Toru Shimazui

University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

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Publications (137)353.75 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious complication that arises after major abdominal surgery. VTE poses risks of negative outcomes and health care burden. The literature on the cost of VTE in Japanese surgical patients, however, is scarce. Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the economic consequences of VTE in Japanese patients with major abdominal surgery, using a hospital claims database. Methods: This is a retrospective, matched cohort study. Patients who had a VTE event up to 90 days after their first major abdominal surgery and initiated warfarin or heparin within 1 day of VTE diagnosis with continued treatment for more than 4 weeks were matched with controls for surgery type, hospital, and date of surgery ± 6 months in a 1:2 scheme. The primary outcome was 90-day costs associated with major abdominal surgery. The secondary outcomes were 6-month total costs, average length of initial inpatient stay, and cost of initial inpatient stay. Results: The 90-day cumulative incidence of VTE was 4.89%. The development of a VTE event in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in the length of hospitalization and a 2.8-fold increase in total costs 90 days after the surgery. Total costs further increased to 3.4-fold at 6 months. Overall, costs incurred in patients with VTE are on average much higher than in patients without VTE throughout 6-month postsurgery. Conclusions: The preventive care for VTE using more effective prophylactic treatment is recommended to reduce the economic burden associated with major abdominal surgery. © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR).
    05/2015; 6:73-79. DOI:10.1016/j.vhri.2015.03.017

  • The Journal of Urology 04/2015; 193(4):e608. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2015.02.518 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the dose intensity of induction chemotherapy and oncological outcomes of metastatic testicular cancer under centralized management through a regional medical network.Materials and methodsWe retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 86 metastatic testicular cancer patients who were given induction chemotherapy at Tsukuba University Hospital and four branch hospitals between January 2000 and November 2010. Principally, management of patients with poor-prognosis disease and patients having risk factors for bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin were referred to Tsukuba University Hospital before chemotherapy. For high-risk groups, etoposide and cisplatin or etoposide, ifosfamide and cisplatin was used as an alternative to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin. Overall, 56 and 30 patients were treated at Tsukuba University Hospital and branch hospitals, respectively. Forty-seven, 18 and 21 patients were classified with good-, intermediate- and poor-prognosis disease, respectively, according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group criteria. Eighteen of the 21 patients (86%) with poor-prognosis disease were treated at Tsukuba University Hospital from the beginning of induction chemotherapy. Induction chemotherapy with a high relative dose intensity was possible in most patients. The average relative dose intensity of each drug was >0.96. Treatment procedures other than induction chemotherapy were efficiently centralized; 74% of post-chemotherapy surgery and all second-line or subsequent chemotherapies were performed at Tsukuba University Hospital. The 5-year overall survival rates of the good-, intermediate- and poor-prognosis groups were 97, 93 and 84%, respectively. Induction chemotherapy with high relative dose intensity, post-chemotherapy surgery and salvage chemotherapy was accomplished efficiently through centralization of management. Oncological outcomes were excellent, especially in patients with poor-prognosis disease, whose 5-year OS reached 84%.
    Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2013; 43(12). DOI:10.1093/jjco/hyt152 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: It is known that a prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) urine assay is superior to serum PSA level or PSA-related indices for predicting a positive biopsy result in European and US men. This is the first report on PCA3 in a large cohort of Japanese men. The diagnostic value of the PCA3 score in Japanese men was similar to those reported in European and US men. The study concludes that a combination of PSA density and PCA3 score may be useful for selecting patients who could avoid an unnecessary biopsy. OBJECTIVE: To examine the diagnostic performance of the prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) score for prostate cancer in Japanese men undergoing prostate biopsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This Japanese, multicentre study included 647 Asian men who underwent extended prostate biopsy with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and/or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE). Urine samples were collected after DRE. The PCA3 score was determined using a PROGENSA PCA3 assay and correlated with biopsy outcome. Its diagnostic accuracy was compared with that of serum PSA level, prostate volume (PV), PSA density (PSAD), and free/total PSA ratio (f/t PSA). RESULTS: A total of 633 urine samples were successfully analysed (the informative rate was 98%). Median PSA was 7.6 ng/mL. Biopsy revealed cancer in 264 men (41.7%). The PCA3 score for men with prostate cancer was significantly higher than that for men with negative biopsies (median PCA3 score: 49 vs. 18; P < 0.001). The rate of positive biopsy was 16.0% in men with a PCA3 score of <20 and 60.6% in those with a PCA3 score of ≥50. Using a PCA3 score threshold of 35, sensitivity and specificity were 66.5 and 71.6%, respectively. The area under the curve of the PCA3 score was significantly higher than that of the f/t PSA in men with PSA 4-10 ng/mL (0.742 vs 0.647; P < 0.05). In men with PSAD < 0.15 and PCA3 < 20, only three (4.2%) out of 72 men had prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The PCA3 score was significantly superior to f/t PSA in predicting a positive biopsy result for prostate cancer in Japanese men with PSA 4-10 ng/mL. The combination of PSAD and PCA3 score may be useful for selecting patients who could avoid an unnecessary biopsy.
    BJU International 01/2013; 111(6). DOI:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11683.x · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: p16INK4a (p16), a key molecule in bladder tumor development, inhibits the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and maintains the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in its active hypophosphorylated state. Following the finding that the p16 antitumor peptide dramatically inhibits the growth of aggressive leukemia̸lymphoma through the restoration of p16 function using the Wr-T peptide transporter system, in this study, we developed a systemic therapy using mouse‑p16 peptide (m‑p16) in subcutaneous p16‑null mouse bladder tumors. In vitro analysis showed that the growth of p16‑null bladder tumor cells and the hyperphosphorylation of their pRbs were inhibited by p16 transduction in a concentration‑dependent manner. In an animal model, p16‑null MBT‑2 cells were injected subcutaneously into KSN/SKC nude mice. The systemic delivery of the m‑p16 peptide using Wr‑T by cardiac injection significantly inhibited the growth of solid MBT‑2 tumors compared with the control phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS) injection. Histological examination by TUNEL staining revealed that apoptosis was increased and pRb phosphorylation was inhibited. Thus, the systemic peptide delivery of p16 restores the hypophosphorylation of pRb and may be a useful tool for the treatment of bladder tumors.
    International Journal of Oncology 12/2012; 42(2). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2012.1752 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to analyze the pattern of recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The subjects were 77 patients with T2-3N0M0 bladder cancer whose bladder was preserved by intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation. The patterns of the first recurrences were retrospectively analyzed. With a median follow-up of 38.5 months, 17 patients (22.1%) experienced intravesical recurrence without metastasis, 14 (82.4%) of which were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence and 3 (17.6%) of which were muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at the same site as the initial tumor site in all three cases, whereas non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at different sites in 64% of the patients in that group. The peak hazard of the non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence was observed at around a year after treatment. Recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer was of a significantly lower histological grade with lower Ki-67-labeling indices than the initial muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Twelve (85.7%) of 14 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence achieved disease-free status. The multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity, grade and tumor size were significantly correlated with the recurrence (P= 0.0001, 0.0442 and 0.0412, respectively). Most of the recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The recurrence pattern and characteristics of the tumors did not differ from those of primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients with high-risk factors would be candidates for prophylactic intravesical therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence.
    Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/2012; 42(9):825-30. DOI:10.1093/jjco/hys105 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 75-year-old man, with a past history of radiation therapy for prostatic carcinoma ten years ago, was referred to our hospital with complaints of penile tumor. After pathological examination by core biopsy, the patient was treated by radical penectomy for a penile tumor. Pathological examinations demonstrated that the tumor was composed of pleomorphic spindle cells without any differentiation tendency and diagnosed as spindle cell sarcoma. Although the patient had a past history of radiation therapy for the prostate, the causal relation of development of penile sarcoma with the radiation therapy was uncertain because the main tumor was very near but outside of the irradiation field. The sarcoma rarely occurs in the penis, and this is the first report of penile spindle cell sarcoma, to our knowledge.
    Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica 06/2012; 58(6):299-305.
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular targeting agents have become formidable anticancer weapons showing much promise against refractory tumors and functional peptides and are among the more desirable of these nanobio-tools. Intracellular delivery of multiple functional peptides forms the basis for a potent, non-invasive mode of delivery, providing distinctive therapeutic advantages. We examine the growth suppression efficiency of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by single-peptide targeting. We simultaneously introduced p16INK4a tumor suppressor peptides by Wr-T-mediated peptide delivery. Wr-T-mediated transport of p16INK4a functional peptide into 10 RCC lines, lacking expression of the p16INK4a molecule, reversed the specific loss of p16 function, thereby drastically inhibiting tumor growth in all but 3 lines by >95% within the first 96 h. In vivo analysis using SK-RC-7 RCC xenografts in nude mice demonstrated tumor growth inhibition by the p16INK4a peptide alone, however, inoculation of Wr-T and the p16INK4a functional peptide mixture, via the heart resulted in complete tumor regression. Thus, restoration of tumor suppressor function with Wr-T peptide delivery represents a powerful approach, with mechanistic implications for the development of efficacious molecular targeting therapeutics against intractable RCC.
    Oncology Reports 08/2011; 26(2):327-33. DOI:10.3892/or.2011.1290 · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Toru Shimazui ·

    Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 06/2011; 69 Suppl 5:477-80.

  • The Journal of Urology 04/2011; 185(4). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2011.02.584 · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Noritoshi Sekido · Shiro Hinotsu · Toru Shimazui ·

    The Journal of Urology 04/2011; 185(4). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2011.02.1482 · 4.47 Impact Factor

  • The Journal of Urology 04/2011; 185(4). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2011.02.1103 · 4.47 Impact Factor

  • The Journal of Urology 03/2011; 10(2):174-175. DOI:10.1016/S1569-9056(11)60514-9 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: • To conduct a preclinical evaluation of the ability of natural killer cells to cytolyze bladder cancer cells that were modified to show enhanced expression of natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) ligands by R8-liposome-bacillus Calmette-Guéin (BCG)-cell wall skeleton (CWS) treatment. • The T24 cells and RT-112 cells were co-cultured with R8-liposome-BCG-CWS and BCG for 2, 4, or 6 h, and then the surface expression of NKG2D ligands was analyzed using TaqMan real-time quantitative RT-PCR. • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained with a conventional preparation kit, and then lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells were generated from these purified peripheral blood mononuclear cells via interleukin-2 stimulation. • The anti-tumour effect of LAK cells against untreated and R8-liposome-BCG-CWS co-cultured with cells of the human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and RT-112 was analyzed using the cytotoxic WST-8 assay method at 4 h of culture at various effector/target (E : T) ratios. • Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain B (MICB) expression was increased ≈1.5-fold on T24 cells and RT-112 cells with BCG. • UL-16-binding protein (ULBP) 1 expression was also increased ≈1.5-fold on T24 cells and RT-112 cells with BCG. R8-liposome-BCG-CWS increased the surface expression of MICB 2.2-fold on T24 cells but did not increase it significantly on RT-112 cells. • ULBP1 expression was increased ≈2.2-fold on RT-112 cells, although no differences were observed between the expression of ULBP2 and 3 with R8-liposome-BCG-CWS. • T24 cells that were co-cultured with R8-liposome-BCG-CWS showed an ≈1.3-fold increase in sensitivity to cytolysis by LAK cells at an E : T ratio of 4 and RT-112 cells showed an ≈1.4-fold increase at an E : T ratio of 2. • In the present study, the induction of surface NKG2D ligands by R8-liposome-BCG-CWS rendered cancer cells more susceptible to cytolysis by LAK cells. • T24 cells and RT-112 cells, even when cultured singly in the absence of immune cells, can directly respond to R8-liposome-BCG-CWS. • The results obtained in the present study may therefore indicate a novel adoptive immunotherapy against bladder cancers.
    BJU International 02/2011; 108(9):1520-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.10056.x · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 40-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment of metastatic testicular cancer. Computerized tomography revealed multiple lung, liver, and retroperitoneal lymph node metastases. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple brain metastases. Induction chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin was started the day after a high orchiectomy. The pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was yolk sac carcinoma. The serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was markedly increased to 630,000 mIU/ml, which suggested the presence of a choriocarcinoma element at metastatic sites. The patient subsequently suffered respiratory failure due to pulmonary hemorrhage. Intensive supportive care prevented a fatal outcome. Physicians who treat advanced testicular tumors should be aware of the potential complication of acute pulmonary hemorrhage, called choriocarcinoma syndrome, in cases with a high hCG level, which indicates a rapidly progressive and high-volume choriocarcinoma.
    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2010; 15(6):611-4. DOI:10.1007/s10147-010-0092-3 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to identify genes related to the metastasis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CRCC). We analyzed copy number alterations in renal tissue specimens of patients with CRCC patients with or without metastasis by using high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and then integrated these data with gene expression profiling data obtained using oligonucleotide microarrays. The expression levels of target genes were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) with an independent tumor set. An analysis of specimens from 23 CRCC cases with SNP arrays revealed that hemizygous deletions at 10q and 13q were found only in cases of metastatic disease. We found the homozygous deletion of TCF7L2 at 10q25.2 in an aggressive case that had hemizygous deletions at 10q. In addition, a qRT-PCR analysis of TCF7L2 mRNA levels in tumor samples revealed significantly lower levels in patients with metastasis when compared with those without metastasis. FOXO1 was identified as a down-regulated gene in the minimal overlapping region of the 13q hemizygous deletion in CRCC. Decreased FOXO1 expression was significantly correlated with metastasis and poor survival outcome. Knockdown of FOXO1 inhibited apoptosis after doxorubicin treatment in CRCC cells and reduced the expression of downstream genes involved in cell proliferation (CDKN1B) and survival (BCL2L11). Lower levels of FOXO1 expression were associated with decreased expression of CDKN1B and BCL2L11 in CRCC specimens. We conclude that FOXO1 and TCF7L2 are involved in metastasis and that molecules in these signaling pathways may be targets for diagnostic procedures and therapies for CRCC.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 04/2010; 49(4):379-89. DOI:10.1002/gcc.20750 · 4.04 Impact Factor

  • The Journal of Urology 04/2010; 183(4). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2010.02.270 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the risk of intravesical recurrence in patients with primary urothelial cancer of the upper urinary tract. Ninety patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy for clinically localized urothelial cancer of the upper urinary tract were initially considered. Those with a previous and/or concomitant history of bladder cancer, and those who had previously received systemic chemotherapy were excluded. Overall, data from 60 patients with no evidence of bladder cancer and distant or lymph node metastasis were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical course and the risk pattern of intravesical recurrence were estimated by using a smoothing technique on estimated hazard function plots. Multivariate analysis was carried out using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Mean patient age was 64.7 years. Median follow up was 51.3 months. Thirty patients (50%) had intravesical recurrence during the follow-up period. The peak of intravesical recurrence was detected in the early period (less than 2.5 years) after surgery. The intravesical recurrence hazard became lower afterwards. Nevertheless, it persisted over a long period of time. On univariate and multivariate analyses, none of the clinical or pathological parameters had a statistically significant impact on intravesical recurrence. Even if an intravesical recurrence in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial cancer is more likely in the early period, it persists over a long period of time. This might reflect different mechanisms of recurrence, having a significant impact on the definition of the optimal treatment and follow-up schedules.
    International Journal of Urology 04/2010; 17(7):623-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1442-2042.2010.02539.x · 2.41 Impact Factor

  • The Journal of Urology 04/2010; 183(4). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2010.02.271 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the clinical course of a ureteroiliac arterial fistula in a patient who had been managed by ureteral stenting for 8 years for severe ureteral stricture after abdominoperineal resection with pelvic irradiation for advanced rectal cancer. A multidisciplinary team approach including provocative angiography and an endovascular stent saved the life of the patient. Ureteroarterial fistula is a rare complication of a long-term indwelling ureteral stent that is potentially fatal unless a prompt diagnosis and adequate therapy are provided. Heightened awareness and a high index of suspicion for this condition are required to make an early diagnosis.
    Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2009; 40(3):267-70. DOI:10.1093/jjco/hyp154 · 2.02 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
353.75 Total Impact Points


  • 1988-2013
    • University of Tsukuba
      • Department of Urology
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2006
    • Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 1997-1999
    • Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 1989
    • Kanagawa Cancer Center
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan