. The anterior segment of the right lobe was probably caused by the occlusion of both the hepatic arteries and the portal veins. The posterior segment of the right lobe, without massive tumor embolism in its portal branch, appeared hypertrophic.
Pathology International 07/1999; 49(6):547-52. DOI:10.1046/j.1440-1827.1999.00906.x · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dok, a 62-kDa Ras GTPase-activating protein (rasGAP)-associated phosphotyrosyl protein, is thought to act as a multiple docking protein downstream of receptor or non-receptor tyrosine kinases. Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins induced marked tyrosine phosphorylation of Dok. This adhesion-dependent phosphorylation of Dok was mediated, at least in part, by Src family tyrosine kinases. The maximal insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Dok required a Src family kinase. A mutant Dok (DokDeltaPH) that lacked its pleckstrin homology domain failed to undergo tyrosine phosphorylation in response to cell adhesion or insulin. Furthermore, unlike the wild-type protein, DokDeltaPH did not localize to subcellular membrane components. Insulin promoted the association of tyrosine-phosphorylated Dok with the adapter protein NCK and rasGAP. In contrast, a mutant Dok (DokY361F), in which Tyr361 was replaced by phenylalanine, failed to bind NCK but partially retained the ability to bind rasGAP in response to insulin. Overexpression of wild-type Dok, but not that of DokDeltaPH or DokY361F, enhanced the cell migratory response to insulin without affecting insulin activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. These results identify Dok as a signal transducer that potentially links, through its interaction with NCK or rasGAP, cell adhesion and insulin receptors to the machinery that controls cell motility.
The EMBO Journal 05/1999; 18(7):1748-60. DOI:10.1093/emboj/18.7.1748 · 10.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptors coupled to the inhibitory G protein Gi, such as that for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), have been shown to activate MAP kinase through a RAS-dependent pathway. However, LPA (but not insulin) has now been shown to activate MAP kinase in a RAS-independent manner in CHO cells that overexpress a dominant-negative mutant of the guanine nucleotide exchange protein SOS (CHO-DeltaSOS cells). LPA also induced the activation of MAP kinase kinase (MEK), but not that of RAF1, in CHO-DeltaSOS cells. The RAS-independent activation of MAP kinase by LPA was blocked by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or by overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of the gamma isoform of PI3K. Furthermore, LPA induced the activation of the atypical zeta isoform of protein kinase C (PKC-zeta) in CHO-DeltaSOS cells in a manner that was sensitive to wortmannin or to the dominant-negative mutant of PI3Kgamma, and overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of PKC-zeta inhibited LPA-induced activation of MAP kinase. These observations indicate that Gi protein-coupled receptors induce activation of MEK and MAP kinase through a RAS-independent pathway that involves PI3Kgamma-dependent activation of atypical PKC-zeta.
The EMBO Journal 02/1999; 18(2):386-95. DOI:10.1093/emboj/18.2.386 · 10.75 Impact Factor