J D Dubreuil

Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (87)239.63 Total impact

  • Clément Ngendahayo Mukiza, J Daniel Dubreuil
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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli STb toxin causes diarrhea in animals. STb binds to sulfatide, its receptor and is then internalized. In the cytoplasm, through a cascade of events, STb triggers the opening of ion channels allowing ion secretion and water loss leading to diarrhea. Tight junctions (TJs) are well known for controlling paracellular traffic of ions and water by forming a physical intercellular barrier in epithelial cells and some bacterial toxins are known to affect adversely TJs. The present study aimed at determining the effect of STb on TJs. T84 cells were treated for 24h with purified STb toxin and a non-toxic STb mutant (D30V). TransEpithelial Resistance (TER), paracellular flux marker and confocal microscopy were used to analyze the effect of STb toxin on TJs. Purified STb caused a significant reduction of TER parallel to an increase in paracellular permeability compared to untreated cells or mutant D30V. The increased paracellular permeability was associated with a marked alteration of F-actin stress fibers. F-actin filaments dissolution and condensation was accompanied by redistribution and/or fragmentation of ZO-1, claudin-1 and occludin. These changes were also observed following treatment of T84 cells with an 8 amino acid peptide found in the STb sequence corresponding to a consensus sequence of Vibrio cholerae Zot toxin. These effects were not observed with a scrambled peptide or mutant D30V. Our findings indicate that STb induces epithelial barrier dysfunction through changes in TJs proteins that could contribute to diarrhea.
    Infection and immunity 05/2013; · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    J Daniel Dubreuil
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    ABSTRACT: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produces two types of enterotoxins: heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (STa and STb). These molecules are involved in the induction of secretory diarrhea in animals including humans. This condition is currently treated using a fluid replacement therapy and antibiotics. This treatment is often not available to people in developing countries, and several die from the condition provoke by ETEC. Over the years, plants and plant extracts have been use as traditional medicine to treat various gastrointestinal ailments including diarrhea. Many of these plant products have been claimed to be active against diarrhea, however few have been extensively studied. The main objective of this review was to gather the scattered information on the antidiarrheal activities reported for various plant products on ETEC. This includes two major effects: (1) The inhibitory effect on bacterial growth or viability and (2) The interference with ETEC enterotoxins activity upon the intestinal epithelium. We will focus on plant products and extracts for which we have major indications of their biological activity against ETEC and their enterotoxins. Because Vibrio cholerae toxin (CT) is structurally, antigenically and mechanistically related to LT, it will also be discussed in this review.
    Toxins 01/2013; 5(11):2009-2041. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    H Claudia Syed, J Daniel Dubreuil
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    ABSTRACT: A previous study conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that cells having internalized Escherichia coli STb toxin display apoptotic-like morphology. We therefore investigated if STb could induce programmed cell death in both a human and an animal intestinal epithelial cell lines. HRT-18 (Human Colon Tumor) and IEC-18 (Rat Ileum Epithelial Cells) cell lines were used. As STb is frequently tested in a rat model, the IEC-18 cell line was most relevant to our work. The cell lines were treated with various amounts of purified STb (nanomole range) for a period of 24 h after which cells were harvested and examined for apoptotic characteristics. Caspase-9, the initiator of mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis, and caspase-3, an effector of caspase-9, were both activated following STb intoxication of HRT-18 and IEC-18 cells whereas caspase-8, the initiator caspase of the extrinsic pathway, was not activated. For both cell lines, agarose gel electrophoresis of the cell DNA content reveals laddering of DNA, resulting from DNA fragmentation, a characteristic of apoptosis. Hoechst 33342-stained DNA of STb-treated cell lines, observed using fluorescence microscopy, revealed condensation and fragmentation of the nuclei. Apoptotic indexes calculated from fragmented nuclei of Hoechst 33342-stained DNA for HRT-18 and IEC-18 cells showed an STb dose-dependent response. Overall, these data indicate that STb toxin induces a mitochondrion-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway.
    Microbial Pathogenesis 07/2012; 53(3-4):147-53. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce heat-stable (ST) and/or heat -labile (LT) enterotoxins are cause of post – weaning diarrhea in piglets. However, the relative importance of the different enterotoxins in host immune responses against ETEC infection has been poorly defined. In the present study, several isogenic mutant strains of an O149:F4ac + , LT + STa + STb + ETEC strain were constructed that lack the expression of LT in combination with one or both types of ST enterotoxins (STa and/or STb). The small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique and microarray analysis were used to study host early immune responses induced by these mutant strains 4 h after infection in comparison to the wild type strain and a PBS control. Simultaneously, net fluid absorption of pig small intestinal mucosa was measured 4 h after infection, allowing us to correlate enterotoxin secretion with gene regulation. Microarray analysis showed on the one hand a non-toxin related general antibacterial response comprising genes such as PAP, MMP1 and IL8. On the other hand, results suggest a dominant role for STb in small intestinal secretion early after post-weaning infection, as well as in the induced innate immune response through differential regulation of immune mediators like interleukin 1 and interleukin 17.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    J Daniel Dubreuil
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    ABSTRACT: This review focuses on diarrhea caused by toxins released by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. These bacteria are known to produce toxins that have adverse effects on the intestinal tissue in Man and animals. E. coli is contracted through the ingestion of water or food contaminated by this bacterium. Generally, E. coli colonizes the intestinal mucosa where it multiplies and causes damage to the target cells or interferes with the homeostasis that prevails in the gastrointestinal tract. Enteropathogens such as E. coli are only able to exhibit their effects after colonization of the intestinal mucosa from where they release their toxins. These bacteria mainly affect chloride ions secretion through second messenger pathways resulting in secretory diarrhea. In this review, the association of bacteria with the gastrointestinal tract as pathogens and the resulting effects on the various systems of the intestine, including the nervous system and mediators leading to secretion and diarrhea are examined.
    Current issues in molecular biology 01/2012; 14(2):71-82. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We identified a variant of Escherichia coli STb toxin by PCR amplification of clinical isolates obtained from diseased pigs. The variant differed by only one amino acid at position 12 from His to Asn. This change was observed in 23 of the 100 randomly selected enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) isolates tested. There was a positive correlation between the presence of the STa enterotoxin and the STb variant. As the variant represented a high percentage of the ETEC strains tested, we were interested in determining if the single amino acid change results in altered biological characteristics of the toxin. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that the secondary structure of the variant was similar to wildtype and that their thermal stabilities were similar. Surface plasmon resonance showed that the variant and the wildtype toxins possessed similar binding affinities for sulfatide but the variant exhibited a reduced binding capacity. A flow cytometry-based internalization assay showed that the variant toxin is more internalized into epithelial intestinal cells than the wildtype strain. However, this difference was minor. Overall, our results indicate that while wildtype STb and the variant share similar structural properties, modest differences exist in their internalization.
    Toxicon 12/2011; 59(2):300-5. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that internalization of the Escherichia coli STb enterotoxin in human and rat intestinal epithelial cells is involved in STb pathogenesis, but toxin uptake in porcine jejunum epithelium, the in vivo target tissue, still remains elusive. Using flow cytometry, we studied the internalization of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled STb in porcine intestinal epithelial IPEC-J2 and murine fibroblast NIH-3T3 cell lines. In contrast to the selective pronase resistance of STb in NIH-3T3 cells at 37 °C, but not at 4 °C, indicative of toxin internalization, most of the toxin was pronase-sensitive at both temperatures in IPEC-J2 cells, indicating reduced uptake, but significant cell surface binding. Actin reorganization is required for STb internalization by NIH-3T3 cells, confirming STb endocytosis in these cells. The toxin receptor, sulfatide, could not explain these internalization differences because both cell lines possessed surface sulfatide and internalized antisulfatide antibodies over time at 37 °C. Inhibition of lipid rafts endocytosis, known to contain sulfatide, with methyl-β-cyclodextrin or genistein, did not influence toxin uptake by either cell line. STb internalization is therefore differentially regulated depending on the cell type, possibly by factors other than sulfatide. Although a small STb fraction could be internalized by porcine intestinal epithelial cells, our findings suggest the ability of STb to induce, from the cell surface, intracellular signalling leading to fluid secretion in porcine intestinal epithelium.
    FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 03/2011; 61(2):205-17. · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2010; 201(11):1775-6; author reply 1776-7. · 5.85 Impact Factor
  • J Daniel Dubreuil
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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli enterotoxigenic strains produce one or more toxins which action result in production of diarrhea in animals including Man. One of these toxins, STb, has been mainly associated with colibacillosis in swine. Although highly prevalent in pigs with diarrhea, a relation between STb and disease was arduous to establish. With the recent recognition of a new adhesin, originally found in human E. coli isolates, named AIDA (adhesin involved in diffuse adherence) and its association with new E. coli pathotypes to which STb is linked, new light was shed on STb toxic potency. In this review, the association of STb and AIDA is examined according to the recent knowledge gained with newly described E. coli pathotypes.
    Critical Reviews in Microbiology 04/2010; 36(3):212-20. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In our ongoing efforts to develop a vaccine against Streptococcus suis infection, we tested the potential of S. suis enolase (SsEno), a recently described S. suis adhesin with fibronectin-binding activity, as a vaccine candidate in a mouse model of S. suis-induced septicemia and meningitis. Here, we show that SsEno is highly recognized by sera from convalescent pigs and is highly immunogenic in mice. Subcutaneous immunization of mice with SsEno elicited strong immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses. All four IgG subclasses were induced, with IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b representing the highest titers followed by IgG3. However, SsEno-vaccinated and nonvaccinated control groups showed similar mortality rates after challenge infection with the highly virulent S. suis strain 166'. Similar results were obtained upon passive immunization of mice with hyperimmunized rabbit IgG anti-SsEno. We also showed that anti-SsEno antibodies did not increase the ability of mouse phagocytes to kill S. suis in vitro. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that although recombinant SsEno formulated with Quil A triggers a strong antibody response, it does not confer effective protection against infection with S. suis serotype 2 in mice.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 06/2009; 294(1):82-8. · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Carina Gonçalves, J Daniel Dubreuil
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that STb causes microscopic histological alterations in animal intestinal models. Disrupted intestinal epithelium at the villous tips could be the result of an altered physiological cell state induced by the toxin. As a cellular model we used NIH-3T3 cells, a mouse fibroblast cell line, previously shown to be capable of internalizing the STb toxin. Using various probes specific for the cellular physiological state or cell organelles, we investigated STb activity using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. In NIH-3T3 cells, labelled with propidium iodide and carboxyfluorescein diacetate, STb permeabilized the plasma membrane but the cellular esterases remained active. Confocal microscopy showed that fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled STb toxin molecules were internalized and were found scattered in the cytoplasm. Moreover, important clusters of FITC-STb were observed inside the cells after 6 h and these clusters matched with mitochondria labelling. After cell treatment with STb, using a fluorescent mitochondrial potential sensor, we observed mitochondria hyperpolarization, as an early event of intoxication. This phenomenon increased linearly with the dose of STb. The cell population treated with STb showed histological alterations such as membrane budding, granular cytoplasm and enlarged nucleus. Altogether, these results provide new information, at the cellular level, on the effect of the STb toxin.
    FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 03/2009; 55(3):432-41. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen that causes meningitis, endocarditis, arthritis and septicaemia. As a zoonotic agent, S. suis also causes similar diseases in humans. Binding of pathogenic bacteria to extracellular matrix components enhances their adhesion to and invasion of host cells. In the present study we isolated and identified a novel fibronectin-binding protein from S. suis. The native protein (designated SsEno) possessed not only high homology with other bacterial enolases but also enolase activity. We cloned, expressed and purified SsEno and showed that it is ubiquitously expressed by all S. suis serotypes and we identified its surface localization using immunoelectron microscopy. ELISA demonstrated that SsEno binds specifically to fibronectin and plasminogen in a lysine-dependent manner. Additional surface plasmon resonance assays demonstrated that SsEno binds to fibronectin or plasminogen with low nanomolar affinity. Inhibition experiments with anti-SsEno antibodies also showed that bacterial SsEno is important for the adhesion to and invasion of brain microvascular endothelial cells by S. suis. Overall, the present work is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a fibronectin-binding activity of a bacterial enolase, and shows that, similar to other bacterial fibronectin-binding proteins, SsEno may contribute to the virulence of S. suis.
    Microbiology 10/2008; 154(Pt 9):2668-79. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental phosphate is an important signal for microorganism gene regulation, and it has recently been shown to trigger some key bacterial virulence mechanisms. In many bacteria, the Pho regulon is the major circuit involved in adaptation to phosphate limitation. The Pho regulon is controlled jointly by the two-component regulatory system PhoR/PhoB and by the phosphate-specific transport (Pst) system, which both belong to the Pho regulon. We showed that a pst mutation results in virulence attenuation in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains. Our results indicate that the bacterial cell surface of the pst mutants is altered. In this study, we show that pst mutants of ExPEC strains display an increased sensitivity to different cationic antimicrobial peptides and vancomycin. Remarkably, the hexa-acylated 1-pyrophosphate form of lipid A is significantly less abundant in pst mutants. Among differentially expressed genes in the pst mutant, lpxT coding for an enzyme that transfers a phosphoryl group to lipid A, forming the 1-diphosphate species, was found to be downregulated. Our results strongly suggest that the Pho regulon is involved in lipid A modifications, which could contribute to bacterial surface perturbations. Since the Pho regulon and the Pst system are conserved in many bacteria, such a lipid A modification mechanism could be widely distributed among gram-negative bacterial species.
    Journal of bacteriology 09/2008; 190(15):5256-64. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the presence and frequency of estB variant(s), a collection of 100 STb-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains isolated from 1980 to 2007 inclusively and randomly selected from diseased pigs in Québec, Canada, was analysed. A wide diversity of virulence gene profiles (virotypes) was detected in the strain collection. The estB gene was amplified by PCR using primers designed from the signal sequence and the C-terminal end, and the amplified fragment was sequenced using the forward primer. The translated DNA sequence revealed a His(12)-->Asn change in 23 of the 100 ETEC isolates tested. The STb-variant strains were observed throughout the sampling period covered in the study. No other STb-variant type was found in this study. All 23 variant strains were also positive for the STa enterotoxin and were resistant to tetracycline, as for strain 2173. The STb variant was associated with Stx2-positive strains (5/6) and STa : STb strains that did not harbour any of the tested porcine fimbrial adhesins (13/17). The remaining variant strains were associated with fimbriae F4 (1/40), F5 (1/6), F6 (1/1) and F18 (2/7; excluding F18 : Stx2 strains).
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 07/2008; 57(Pt 7):887-90. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli heat-STb is an important cause of diarrhea in piglets. STb was shown to interact specifically with sulfatide (3'-sulfogalactosyl-ceramide) present on the surface of epithelial cells of piglet jejunum. Basic data are lacking on STb binding to sulfatide in solution and more precisely on the possible inhibition of this interaction. Using surface plasmon resonance technology, we compare binding of STb to sulfatide and other glycoshingolipids previously shown, with a multiplate-binding assay, to also interact to various degrees with the enterotoxin. In addition, inhibition of STb-sulfatide binding was studied using free galactose, galactose-sulfate residues and a polymer of sulfated galactans known as carragenan. We determined a dissociation constant of 2.4+/-0.61 nM for the STb-sulfatide interaction. These data indicated that STb was binding to sulfatide with greater affinity than previously determined using radiolabeled toxin. Much lower affinities were observed for lactoceramide and glucoceramide. The binding of STb to sulfatide was clearly inhibited by lambda-carragenan but not by galactose, 4-SO(4)-galactose or 6-SO(4)-galactose. Inhibition of STb binding to its receptor was achieved using lambda-carragenan at picomolar concentrations. Then, using IPEC-J2 cells in culture and flow cytometry, we showed that lambda-carragenan was able to inhibit the permeabilization process associated with STb.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 05/2008; 281(1):30-5. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: EAST1 (EnteroAggregative heat-Stable Toxin 1) is a 4.1kDa toxin that was first detected in the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strain 17-2 (O3:H2) isolated from the stools of a Chilean child with diarrhoea. Accordingly, EAST1 is thought to play a role in the pathogenicity of EAEC. The goal of this study was to obtain purified biologically active forms of two EAST1 variants (17-2 and O 42). Purified toxin samples were treated with protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) to ascertain the integrity of the disulfide bridges. Since EAST1 is often compared to STa (heat-Stable Toxin a), both purified EAST1 variants were tested for biological activity using the suckling mouse assay, the reference test for STa. A positive gut to body (G/B) weight ratio was not observed for any of the EAST1 preparations tested, although STa was active. Exposure of the purified toxins to T84 cell monolayers, an epithelial cell line derived from a human colon carcinoma, in modified Ussing flux chambers resulted in a rapidly attained and prolonged increase in short circuit current, a sensitive measure of net ion transport. Responses to 17-2 and O 42 variants were comparable in magnitude and inhibitable by bumetanide and DASU-02, indicating net anion secretion. The results demonstrate that EAST1 toxin stimulates anion secretion by T84 cell monolayers and it is sustained for the duration of toxin exposure.
    Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases 03/2008; 31(6):567-78. · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • J Daniel Dubreuil
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of both adherence and enterotoxin expression are required for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains to cause colibacillosis. ETEC strains are responsible for diarrhea in humans and animals by production of various enterotoxins. For many years, the role of the heat-stable E. coli enterotoxin STb as a diarrhea-causing toxin in animals, and in particular in swine, has been controversial. In fact, although the presence of STb-positive E. coli strains and diarrhea in animals is frequently observed, the difficulty of reproducing the pathology in an animal model was interpreted as a lack of toxicity. Recently, new light was shed on the activity of STb in intestinal ligated loops and in pigs orally inoculated with STb-positive E. coli strains. This minireview revisits the effects of STb on the intestinal epithelium and enlightens the significance of STb in swine colibacillosis. The interaction of STb toxin with other E. coli enterotoxins and dual ETEC/enteropathogenic E. coli or ETEC/attaching effacing E. coli infections are also discussed.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 02/2008; 278(2):137-45. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sao is a Streptococcus suis surface protein recently identified as a potential vaccine candidate. In this study, recombinant Sao in combination with Quil A provided cross-protection against S. suis serotype 2 disease in mouse and pig vaccination protocols. Subcutaneous immunization of mice elicited strong immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses. All four IgG subclasses were induced, with the IgG2a titer being the highest, followed by those of IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3. Challenge of the mice with S. suis strain 31533 resulted in a mortality rate of 80% for the control group, which received Quil A only. In contrast, all of the mice immunized with Sao survived. In a pig vaccination protocol, intramuscular immunization with Sao also elicited significant humoral antibody responses, and both the IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses were induced, with a predominance of IgG2 production. In vitro assay showed that Sao-induced antibodies significantly promoted the ability of porcine neutrophils in opsonophagocytic killing of S. suis. An aerosol challenge of the pigs with S. suis strain 166 resulted in clinical signs characteristic of S. suis infection in diseased pigs. The vaccine group showed significantly better survival, lower clinical scores, and less S. suis recovery from postmortem tissue samples than did the control group. Furthermore, this study also revealed that although challenge S. suis strains express Sao size variants, recombinant Sao conferred cross-protection. These data demonstrate that recombinant Sao formulated with Quil A triggers strong opsonizing antibody responses which confer efficient immunity against challenge infection with heterologous S. suis type 2.
    Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 09/2007; 14(8):937-43. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The membrane-permeabilizing ability of the Escherichia coli enterotoxin STb was evaluated using brush border membrane vesicles isolated from piglet jejunum and a membrane-potential-sensitive fluorescent probe, 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide. A strong membrane potential was generated by the efflux of K+ ions from the vesicles in the presence of the potassium ionophore valinomycin. Under these conditions, preincubation of the vesicles with STb efficiently depolarized the membrane in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. This activity was independent of pH, however, at least between pH 5.5 and 8.0. On the other hand, in the absence of valinomycin, STb had no significant influence on the measured fluorescence levels, indicating that it was unable to modify the ionic selectivity of the intact membrane. In agreement with the fact that the integrity of the disulfide bridges of STb is known to be essential for its biological activity, a reduced and alkylated form of the toxin was unable to depolarize the membrane in the presence of valinomycin. Furthermore, two previously described poorly active STb mutants, M42S and K22A-K23A, showed no membrane-permeabilizing capacity. These results demonstrate for the first time that STb can permeabilize its target membrane and suggest that it does so by forming nonspecific pores.
    Infection and Immunity 06/2007; 75(5):2208-13. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies on virotypes and antimicrobial resistance in a collection of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) O149 strains from Quebec revealed an increase in the number of multiresistant strains (in particular to tetracycline) and the appearance of new virulence factors with time. Among these factors is paa (for porcine attaching- and effacing-associated), originally identified in a porcine enteropathogenic strain, but also present in enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7. In the present study, the association of paa with other ETEC virulence genes, its conservation and expression were investigated in the O149 ETEC collection. All 37 paa-positive strains possessed estB, elt, astA and faeG, and more than half also carried the estA gene, defining two main virotypes, estA(+) and estA(-). Most strains were tetA- or tetB-positive, or both. paa is carried on high molecular weight plasmids. On tetA plasmids, paa is mostly found with enterotoxin gene estA and autotransporter gene sepA. Paa, a 30 kDa protein, is highly conserved and expressed in these strains. Moreover, paaETEC and porcine EPEC/EHEC contain IS signatures, suggesting that paa could be derived from a common ancestor. All these observations suggest a broader role than previously assessed in virulence for paa.
    Research in Microbiology 01/2007; 158(1):97-104. · 2.89 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
239.63 Total Impact Points


  • 1991–2013
    • Université du Québec à Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1991–2009
    • Université de Montréal
      • • Department of Pathology and Microbiology
      • • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2008
    • McMaster University
      • Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006–2007
    • University of Saskatchewan
      • Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • 2003
    • South Dakota State University
      • Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory
      Brookings, South Dakota, United States
  • 2001
    • Universidade Federal da Paraíba
      • Departamento de Nutrição (DEPNUT)
      João Pessoa, Estado da Paraiba, Brazil
  • 1997
    • Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 1988–1990
    • University of Victoria
      • Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology
      Victoria, British Columbia, Canada