[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis and biological evaluation of novel Tie-2 kinase inhibitors are presented. Based on the pyrrolopyrimidine chemotype, several new series are described, including the benzimidazole series by linking a benzimidazole to the C5-position of the 4-amino-pyrrolopyrimidine core and the ketophenyl series synthesized by incorporating a ketophenyl group to the C5-position. Medicinal chemistry efforts led to potent Tie-2 inhibitors. Compound 15, a ketophenyl pyrrolopyrimidine urea analog with improved physicochemical properties, demonstrated favorable in vitro attributes as well as dose responsive and robust oral tumor growth inhibition in animal models.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the design and synthesis of novel, ATP-competitive Akt inhibitors from an elaborated 3-aminopyrrolidine scaffold. Key findings include the discovery of an initial lead that was modestly selective and medicinal chemistry optimization of that lead to provide more selective analogues. Analysis of the data suggested that highly lipophilic analogues would likely suffer from poor overall properties. Central to the discussion is the concept of optimization of lipophilic efficiency and the ability to balance overall druglike propeties with the careful control of lipophilicity in the lead series. Discovery of the nonracemic amide series and subsequent modification produced an advanced analogue that performed well in advanced preclinical assays, including xenograft tumor growth inhibition studies, and this analogue was nominated for clinical development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies on 5-trifluoromethylpyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones as antagonists of the human calcium receptor (CaSR) have been recently disclosed [ Didiuk et al. ( 2009 ) Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19 , 4555 - 4559 ). On the basis of its pharmacology and disposition attributes, (R)-2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(1-phenylpropan-2-yl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (1) was considered for rapid advancement to first-in-human (FIH) trials to mitigate uncertainty surrounding the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) predictions for a short-acting bone anabolic agent. During the course of metabolic profiling, however, glutathione (GSH) conjugates of 1 were detected in human liver microsomes in an NADPH-dependent fashion. Characterization of the GSH conjugate structures allowed insight(s) into the bioactivation pathway, which involved CYP3A4-mediated phenol ring oxidation to the catechol, followed by further oxidation to the electrophilic ortho-quinone species. While the reactive metabolite (RM) liability raised concerns around the likelihood of a potential toxicological outcome, a more immediate program goal was establishing confidence in human PK predictions in the FIH study. Furthermore, the availability of a clinical biomarker (serum parathyroid hormone) meant that PD could be assessed side by side with PK, an ideal scenario for a relatively unprecedented pharmacologic target. Consequently, progressing 1 into the clinic was given a high priority, provided the compound demonstrated an adequate safety profile to support FIH studies. Despite forming identical RMs in rat liver microsomes, no clinical or histopathological signs prototypical of target organ toxicity were observed with 1 in in vivo safety assessments in rats. Compound 1 was also devoid of metabolism-based mutagenicity in in vitro (e.g., Salmonella Ames) and in vivo assessments (micronuclei induction in bone marrow) in rats. Likewise, metabolism-based studies (e.g., evaluation of detoxicating routes of clearance and exhaustive PK/PD studies in animals to prospectively predict the likelihood of a low human efficacious dose) were also conducted, which mitigated the risks of idiosyncratic toxicity to a large degree. In parallel, medicinal chemistry efforts were initiated to identify additional compounds with a complementary range of human PK predictions, which would maximize the likelihood of achieving the desired PD effect in the clinic. The back-up strategy also incorporated an overarching goal of reducing/eliminating reactive metabolite formation observed with 1. Herein, the collective findings from our discovery efforts in the CaSR program, which include the incorporation of appropriate derisking steps when dealing with RM issues are summarized.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 06/2010; 23(6):1115-26. DOI:10.1021/tx100137n · 4.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on 5-trifluoromethylpyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones, a novel class of calcium receptor antagonists is described with particular emphasis on optimization of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters required for a short duration of action compound. Orally-active compounds were identified which displayed the desired animal pharmacology (rapid and transient stimulation of parathyroid hormone) essential for bone anabolic effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on a high throughput screening hit, pyrrolopyrimidine inhibitors of the Akt kinase are explored. X-ray co-crystal structures of two lead series results in the understanding of key binding interactions, the design of new lead series, and enhanced potency. The syntheses of these series and their biological activities are described. Spiroindoline 13j is found to have an Akt1 kinase IC(50) of 2.4+/-0.6 nM, Akt cell potency of 50+/-19 nM, and provides 68% inhibition of tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model (50 mg/kg, qd, po).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of potent inhibitors of the TrkA kinase is presented. A homology model is created to aid in the enhancement of potency and selectivity of isothiazole inhibitors found during a high-throughput screen. Three different syntheses are utilized to make diverse analogs within this series. Aminoheterocycles are found to be good urea surrogates, whereas bicyclic substituents on the C3 thio group were found to be extremely potent TrkA inhibitors in kinase and cell assays.