[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to evaluate the feasibility of detecting PIK3CA mutations in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from plasma of patients with metastatic breast cancer using a novel technique called BEAMing.
In a retrospective analysis, 49 tumor and temporally matched plasma samples from patients with breast cancer were screened for PIK3CA mutations by BEAMing. We then prospectively screened the ctDNA of 60 patients with metastatic breast cancer for PIK3CA mutations by BEAMing and compared the findings with results obtained by screening corresponding archival tumor tissue DNA using both sequencing and BEAMing.
The overall frequency of PIK3CA mutations by BEAMing was similar in both patient cohorts (29% and 28.3%, respectively). In the retrospective cohort, the concordance of PIK3CA mutation status by BEAMing between formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples and ctDNA from temporally matched plasma was 100% (34 of 34). In the prospective cohort, the concordance rate among 51 evaluable cases was 72.5% between BEAMing of ctDNA and sequencing of archival tumor tissue DNA. When the same archival tissue DNA was screened by both sequencing and BEAMing for PIK3CA mutations (n = 41 tissue samples), there was 100% concordance in the obtained results.
Analysis of plasma-derived ctDNA for the detection of PIK3CA mutations in patients with metastatic breast cancer is feasible. Our results suggest that PIK3CA mutational status can change upon disease recurrence, emphasizing the importance of reassessing PIK3CA status on contemporary (not archival) biospecimens. These results have implications for the development of predictive biomarkers of response to targeted therapies.
Clinical Cancer Research 03/2012; 18(12):3462-9. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defining an adequate resection margin of colorectal cancer liver metastases is essential for optimizing surgical technique. We have attempted to evaluate the resection margin through a combination of histopathologic and genetic analyses.
We evaluated 88 samples of tumor margins from 12 patients with metastatic colon cancer who each underwent partial hepatectomy of one to six liver metastases. Punch biopsies of surrounding liver tissue were obtained at 4, 8, 12, and 16 mm from the tumor border. DNA from these biopsies was analyzed by a sensitive PCR-based technique, called BEAMing, for mutations of KRAS, PIK3CA, APC, or TP53 identified in the corresponding tumor.
Mutations were identified in each patient's resected tumor and used to analyze the 88 samples circumscribing the tumor-normal border. Tumor-specific mutant DNA was detectable in surrounding liver tissue in 5 of these 88 samples, all within 4 mm of the tumor border. Biopsies that were 8, 12, and 16 mm from the macroscopic visible margin were devoid of detectable mutant tumor DNA and of microscopically visible cancer cells. Tumors with a significant radiologic response to chemotherapy were not associated with any increase in mutant tumor DNA in beyond 4 mm of the main tumor.
Mutant tumor-specific DNA can be detected beyond the visible tumor margin, but never beyond 4 mm, even in patients whose tumors were larger prior to chemotherapy. These data provide a rational basis for determining the extent of surgical excision required in patients undergoing resection of liver metastases.
Clinical Cancer Research 06/2011; 17(11):3551-7. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor progression is driven by genetic mutations, but little is known about the environmental conditions that select for these mutations. Studying the transcriptomes of paired colorectal cancer cell lines that differed only in the mutational status of their KRAS or BRAF genes, we found that GLUT1, encoding glucose transporter-1, was one of three genes consistently up-regulated in cells with KRAS or BRAF mutations. The mutant cells exhibited enhanced glucose uptake and glycolysis and survived in low-glucose conditions, phenotypes that all required GLUT1 expression. In contrast, when cells with wild-type KRAS alleles were subjected to a low-glucose environment, very few cells survived. Most surviving cells expressed high levels of GLUT1, and 4% of these survivors had acquired KRAS mutations not present in their parents. The glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate preferentially suppressed the growth of cells with KRAS or BRAF mutations. Together, these data suggest that glucose deprivation can drive the acquisition of KRAS pathway mutations in human tumors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are currently few therapeutic options for patients with pancreatic cancer, and new insights into the pathogenesis of this lethal disease are urgently needed. Toward this end, we performed a comprehensive genetic analysis of 24 pancreatic cancers. We first determined the sequences of 23,219 transcripts, representing 20,661 protein-coding genes, in these samples. Then, we searched for homozygous deletions and amplifications in the tumor DNA by using microarrays containing probes for approximately 10(6) single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We found that pancreatic cancers contain an average of 63 genetic alterations, the majority of which are point mutations. These alterations defined a core set of 12 cellular signaling pathways and processes that were each genetically altered in 67 to 100% of the tumors. Analysis of these tumors' transcriptomes with next-generation sequencing-by-synthesis technologies provided independent evidence for the importance of these pathways and processes. Our data indicate that genetically altered core pathways and regulatory processes only become evident once the coding regions of the genome are analyzed in depth. Dysregulation of these core pathways and processes through mutation can explain the major features of pancreatic tumorigenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal type of brain cancer. To identify the genetic alterations in GBMs, we sequenced 20,661 protein coding genes, determined the presence of amplifications and deletions using high-density oligonucleotide arrays, and performed gene expression analyses using next-generation sequencing technologies in 22 human tumor samples. This comprehensive analysis led to the discovery of a variety of genes that were not known to be altered in GBMs. Most notably, we found recurrent mutations in the active site of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) in 12% of GBM patients. Mutations in IDH1 occurred in a large fraction of young patients and in most patients with secondary GBMs and were associated with an increase in overall survival. These studies demonstrate the value of unbiased genomic analyses in the characterization of human brain cancer and identify a potentially useful genetic alteration for the classification and targeted therapy of GBMs.