Mark C Udey

National Cancer Institute (USA), Maryland, United States

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Publications (107)710.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation and by an influx of inflammatory cells. The mechanisms underlying psoriasis in humans and in mouse models are poorly understood, although evidence strongly points to crucial contributions of IL-17 cytokines, which signal via the obligatory adaptor CIKS/Act1. Here we identify critical roles of CIKS/Act1-mediated signaling in imiquimod-induced psoriatic inflammation, a mouse model that shares features with the human disease. We found that IL-17 cytokines/CIKS-mediated signaling into keratinocytes is essential for neutrophilic microabscess formation and contributes to hyperproliferation and markedly attenuated differentiation of keratinocytes, at least in part via direct effects. In contrast, IL-17 cytokines/CIKS-mediated signaling into nonkeratinocytes, particularly into dermal fibroblasts, promotes cellular infiltration and, importantly, leads to enhanced the accumulation of IL-17-producing γδT cells in skin, comprising a positive feed-forward mechanism. Thus, CIKS-mediated signaling is central in the development of both dermal and epidermal hallmarks of psoriasis, inducing distinct pathologies via target cell-specific effects. CIKS-mediated signaling represents a potential therapeutic target in psoriasis.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The glycoprotein milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor factor 8 (MFG-E8) is expressed in several tissues and mediates diverse homeostatic functions. However, whether it plays a role in bone homeostasis has not been established. In this study, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that osteoclasts express and are regulated by MFG-E8. Bone marrow-derived osteoclast precursors from MFG-E8-deficient (Mfge8(-/-)) mice underwent increased receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis, leading to enhanced resorption pit formation compared with wild-type controls. Consistently, exogenously added MFG-E8 inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis from mouse or human osteoclast precursors. Upon induction of experimental periodontitis, an oral inflammatory disease characterized by loss of bone support of the dentition, Mfge8(-/-) mice exhibited higher numbers of osteoclasts and more bone loss than did wild-type controls. Accordingly, local microinjection of anti-MFG-E8 mAb exacerbated periodontal bone loss in wild-type mice. Conversely, microinjection of MFG-E8 inhibited bone loss in experimental mouse periodontitis. In comparison with wild-type controls, Mfge8(-/-) mice also experienced >60% more naturally occurring chronic periodontal bone loss. In conclusion, MFG-E8 is a novel homeostatic regulator of osteoclasts that could be exploited therapeutically to treat periodontitis and perhaps other immunological disorders associated with inflammatory bone loss.
    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Our research group recently demonstrated that pericytes are major sources of the secreted glycoprotein and integrin ligand lactadherin (MFG-E8) in B16 melanoma tumors, and that MFG-E8 promotes angiogenesis via enhanced PDGF-PDGFRβ signaling mediated by integrin-growth factor receptor crosstalk. However, sources of MFG-E8 and its possible roles in skin physiology are not well characterized. The objective of this study was to characterize the involvement of MFG-E8 in skin wound healing. In the dermis of normal murine and human skin, accumulations of MFG-E8 were found around CD31(+) blood vessels, and MFG-E8 colocalized with PDGFRβ(+), αSMA(+), and NG2(+) pericytes. MFG-E8 protein and mRNA levels were elevated in the dermis during full-thickness wound healing in mice. MFG-E8 was diffusely present in granulation tissue and was localized around blood vessels. Wound healing was delayed in MFG-E8 knockout mice, compared with the wild type, and myofibroblast and vessel numbers in wound areas were significantly reduced in knockout mice. Inhibition of MFG-E8 production with siRNA attenuated the formation of capillary-like structures in vitro. Expression of MFG-E8 in fibrous human granulation tissue with scant blood vessels was less than that in granulation tissue with many blood vessels. These findings suggest that MFG-E8 promotes cutaneous wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis.
    The American journal of pathology. 05/2014;
  • Journal of Investigative Dermatology 09/2013; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: EpCAM (CD326) is a surface glycoprotein expressed by invasive carcinomas and some epithelia. Herein we report that EpCAM regulates the composition and function of tight junctions (TJ). EpCAM accumulated on lateral interfaces of human colon carcinoma and normal intestinal epithelial cells, but did not co-localize with TJ. Knockdown of EpCAM in T84 and Caco-2 cells using shRNAs led to changes in morphology and adhesiveness. TJ formed readily after EpCAM-knockdown, acquisition of trans-epithelial electroresistance (TEER) was enhanced and TJ showed increased resistance to disruption by calcium chelation. Preparative immunoprecipitation demonstrated that EpCAM bound tightly to claudin-7. Co-immunoprecipitation documented associations of EpCAM with claudin-7 and claudin-1, but not claudin-2 or claudin-4. Claudin-1 associated with claudin-7 in co-transfection experiments, and claudin-7 was required for association of claudin-1 with EpCAM. EpCAM knockdown resulted in decreases in claudin-7 and claudin-1 protein that were reversed with lysosome inhibitors. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that claudin-7 and claudin-1 continually trafficked into lysosomes. Although EpCAM knockdown decreased claudin-1 and claudin-7 protein levels overall, accumulations of claudin-1 and claudin-7 in TJ increased. Physical interactions between EpCAM and claudins were required for claudin stabilization. These findings suggest that EpCAM modulates adhesion and TJ function by regulating intracellular localization and degradation of selected claudins.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Smoothened antagonists directly target the genetic basis of human basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common of all cancers. These drugs inhibit BCC growth, but they are not curative. Although BCC cells are monomorphic, immunofluorescence microscopy reveals a complex hierarchical pattern of growth with inward differentiation along hair follicle lineages. Most BCC cells express the transcription factor KLF4 and are committed to terminal differentiation. A small CD200(+) CD45(-) BCC subpopulation that represents 1.63 ± 1.11% of all BCC cells resides in small clusters at the tumor periphery. By using reproducible in vivo xenograft growth assays, we determined that tumor initiating cell frequencies approximate one per 1.5 million unsorted BCC cells. The CD200(+) CD45(-) BCC subpopulation recreated BCC tumor growth in vivo with typical histological architecture and expression of sonic hedgehog-regulated genes. Reproducible in vivo BCC growth was achieved with as few as 10,000 CD200(+) CD45(-) cells, representing ∼1,500-fold enrichment. CD200(-) CD45(-) BCC cells were unable to form tumors. These findings establish a platform to study the effects of Smoothened antagonists on BCC tumor initiating cell and also suggest that currently available anti-CD200 therapy be considered, either as monotherapy or an adjunct to Smoothened antagonists, in the treatment of inoperable BCC.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Overexpression of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) in mouse epidermis causes cutaneous inflammation and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. Here we examined acute effects of TGFβ1 overproduction by keratinocytes on skin dendritic cells (DCs). TGFβ1 induction for 2 and 4 days increased the numbers and CD86 expression of B220(+) plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and CD207(+)CD103(+), CD207(-)CD103(-)CD11b(+), and CD207(-)CD103(-)CD11b(-) dermal DCs (dDCs) in skin-draining lymph nodes (SDLNs). The dermis of TGFβ1-overexpressing mice had significantly more pDCs, CD207(+)CD103(+) dDCs, and CD207(-)CD11b(+) dDCs in the absence of increased dermal proliferation. Application of dye, tetramethyl rhodamine iso-thiocyanate (TRITC), in dibutylpthalate (DBP) solution after TGFβ1 induction increased the numbers of TRITC(+)CD207(-) dDCs in SDLNs, and augmented TRITC/DBP-induced Langerhans cell (LC) migration 72 hours post TRITC treatment. Consistent with this, LC migration was increased in vitro by TGFβ1 overexpression in skin explants and by exogenous TGFβ1 in culture media. Transient TGFβ1 induction during DNFB sensitization increased contact hypersensitivity responses by 1.5-fold. Thus, elevated epidermal TGFβ1 alone is sufficient to alter homeostasis of multiple cutaneous DC subsets, and enhance DC migration and immune responses to contact sensitizers. These results highlight a role for keratinocyte-derived TGFβ1 in DC trafficking and in the initiation of skin inflammation.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 26 July 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.241.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 07/2012; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Langerhans cells (LCs) are epidermal dendritic cells with incompletely understood origins that associate with hair follicles for unknown reasons. Here we show that in response to external stress, mouse hair follicles recruited Gr-1(hi) monocyte-derived precursors of LCs whose epidermal entry was dependent on the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR6, whereas the chemokine receptor CCR8 inhibited the recruitment of LCs. Distinct hair-follicle regions had differences in their expression of ligands for CCR2 and CCR6. The isthmus expressed the chemokine CCL2; the infundibulum expressed the chemokine CCL20; and keratinocytes in the bulge produced the chemokine CCL8, which is the ligand for CCR8. Thus, distinct hair-follicle keratinocyte subpopulations promoted or inhibited repopulation with LCs via differences in chemokine production, a feature also noted in humans. Pre-LCs failed to enter hairless skin in mice or humans, which establishes hair follicles as portals for LCs.
    Nature Immunology 06/2012; 13(8):744-52. · 26.20 Impact Factor
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    Mark C Udey
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic contact dermatitis is a common disorder that has fascinated dermatologists and immunologists for decades. Extensive studies of contact sensitivity reactions in mice established a mechanistic paradigm that has been revisited in recent years, and the involvement of Langerhans cells (LCs), a population of epidermal dendritic cells, in immune responses to epicutaneously applied antigens has been questioned. In this issue of the JCI, Gomez de Agüero et al. describe an elegant series of experiments that implicate LCs in tolerance induction, positioning these cells as key regulators of immunologic barrier function.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 04/2012; 122(5):1602-5. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After activation, Langerhans cells (LC), a distinct subpopulation of epidermis-resident dendritic cells, migrate from skin to lymph nodes where they regulate the magnitude and quality of immune responses initiated by epicutaneously applied antigens. Modulation of LC-keratinocyte adhesion is likely to be central to regulation of LC migration. LC express high levels of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM; CD326), a cell-surface protein that is characteristic of some epithelia and many carcinomas and that has been implicated in intercellular adhesion and metastasis. To gain insight into EpCAM function in a physiologic context in vivo, we generated conditional knockout mice with EpCAM-deficient LC and characterized them. Epidermis from these mice contained increased numbers of LC with normal levels of MHC and costimulatory molecules and T-cell-stimulatory activity in vitro. Migration of EpCAM-deficient LC from skin explants was inhibited, but chemotaxis of dissociated LC was not. Correspondingly, the ability of contact allergen-stimulated, EpCAM-deficient LC to exit epidermis in vivo was delayed, and strikingly fewer hapten-bearing LC subsequently accumulated in lymph nodes. Attenuated migration of EpCAM-deficient LC resulted in enhanced contact hypersensitivity responses as previously described in LC-deficient mice. Intravital microscopy revealed reduced translocation and dendrite motility in EpCAM-deficient LC in vivo in contact allergen-treated mice. These results conclusively link EpCAM expression to LC motility/migration and LC migration to immune regulation. EpCAM appears to promote LC migration from epidermis by decreasing LC-keratinocyte adhesion and may modulate intercellular adhesion and cell movement within in epithelia during development and carcinogenesis in an analogous fashion.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2012; 109(15):E889-97. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MFG-E8 (also called lactadherin and SED1) is a secreted glycoprotein that has been previously implicated in enhancement of vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent angiogenesis. Major sources of MFG-E8 in vivo and precise mechanisms of MFG-E8 action remain undetermined. The objective of this study was to identify important sources of MFG-E8 in vivo and further elucidate the role(s) of MFG-E8 in the regulation of angiogenesis. We used knockout mice and anti-MFG-E8 antibodies to study MFG-E8 function in vivo. In melanomas and in retinas of mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy, MFG-E8 colocalized with pericytes rather than endothelial cells, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β+ pericytes/pericyte precursors purified from tumors contained large amounts of MFG-E8 mRNA. Tumor- and retinopathy-associated angiogenesis was diminished in MFG-E8 knockout mice, and pericyte coverage of neovessels was reduced. Inhibition of MFG-E8 production by 10T1/2 cells (surrogate pericyte/pericyte precursors) using small interfering RNAs and short hairpin RNAs, or inhibition of MFG-E8 action with some anti-MFG-E8 antibodies, selectively attenuated migration in vitro. Significantly, the anti-MFG-E8 antibodies that inhibited 10T1/2 cell migration in vitro also inhibited pathological angiogenesis in vivo. These studies strongly implicate MFG-E8 in pericyte/pericyte precursor function and indicate that MFG-E8-directed therapeutics may merit further development.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 09/2011; 31(9):2024-34. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pericytes/pericyte precursors produce milk fat globule-associated protein with epidermal growth factor and factor VIII-like domains (MFG-E8) in vivo, and this α(v) integrin ligand enhances angiogenesis in tumors and in oxygen-induced retinopathy in mice. Inhibition of MFG-E8 production or function attenuates platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced migration of pericyte/pericyte precursor-like 10T1/2 cells in vitro. Herein, we describe mechanisms by which MFG-E8 modulates PDGF-BB:PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) signaling in 10T1/2 cells. Small interfering RNA depletion of MFG-E8 from 10T1/2 cells or antibody inhibition of MFG-E8 action enhanced PDGF-BB-dependent degradation of PDGFRβ and attenuated signaling. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed transient association of MFG-E8 with PDGFRβ in PDGF-BB-treated 10T1/2 cells and reduced PDGFRβ-focal adhesion kinase association in MFG-E8-depleted cells. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that MFG-E8 binding to 10T1/2 cells was RGD motif and α(v) dependent but PDGF-BB treatment independent, whereas colocalization of MFG-E8 with PDGFRβ was enhanced by PDGF-BB. Ubiquitination of PDGFRβ was also increased in MFG-E8 small interfering RNA-transfected cells. Integrin α(v)-bound MFG-E8 associates with PDGFRβ and focal adhesion kinase after PDGF-BB treatment, results in cell surface retention of PDGFRβ, delays receptor degradation, potentiates downstream signaling, and enhances migration of 10T1/2 cells. MFG-E8 may promote angiogenesis, in part, via cell autonomous actions on pericytes or pericyte precursors that result in enhanced PDGF-BB:PDGFRβ signaling mediated via integrin-growth factor receptor cross-talk.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 08/2011; 31(11):2653-64. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 08/2011; 24(5):972-4. · 5.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In an effort to understand the role of Distal-less 3 (Dlx3) in cutaneous biology and pathophysiology, we generated and characterized a mouse model with epidermal ablation of Dlx3. K14cre;Dlx3(Kin/f) mice exhibited epidermal hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes. Results from subsequent analyses revealed cutaneous inflammation that featured accumulation of IL-17-producing CD4(+) T, CD8(+) T, and γδ T cells in the skin and lymph nodes of K14cre;Dlx3(Kin/f) mice. The gene expression signature of K14cre;Dlx3(Kin/f) skin shared features with lesional psoriatic skin, and Dlx3 expression was markedly and selectively decreased in psoriatic skin. Interestingly, cultured Dlx3 null keratinocytes triggered cytokine production that is potentially linked to inflammatory responses in K14cre;Dlx3(Kin/f) mice. Thus, Dlx3 ablation in epidermis is linked to altered epidermal differentiation, barrier development, and IL-17-associated skin inflammation. This model provides a platform that will allow the systematic exploration of the contributions of keratinocytes to cutaneous inflammation.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2011; 108(28):11566-71. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    Mark C Udey
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 06/2011; 131(6):1194-5. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Langerhans cells (LCs) are distinct dendritic cells (DCs) that populate stratified squamous epithelia. Despite extensive studies, our understanding of LC development is incomplete. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) is required for LC development, but other epidermis-derived influences may also be important. Recently, EpCAM (CD326) has been identified as a cell surface protein discriminating LCs from Langerin(+) dermal DCs and other DCs in the skin. EpCAM is a known transcriptional target of the Wnt signaling pathway. We hypothesized that intraepidermal Wnt signaling might influence LC development. Addition of Wnt3A into cultures of bone-marrow-derived cells in combination with TGFβ1, GM-CSF, and M-CSF resulted in increased (33%; P<0.05) accumulation of EpCAM(+) DCs. In contrast, addition of the Wnt antagonist dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk1) decreased the number of EpCAM(+) DCs (21%; P<0.05). We used K14-KRM1; K5-rtTA; tetO-Dkk1 triple-transgenic and K5-rtTA; tetO-Dkk1 double-transgenic mice to test the in vivo relevance of our in vitro findings. Feeding doxycycline to nursing mothers induced expression of Dkk1 in the skin of transgenic pups, causing an obvious hair phenotype. Expression of Dkk1 reduced LC proliferation (40%; P<0.01) on P7, decreased LC densities (26%; P<0.05) on P14, and decreased EpCAM expression intensities on LCs as well (33%). In aggregate, these data suggest that Wnt signaling in skin influences LC development.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 05/2011; 131(9):1861-8. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The success of a non-live vaccine requires improved formulation and adjuvant selection to generate robust T cell immunity following immunization. Here, using protein linked to a TLR7/8 agonist (conjugate vaccine), we investigated the functional properties of vaccine formulation, the cytokines, and the DC subsets required to induce protective multifunctional T cell immunity in vivo. The conjugate vaccine required aggregation of the protein to elicit potent Th1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Remarkably, the conjugate vaccine, through aggregation of the protein and activation of TLR7 in vivo, led to an influx of migratory DCs to the LN and increased antigen uptake by several resident and migratory DC subsets, with the latter effect strongly influenced by vaccine-induced type I IFN. Ex vivo migratory CD8-DEC205+CD103-CD326- langerin-negative dermal DCs were as potent in cross-presenting antigen to naive CD8+ T cells as CD11c+CD8+ DCs. Moreover, these cells also influenced Th1 CD4+ T cell priming. In summary, we propose a model in which broad-based T cell-mediated responses upon vaccination can be maximized by codelivery of aggregated protein and TLR7/8 agonist, which together promote optimal antigen acquisition and presentation by multiple DC subsets in the context of critical proinflammatory cytokines.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 05/2011; 121(5):1782-96. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cell (DC)-derived IL-1α/β plays a critical role in the induction of T helper type 1 (Th1)-dependent immunity against Leishmania. DCs from susceptible BALB/c mice produce less IL-1α/β when compared with resistant C57BL/6 mice, contributing to aberrant Th2 development and ultimate death of infected mice. We have extended our studies of the role of IL-1 in leishmaniasis using IL-1RA(-/-) BALB/c mice that are characterized by upregulated IL-1 receptor signaling. Unexpectedly, infection of IL-1RA(-/-) mice led to significantly worsened disease outcome with larger lesions, dramatically higher parasite burdens, and decreased IFN-γ production by antigen-specific T cells. We determined that IL-1RA(-/-) DCs were more mature already in the steady state, exhibited less phagocytotic capacity, and IL-12 production in response to various stimuli was impaired. Our data suggest that in addition to effects on Th education, IL-1α/β signaling also modulates DC homeostasis with increased signaling, leading to downmodulation of IL-12 synthesis and worsened disease outcome after infection with Leishmania major. Thus, the complex regulation of various members of the IL-1 cytokine family mediated through effects on both DCs and T cells critically contributes to disease outcome against this important human pathogen.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 04/2011; 131(8):1650-9. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In murine leishmaniasis, healing is mediated by IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Thus, an efficacious vaccine should induce Th1 and Tc1 cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with exogenous proteins primarily induce strong CD4-dependent immunity; induction of CD8 responses has proven to be difficult. We evaluated the immunogenicity of fusion proteins comprising the protein transduction domain of HIV-1 TAT and the Leishmania antigen LACK (Leishmania homolog of receptors for activated C kinase), as TAT-fusion proteins facilitate major histocompatibility complex class I-dependent antigen presentation. In vitro, TAT-LACK-pulsed DCs induced stronger proliferation of Leishmania-specific CD8(+) T cells compared with DCs incubated with LACK alone. Vaccination with TAT-LACK-pulsed DCs or fusion proteins plus adjuvant in vivo significantly improved disease outcome in Leishmania major-infected mice and was superior to vaccination with DCs treated with LACK alone. Vaccination with DC+TAT-LACK resulted in stronger proliferation of CD8(+) T cells when compared with immunization with DC+LACK. Upon depletion of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells, TAT-LACK-mediated protection was lost. TAT-LACK-pulsed IL-12p40-deficient DCs did not promote protection in vivo. In summary, these data show that TAT-fusion proteins are superior in activating Leishmania-specific Tc1 cells when compared with antigen alone and suggest that IL-12-dependent preferential induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) cells promotes significant protection against this important human pathogen.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 11/2010; 130(11):2602-10. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease affecting ∼12 million people. Control of infection (e.g. in C57BL/6 mice) results from IL-12-dependent production of IFNγ by Th1/Tc1 cells. In contrast, BALB/c mice succumb to infection because of preferential Th2-type cytokine induction. Infected dendritic cells (DC) represent important sources of IL-12. Genetically determined differences in DC IL-1α/β production contribute to disease outcome. Whereas the course of disease was not dramatically altered in IL-1RI(-/-) mice, local administration of IL-1α to infected C57BL/6 mice improved disease outcome. To definitively elucidate the involvement of IL-1 in immunity against leishmaniasis, we now utilized IL-1α/β-double-deficient C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 mice are believed to be a good surrogate model for human, self limited cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Leishmania major-infected IL-1α/β(-/-) mice were resistant to experimental CL comparable to controls. In addition, DC-based vaccination against leishmaniasis in C57BL/6 mice was independent of IL-1. Thus, in Leishmania-resistant C57BL/6 mice, IL-1 signalling is dispensable for protection.
    Experimental Dermatology 10/2010; 20(1):76-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
710.55 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2014
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Dermatology Branch
      Maryland, United States
  • 1991–2014
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Branch of Dermatology
      • • Center for Cancer Research
      Maryland, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Medicine
      Saint Louis, MO, United States
  • 2002–2011
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • Department of Dermatology
      Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
  • 2008–2010
    • NCI-Frederick
      Maryland, United States
  • 1998
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases (LPD)
      Maryland, United States