[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alternatively activated macrophages are critical in host defense against parasites and are protective in inflammatory bowel disease, but contribute to pathology in asthma and solid tumors. The mechanisms underlying alternative activation of macrophages are only partially understood and little is known about their amenability to manipulation in pathophysiological conditions. Herein, we demonstrate that Src homology 2-domain-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase (SHIP)-deficient murine macrophages are more sensitive to IL-4-mediated skewing to an alternatively activated phenotype. Moreover, SHIP levels are decreased in macrophages treated with IL-4 and in murine GM-CSF-derived and tumor-associated macrophages. Loss of SHIP and induction of alternatively activated macrophage markers, Ym1 and arginase I (argI), were dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity and argI induction was dependent on the class IA PI3Kp110δ isoform. STAT6 was required to reduce SHIP protein levels, but reduced SHIP levels did not increase STAT6 phosphorylation. STAT6 transcription was inhibited by PI3K inhibitors and enhanced when SHIP was reduced using siRNA. Importantly, reducing SHIP levels enhanced, whereas SHIP overexpression or blocking SHIP degradation reduced, IL-4-induced argI activity. These findings identify SHIP and the PI3K pathway as critical regulators of alternative macrophage activation and SHIP as a target for manipulation in diseases where macrophage phenotype contributes to pathology.
European Journal of Immunology 06/2011; 41(6):1742-53. DOI:10.1002/eji.201041105 · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a great deal of interest in determining what regulates the generation of classically activated (M1) vs alternatively activated (M2) macrophages (Mphis) because of the opposing effects that these two Mphi subsets have on tumor progression. We show herein that IL-3 and, to a lesser extent, GM-CSF skew murine Mphi progenitors toward an M2 phenotype, especially in the absence of SHIP. Specifically, the addition of these cytokines, with or without M-CSF, to adherence- or lineage-depleted (Lin(-)) SHIP(-/-) bone marrow (BM) cells induces high levels of the M2 markers, arginase I, and Ym1 in the resulting mature Mphis. These in vitro-derived mature Mphis also display other M2 characteristics, including an inability to enhance anti-CD3-stimulated splenic T cell secretion of IFN-gamma and low IL-12 and high IL-10 production in response to LPS. Not surprisingly, given that IL-3 and GM-CSF utilize STAT5 to trigger many downstream signaling pathways, this M2 phenotype is suppressed when STAT5(-/-) BM cells are used. Unexpectedly, however, this M2 phenotype is also suppressed when STAT6(-/-) BM cells are used, suggesting that IL-4- or IL-13-induced signaling might be involved. Consistent with this, we found that IL-3 and GM-CSF stimulate the production of IL-4, especially from SHIP(-/-) Lin(-) BM cells, and that neutralizing anti-IL-4 Abs block IL-3-induced M2 skewing. Moreover, we found that basophil progenitors within the Lin(-) BM are responsible for this IL-3- and GM-CSF-induced IL-4 production, and that SHIP represses M2 skewing not by preventing skewing within Mphis themselves but by inhibiting IL-4 production from basophils.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2009; 183(6):3652-60. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.0900864 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytolytic CD8(+) T cells (CTLs) kill virally infected cells, tumor cells, or other potentially autoreactive T cells in a calcium-dependent manner. To date, the molecular mechanism that leads to calcium intake during CTL differentiation and function has remained unresolved. We demonstrate that desmoyokin (AHNAK1) is expressed in mature CTLs, but not in naive CD8(+) T cells, and is critical for calcium entry required for their proper function during immune response. We show that mature AHNAK1-deficient CTLs exhibit reduced Ca(v)1.1 alpha1 subunit expression (also referred to as L-type calcium channels or alpha1S pore-forming subunits), which recently were suggested to play a role in calcium entry into CD4(+) T cells. AHNAK1-deficient CTLs show marked reduction in granzyme-B production, cytolytic activity, and IFN-gamma secretion after T cell receptor stimulation. Our results demonstrate an AHNAK1-dependent mechanism controlling calcium entry during CTL effector function.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2009; 106(24):9785-90. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0902844106 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differentiation of naïve T cells leads to the generation of T-cell subsets, each possessing distinct cytokine expression profiles for serving different immune functions. Through the activation of separate signaling pathways, this process results in both differentiated helper T (Th) cells, termed Th1, Th2 and Th17, and induced regulatory T cells, which suppress Th cells. These different cells are important for combating infectious diseases and cancers; however, when aberrant, they can be responsible for chronic inflammatory diseases. One such disease is inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in which each T-cell subset can have a role in disease. New studies highlight the importance of the recently identified Th17 subset in IBD. Therapeutics targeting these aberrant Th responses are already under development and hold promise for treating IBD and other chronic inflammatory diseases.
Trends in Molecular Medicine 05/2009; 15(5):199-207. DOI:10.1016/j.molmed.2009.03.002 · 9.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-4 induce T helper 1 (T(H)1)- and T(H)2-cell differentiation, respectively, in vitro. However, not all T(H)1-cell responses require IL-12 in vivo, and T(H)2-cell responses are remarkably independent of IL-4-receptor signalling, suggesting that other polarizing signals must exist. Accumulating evidence indicates that Notch is a candidate receptor that might mediate these signals. However, contrasting roles for Notch have been proposed: some evidence shows that Notch promotes T(H)1-cell differentiation, whereas other evidence supports a prominent role for Notch in T(H)2-cell differentiation. In this Review, we discuss recent findings that help to reconcile this discrepancy and highlight the accumulating evidence for the role of Notch in T-cell-mediated diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD4(+) T helper cells differentiate into T helper 1 (Th1) or Th2 effector lineages, which orchestrate immunity to different types of microbes. Both Th1 and Th2 differentiation can be induced by Notch, but what dictates which of these programs is activated in response to Notch is not known. By using T cell-specific gene ablation of the Notch effector RBP-J or the Notch1 and 2 receptors, we showed here that Notch was required on CD4(+) T cells for physiological Th2 responses to parasite antigens. GATA-3 was necessary for Notch-induced Th2 differentiation, and we identified an upstream Gata3 promoter as a direct target for Notch signaling. Moreover, absence of GATA-3 turned Notch from a Th2 inducer into a powerful inducer of Th1 differentiation. Therefore, Gata3 is a critical element determining inductive Th2 differentiation and limiting Th1 differentiation by Notch.