R J Ulvik

University of Bergen, Bergen, Hordaland Fylke, Norway

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Publications (38)92.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of the present study was to examine the association between dietary Fe intake and dietary predictors of Fe status and Hb concentration among lactating women in Bhaktapur, Nepal. We included 500 randomly selected lactating women in a cross-sectional survey. Dietary information was obtained through three interactive 24 h recall interviews including personal recipes. Concentrations of Hb and plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors were measured. The daily median Fe intake from food was 17·5 mg, and 70 % of the women were found to be at the risk of inadequate dietary Fe intake. Approximately 90 % of the women had taken Fe supplements in pregnancy. The prevalence of anaemia was 20 % (Hb levels < 123 g/l) and that of Fe deficiency was 5 % (plasma ferritin levels < 15 μg/l). In multiple regression analyses, there was a weak positive association between dietary Fe intake and body Fe (β 0·03, 95 % CI 0·014, 0·045). Among the women with children aged < 6 months, but not those with older infants, intake of Fe supplements in pregnancy for at least 6 months was positively associated with body Fe (P for interaction < 0·01). Due to a relatively high dietary intake of non-haem Fe combined with low bioavailability, a high proportion of the women in the present study were at the risk of inadequate intake of Fe. The low prevalence of anaemia and Fe deficiency may be explained by the majority of the women consuming Fe supplements in pregnancy.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a bioactive 3-thia fatty acid, giving hypolipidemic response, inhibiting the proliferation and increasing the differentiation of normal adult epidermal keratinocytes and showing anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease associated with abnormalities in lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity, eicosanoid metabolism and increased frequency of cardiovascular events. On this background we have conducted a pilot study to explore the hypothesis that this modified fatty acid could improve dyslipidemia and reduce inflammation in psoriatic patients. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the metabolic effects of systemic TTA in a limited number of patients with mild to moderate psoriasis, 1000 mg TTA daily for 28 days. The most important findings were: (i) TTA reduced plasma total cholesterol, non HDL-cholesterol, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio, triglycerides and total fatty acids; (ii) TTA decreased plasma TNF-α, IL-8 and VCAM-1; and (iii) plasma fatty acid composition changed with an increased level of monounsaturated fatty acids and decreased n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion TTA exerts both hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects in psoriasis patients. The results further indicate that TTA can be of therapeutic benefit for a subgroup of psoriatic patients.
    Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 02/2011; 71(4):269-73. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need for novel biomarkers that can be used to improve the diagnosis, predict the disease progression, improve our understanding of the pathology or serve as therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is in direct contact with the CNS and reflects the biochemical state of the CNS under different physiological and pathological settings. Because of this, CSF is regarded as an excellent source for identifying biomarkers for neurological diseases and other diseases affecting the CNS. Quantitative proteomics and sophisticated computational software applied to analyze the protein content of CSF has been fronted as an attractive approach to find novel biomarkers for neurological diseases. This review will focus on some of the potential pitfalls in biomarker studies using CSF, summarize the status of the field of CSF proteomics in general, and discuss some of the most promising proteomics biomarker study approaches. A brief status of the biomarker discovery efforts in multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease is also given.
    Journal of proteomics 11/2010; 74(4):371-88. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of blood donation on iron status in donors without iron supplementation were studied. Analysing interactions between donations and iron status markers may predict these effects. Haemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin were analysed in 893 donors over 1 year. Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) was measured at the first and last donation. Prolonged intervals prevented decrease in Hb in women and in ferritin for both genders. In women, a high TfR-F index (sTfR/log ferritin) predicted fall in Hb. Adjusting the donation intervals is a way to prevent iron deficiency in blood donors.
    Transfusion and Apheresis Science 10/2009; 41(3):165-9. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Frequent blood donations may lead to a negative iron balance. Iron depletion may be prevented by iron supplementation after whole blood donations. The aim of this study was to compare the short time changes in iron status after donation in two groups randomized to iron supplementation or no additional iron. A second objective was to evaluate the effect of iron supplementation in donors having HFE-variants compared to HFE wild types. Subjects of both genders (199 women, 200 men) were randomised to receive iron supplementation or no additional iron after donation. Iron status, defined by the concentration of haemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, concentration of haemoglobin in reticulocytes (CHr) and percent hypochrome mature red blood cells, was determined at the start of donation and 8 +/- 2 days after donation. HFE genotyping was performed at reappearance. There was a significant difference between the two study groups on all the iron status parameters. CHr was an efficient, early marker of ongoing synthesis of haemoglobin. Heterozygosity for the HFE variants C282Y and H63D had no statistically significant influence on the iron status. The donor's baseline serum ferritin value may be basis for an individual iron supplementation regimen, as donors with serum ferritin >50 microg/l do not seem to utilize the iron supplementation, but prefer endogenous iron to restore the loss of haemoglobin. Iron supplementation had a significant positive impact on the restoration of iron status one week after donation.
    Vox Sanguinis 10/2009; 98(3 Pt 1):e249-56. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that a modified fatty acid, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA), improves transport and utilization of lipids and increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in animal and cell studies. We conducted an exploratory study of safety and effects of this novel drug in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and investigated the mechanism of action in human cell lines. Sixteen male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus received 1 g TTA daily for 28 days in an open-labelled study, with measurement of parameters of lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism and safety (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00605787). The mechanism of action was further investigated in a human liver cell line (HepG2) and in cultured human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes). Mean LDL cholesterol level declined from 4.2 to 3.7 mmol/l (p < 0.001), accompanied by increased levels of the HDL apolipoproteins A1 and A2, and a decline in LDL/HDL ratio from 4.00 to 3.66 (p = 0.008). Total fatty acid levels declined, especially the fraction of the polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (-13%, p = 0.002) and eicosapentaenoic acid (-10%, p = 0.07). Glucose metabolism was not altered and the drug was well tolerated. In cultured liver cells, TTA acted as a pan-PPAR agonist with predominant PPAR-alpha and PPAR-delta activation at low TTA concentrations. In myotubes, TTA and a PPAR-delta agonist, but not the PPAR-alpha or PPAR-gamma agonists, increased the fatty acid oxidation. We demonstrate for the first time that TTA attenuates dyslipidaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These effects may occur through mechanisms involving PPAR-alpha and PPAR-delta activation, resulting in increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.
    Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 04/2009; 11(4):304-14. · 5.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of a poor iron status on the difficulties to keep recruitment of new donors at pace with the ongoing increased demand for blood transfusions was studied by comparing the iron status of new donors recruited in 1993-1997 and in 2005-2006. Iron status was defined by haemoglobin and serum ferritin. Inclusion criteria for approving new donors were haemoglobin >/= 12.5 g/dl for women and >/= 13.5 g/dl for men, and serum ferritin > 15 microg/l for both genders. Data were gathered retrospectively from 943 subjects (55% women) in the 1990 ties and prospectively from 1013 subjects (63% women) 10 years later. In women, there was a significant fall in haemoglobin and serum ferritin mean values from 13.2 to 13.1 g/dl and from 30.9 to 26.9 microg/l, respectively. Rejection due to low haemoglobin was significantly increased from 14% to 24%. In men, there were minor changes that did not affect rejection rates. Iron status of women who want to serve as blood donors has deteriorated in the last 10 years, leading to an increased rejection due to haemoglobin below the inclusion criterion for blood donors.
    Vox Sanguinis 01/2009; 96(1):49-55. · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - EUR J PHARM SCI. 01/2008; 34(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Commonly used techniques for trace-element analysis in human biological material are flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elements that form volatile hydrides, first of all mercury, are analysed by hydride generation techniques. In the absorption techniques the samples are vaporized into free, neutral atoms and illuminated by a light source that emits the atomic spectrum of the element under analysis. The absorbance gives a quantitative measure of the concentration of the element. ICP-AES and ICP-MS are multi-element techniques. In ICP-AES the atoms of the sample are excited by, for example, argon plasma at very high temperatures. The emitted light is directed to a detector, and the optical signals are processed to values for the concentrations of the elements. In ICP-MS a mass spectrometer separates and detects ions produced by the ICP, according to their mass-to-charge ratio. Dilution of biological fluids is commonly needed to reduce the effect of the matrix. Digestion using acids and microwave energy in closed vessels at elevated pressure is often used. Matrix and spectral interferences may cause problems. Precautions should be taken against trace-element contamination during collection, storage and processing of samples. For clinical problems requiring the analysis of only one or a few elements, the use of FAAS may be sufficient, unless the higher sensitivity of GFAAS is required. For screening of multiple elements, however, the ICP techniques are preferable.
    Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 02/2007; 67(4):353-66. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of anemia and iron status as assessed by biochemical markers and to explore the associations between markers of iron status and iron intake. STUDY AREA AND POPULATION: Five hundred healthy women of reproductive age from the Bhaktapur district of Nepal were included in the study. A cluster sampling procedure was applied for this cross-sectional study. Women without any ongoing infection aged 13-35 years were selected randomly from the population. We measured the plasma concentration of hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin and transferrin receptors. Dietary information was obtained by a food frequency questionnaire and two 24-h dietary recalls. The prevalence of anemia (Hb concentration <12 g/dl) was 12% (n=58). The prevalence of depleted iron stores (plasma ferritin <15 microg/l) was 20% (n=98) whereas the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (anemia, depleted iron stores with elevated transferrin receptor i.e. >1.54 mg/l) was 6% (n=30). Seven percent (n=35) of women were having iron-deficient erythropoiesis (depleted iron stores and elevated transferrin receptor but normal Hb). Out of the 58 anemic women, 41 (71%) and 31 (53%) were also having elevated plasma transferrin receptor and depleted iron stores, respectively. Fifty-four percent of the women ate less than the recommended average intake of iron. The main foods contributing to dietary iron were rice, wheat flour and green and dry vegetables. The prevalence of anemia in our study was substantially lower than the national figure for non-pregnant women. Only about half of the women with anemia were also having depleted iron stores, suggesting that other causes of anemia may be prevalent in this population. Norwegian Universities Committee for Development, Research and Education (NUFU).
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2007; 61(2):262-9. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Discovery of disease specific biomarkers in human body fluids has become an important challenge in clinical proteomics. Facing the increasing threat of degenerative and disabling diseases like cancer, cardiovascular, neurological and inflammatory diseases in large parts of the world's population, there is an urgent need to improve early diagnostics. In this review we discuss possibilities and limitations connected to using mass spectrometry based proteomics in the search for novel biomarkers, with focus on multiple sclerosis as a typical representative for the large group of non-curable degenerative and disabling disease with the lack of specific tests for early diagnosis. Careful control of the pre-analytical phase including sampling, storage and fractionation of samples, in addition to a thoroughly considered patient selection, is important in order to avoid false biomarkers to appear in the resulting mass spectra. Furthermore, advanced computational tools are needed in order to discover potential biomarkers from the enormous data amounts generated by the mass spectrometers. The development of such computer tools is a research field currently in the start phase and could prove to be a bottle neck in the biomarker discovery the next years. Therefore, a rather detailed review of the most used computational and pre-analytical methods is given in this review. Mass spectrometry based biomarker discovery is undoubtedly still in its early infancy. However, in light of the potential of this technology to provide deep coverage of the body fluid proteomes, it will certainly consolidate its role in developing molecular medicine into clinical practice.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 07/2006; 7(3):147-58. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease. Oral iron therapy may reinforce intestinal tissue injury by catalyzing production of reactive oxygen species. To compare the effects of ferrous sulphate and non-ionic iron-polymaltose complex on markers of oxidative tissue damage and clinical disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Forty-one patients with inflammatory bowel disease and iron deficiency were randomized to treatment with ferrous sulphate 100 mg twice a day or iron-polymaltose complex 200 mg once a day for 14 days. Following ferrous sulphate, plasma malondialdehyde increased (P = 0.02), while urine 8-isoprostaglandin F(2alpha) and plasma antioxidants did not change significantly. Iron-polymaltose complex did not change plasma malondialdehyde, urine 8-isoprostaglandin F(2alpha) or plasma antioxidants. Comparing the two treatments, changes in plasma malondialdehyde tended to differ (P = 0.08), while urine 8-isoprostaglandin F(2alpha) and plasma antioxidants did not differ. Neither ferrous sulphate nor iron-polymaltose complex altered clinical disease activity indices. Ferrous sulphate increased plasma malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Comparing treatment with ferrous sulphate and iron-polymaltose complex, changes in plasma malondialdehyde tended to differ. Clinical disease activity was unchanged after both treatments.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 12/2005; 22(9):831-8. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency anaemia is a frequent complication of Crohn disease. Treatment with ferrous iron (Fe2-) compounds is often unsatisfactory and is associated with gastrointestinal side effects. Theoretically, oral iron supplementation may even be harmful, because iron may reinforce intestinal inflammation by catalysing production of reactive oxygen species. We investigated the effect of ferrous iron on disease activity and plasma antioxidant status in patients with active Crohn disease. Ten patients with Crohn disease and iron deficiency and 10 healthy controls were given ferrous fumarate 120 mg for 7 days. The Crohn Disease Activity Index, gastrointestinal complaints and blood samples for antioxidant status, anaemia, inflammation and iron absorption were investigated on day 1 and day 8. During 1 week of ferrous fumarate supplementation, the Crohn Disease Activity Index tended to increase (P = 0.071). Patients experienced aggravation of diarrhoea, abdominal pain and nausea. Plasma-reduced cysteine was lower (P = 0.038) in patients than it was in controls. One week of ferrous iron supplementation further decreased reduced cysteine (P < 0.001) and significantly decreased plasma-reduced glutathione (P = 0.004) in the patients. Serum iron increased significantly in patients after an oral iron load test (from 5.8 +/- 3.2 micromol/L to 30.9 +/- 13.1 micromol/L). Treatment of iron deficiency with ferrous fumarate deteriorated plasma antioxidant status and increased specific clinical symptoms in patients with active Crohn disease. Plasma reduced cysteine may be a sensitive indicator for oxidative stress in the intestine.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2003; 38(5):543-8. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the association between anemia in pregnancy and characteristics related to nutrition and infections. Cross-sectional study. Four antenatal clinics in rural northern Tanzania. A total of 2547 women were screened for hemoglobin (Hb) and malaria plasmodia in capillary blood and for infections in urine. According to their Hb, they were assigned to one of five groups and selected accordingly, Hb<70 g/l (n=10), Hb=70-89 g/l (n=61), Hb=90-109 g/l (n=86), Hb=110-149 g/l (n=105) and Hb> or =150 g/l (n=50). The 312 selected subjects had venous blood drawn, were interviewed, and their arm circumference was measured. The sera were analyzed for ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), cobalamin, folate, vitamin A, C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LD). Transferrin saturation (TFsat) was calculated. Urine was examined by dipsticks for nitrite. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (OR and AOR) of anemia with Hb<90 g/l. Anemia (Hb<90 g/l) was associated with iron deficiency (low s-ferritin; AOR 3.4). The association with vitamin deficiencies were significant in unadjusted analysis (low s-folate; OR 3.1, low s-vitamin A; OR 2.6). Anemia was also associated with markers of infections (elevated s-CRP; AOR 3.5, urine nitrite positive; AOR 2.4) and hemolysis (elevated s-LD; AOR 10.1). A malaria positive blood slide was associated with anemia in unadjusted analysis (OR 2.7). An arm circumference less than 25 cm was associated with anemia (AOR 4.0). The associations with less severe anemia (Hb 90-109 g/l) were similar, but weaker. Anemia in pregnancy was associated with markers of infections and nutritional deficiencies. This should be taken into account in the management of anemia at antenatal clinics. The study was supported by the Norwegian Research Council (NFR) and the Centre for International Health, University of Bergen.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 03/2002; 56(3):192-9. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for the simultaneous determination of Al, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn in human serum in a clinical laboratory was validated. Samples were digested and then analysed using yttrium as an internal standard and a serum-matched calibration standard. The criteria used to assess the analytical performance of the ICP-AES were detection and quantification limits, linearity, sensitivity, recovery, interference from alkali and acid, trueness and precision. Detection limits were 0.002-0.003 micromol/L for Mn, Sr, Ba, and Cd; 0.014-0.07 micromol/L for Co, Zn, Fe, Be, Li, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Cr; and 0.2-0.9 micromol/L for B, Se, and Al. Trueness, as controlled by analysis of bovine serum certified reference material, was acceptable for Co, Cu, Se and Zn, while Fe was 5.1% and Mn 6.2% below the lowest limit of the certified material interval. We conclude that ICP-AES can be used for multi-element analysis of B, Ba, Cu, Fe, Li, Se, Sr and Zn in serum. Serum levels of Al, Be and Co were below the detection limits while serum levels of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb were below the quantification limits of the ICP-AES. These trace metals cannot be analysed as routine by the ICP-AES. However, in cases of intoxication with elevated serum concentrations mean recovery of 100+/-10% was obtained at an addition of 2.22 micromol/L for Al, 0.11 micromol/L for Be, 0.03 micromol/L for Co, 0.39 micromol/L for Cr, 0.14 micromol/L for Ni, and 0.12 micromol/L for Pb.
    Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 01/2001; 60(8):677-86. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum reference values for Ba, B, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Li, Se, Sr, and Zn in 141 healthy Norwegians were determined. The trace element concentrations were determined by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry technique that we have recently validated. The reference intervals were established according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Also coverage intervals with coverage uncertainties were calculated according to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The population studied consisted of 69 men and 72 women of the ages 21-87 years. The effects of gender, age, smoking, and oral contraceptives on serum levels of trace elements were investigated. Median concentrations of the different trace elements in (micromol/l) were as follows: Ba (0.44), B (1.50), Cd (0.004), Cu (17.1), Fe (21.4), Li (0.06), Mn (0.003), Se (1.26), Sr (0.17), and Zn (13.3). An increase in serum Ba and Sr was detected with age. These metals and Se were also significantly higher in women over 50 years of age in comparison to younger women. Women had higher serum Cu than men and those on oral contraceptives had higher serum Cu and Fe. Serum B tended to increase with age, while it was significantly reduced with smoking.
    Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 09/2000; 38(8):765-72. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of nutritional deficiencies and infections in the development of anaemia in pregnant Nepali women. Case-control study. Setting: Patan Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. A sub-sample (n=479) of all pregnant women (n=2856) coming for their first antenatal visit in a 12 month period, 1994-1995. Women who had already received any micronutrient supplementation (n=82), and those whose serum samples showed macroscopic haemolysis (n=7) were excluded. The remaining women (n=390) were included in the statistical analysis. They were divided into three groups; a non-anaemic control group, haematocrit (Hct)>33% (n=82), and two case-groups: moderately anaemic, Hct 25-33% (n=254), and severely anaemic, Hct<25% (n=54). We found high prevalences of nutritional deficiencies and intestinal infections, both among cases and controls. The prevalence of low s-ferritin was high, especially among the severely anaemic women (55.6%). In a multiple logistic regression model, the presence of low s-vitamin A, elevated s-C-reactive protein or hookworm infection was associated with a significantly increased risk of severe anaemia. The adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 8.38 (1.99, 35.30), 4.91 (1.22, 19.67) and 5.43 (1.20, 24.61), respectively. In addition to the present routine iron and folate supplementation to pregnant Nepali women, vitamin A supplementation needs to be considered. Prevention and treatment of infections should, together with dietary advice, be emphasized more strongly in the antenatal care. Sponsorship: The Norwegian Research Council and the Norwegian Universities Committee for Development, Research and Education. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 3-8
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2000; 54(1):3-8. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The object of the study was to evaluate blood pressure, insulin and glucose metabolism, and serum lipids in hypertensive patients, during 8 weeks on a moderately salt-restricted diet. A double-blind, cross-over study was conducted with hypertensive patients following a moderately salt-restricted diet. Patients were randomised to sodium capsules in one period and placebo capsules during the other period. After a 1-month run-in period, 13 males and three females with mild to moderate essential hypertension (mean age 50 years) complied with a salt-reduced diet. They were randomized to a salt-supplemented group (5 capsules of 10 mmol sodium per capsule) or a salt reduced diet group (5 capsules of placebo) with cross-over after 8 weeks. Serum insulin, insulin C-peptide, and glucose were measured, fasting and 30 min after a 75-g glucose load. Serum lipids and lipoproteins constituting an atherogenic index were measured, along with blood pressure and 24-h urine excretion of sodium and chloride. Non-significant reductions of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (4 mmHg, p = 0.06, and 2 mmHg, p = 0.13, respectively) were observed during the reduced-salt period. The changes observed for fasting insulin, insulin C-peptide, glucose, serum lipids and the atherogenic index were also non-significant. It is concluded that moderate salt restriction seems not to adversely influence insulin resistance or serum lipids in hypertensive patients.
    Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 11/1997; 57(6):501-5. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of low dose iron supplementation with and without a heme component, prescribed for women in the second half of pregnancy. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Thirty-one women received a daily dose of 27 mg elemental iron in a product containing both heme iron and non-heme iron (Hemofer), 30 women received the same dose as pure non-heme iron with vitamin C (Collets jern med vitamin C), and 29 women received placebo. A double dummy technique was used to mask tablets. The women were tested for red cell indices and iron status markers (s-ferritin, s-iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity and erythrocyte protoporphyrin) throughout pregnancy and 8 and 24 weeks postpartum. The results were analyzed according to the 'intention to treat' principle. The hematological effects were equal in the two treatment groups. 25% of the supplemented women fell below 110 g/l in Hb vs 52% in the placebo group (p < 0.05); none fell below 100 g/l in the supplemented groups, 14% in the placebo group. Iron status was significantly better for all measured parameters in the heme iron group compared to placebo at the end of pregnancy. Differences between the other groups were only shown for some parameters, probably due to the small sample size. In the heme iron group there were fewer women with empty iron stores postpartum than at the start of pregnancy (from 14% to 8%), in the non-heme iron group there was a significant increase (from 3% to 27%), and in the placebo group the percentage of women with empty iron stores was more than doubled (from 21% to 52%). A daily dose of 27 mg elemental iron, containing a heme component, given in the second half of pregnancy, prevents depletion of iron stores after birth in most women. An equivalent dose of pure inorganic iron seems less effective, but the sample size in this study was too small to demonstrate significant differences between the two treatment groups.
    Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 10/1997; 76(9):822-8. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • B J Bolann, R J Ulvik
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species, formed by incomplete reduction of molecular oxygen, may cause oxidative stress in the organism and be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases. A number of anti-oxidants are necessary to counteract the harmful effects. Some antioxidants are enzymes which catalyze the breakdown of reactive oxygen species, some act by chelating transition metals, which makes them non-reactive, while chain-breaking antioxidants act by halting the cascade of free radical reactions. The effect of redox active antioxidants depends on their redox status. In some circumstances antioxidants can have pro-oxidant effects. The mechanisms may be reductive release of metals, accumulation of the oxidized form of redox active antioxidants, or merely an unfavourable equilibrium between various antioxidants. At present there is no basis for recommending the prophylactic use of commercially produced antioxidants. In particular, the optimal combinations of antioxidants are not yet known. If the aim is to improve the antioxidant defence of the body, our advice is still a mixed diet and regular physical activity.
    Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening 06/1997; 117(13):1928-32.

Publication Stats

465 Citations
92.11 Total Impact Points


  • 1990–2009
    • University of Bergen
      • • Institute of Medicine
      • • Surgical Research Laboratory
      Bergen, Hordaland Fylke, Norway
  • 1994–2007
    • Haukeland University Hospital
      • Laboratory for Clinical Biochemistry
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway