Xiao-Ou Shu

Gateway-Vanderbilt Cancer Treatment Center, Clarksville, Tennessee, United States

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Publications (408)2745.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: China has the largest population of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients; however few etiological studies of PD have been conducted in China. The Shanghai Women's Health Study recruited 74,941 women in urban Shanghai, aged 40 to 70, from 1996 to 2000. Self-reported PD cases were invited for a neurological examination and diagnoses were made by a movement disorder specialist. This cohort had very few smokers (2.7%), alcohol drinkers (2.3%), and post-menopausal hormone users (4.3%); however, tea drinking (29.9%) and exposure to tobacco smoke from husbands (61.8%) were common. A total of 301 participants reported PD diagnosis during the follow-up. The diagnosis was confirmed in 76 (57%) of the 133 clinically examined patients. An additional 19 (53%) PD cases were identified out of 36 participants who self-confirmed the diagnosis and provided a history on PD symptoms and treatments. As expected, increasing age was strongly associated with PD risk. Further, PD risk appears to be inversely associated with exposures to second-hand tobacco smoke from husbands and tea drinking, and positively with education, although none of these reached statistical significance. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.4-1.1) for participants whose husbands were current smokers at baseline and 0.8 (0.5-1.3) for ever tea-drinkers. Compared with primary education or lower, the age-adjusted OR was 1.3 (0.7-2.4) for middle school and 1.6 (1.0-2.7) for high school or above. PD research in this unique cohort is feasible and, with extended follow-up, will allow for prospective PD etiological research in China. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2015.08.020 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phthalate esters are man-made chemicals commonly used as plasticizers and solvents, and humans may be exposed through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Little is known about predictors of phthalate exposure, particularly in Asian countries. Because phthalates are rapidly metabolized and excreted from the body following exposure, it is important to evaluate whether phthalate metabolites measured at a single point in time can reliably rank exposures to phthalates over a period of time. We examined the concentrations and predictors of phthalate metabolite concentrations among 50 middle-aged women and 50 men from two Shanghai cohorts, enrolled in 1997-2000 and 2002-2006, respectively. We assessed the reproducibility of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in three spot samples per participant taken several years apart (mean interval between first and third sample was 7.5years [women] or 2.9years [men]), using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and intra-class correlation coefficients. We detected ten phthalate metabolites in at least 50% of individuals for two or more samples. Participant sex, age, menopausal status, education, income, body mass index, consumption of bottled water, recent intake of medication, and time of day of collection of the urine sample were associated with concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites. The reproducibility of an individual's urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites across several years was low, with all intra-class correlation coefficients and most Spearman rank correlation coefficients ≤0.3. Only mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, had a Spearman rank correlation coefficient ≥0.4 among men, suggesting moderate reproducibility. These findings suggest that a single spot urine sample is not sufficient to rank exposures to phthalates over several years in an adult urban Chinese population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Environment international 08/2015; 84:94-106. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2015.07.003 · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hormone therapy has been shown to increase risk of ischemic stroke in women. Plant-derived estrogens, particularly soy isoflavones, are known to have some estrogenic effects and have been marketed as natural alternatives to hormone therapy. Concerns have been raised about whether high isoflavone exposure may be related to ischemic stroke risk as well. We examined the dietary intake of isoflavones and the urinary excretion of isoflavonoids in relation to risk of ischemic stroke in women. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 66,832 Chinese women (aged 40-70 y) who had no cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Usual dietary intakes were assessed via in-person interviews with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Incident strokes were ascertained during follow-up home visits and confirmed by medical records. We also conducted a nested case-control study in postmenopausal women who had never used hormone therapy, including 1422 incident ischemic stroke cases and 1422 controls individually matched by age, date and time of urine sample collection, time since last meal, and use of antibiotics. Urinary isoflavonoids were measured with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. During a mean follow-up of 10 y, 3110 incident ischemic strokes were verified. Dietary isoflavone intake was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke; multivariable-adjusted HRs from lowest to highest quintiles were 1.00, 1.05, 1.10, 1.11, and 1.24, respectively (95% CI: 1.08, 1.42; P-trend = 0.002). In the case-control study, a similar positive association was observed for dietary isoflavones, but no significant associations were shown for the urinary isoflavonoid concentration [OR: 1.01 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.32) for comparison of extreme quintiles]. A habitually high intake of soy isoflavones may be associated with a modest but significant increase in risk of ischemic stroke in women. However, no association was shown for the urinary excretion of isoflavonoids. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2015; DOI:10.3945/ajcn.115.111591 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963-2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    American journal of epidemiology 08/2015; DOI:10.1093/aje/kwv089 · 4.98 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 08/2015; 75(15 Supplement):861-861. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-861 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have so far reported 12 loci associated with serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. We hypothesized that some of these loci function through nearby transcription factor (TF) genes and that putative target genes of these TFs as identified by co-expression may also be enriched for additional EOC risk associations. We selected TF genes within 1 Mb of the top signal at the 12 genome-wide significant risk loci. Mutual information, a form of correlation, was used to build networks of genes strongly co-expressed with each selected TF gene in the unified microarray data set of 489 serous EOC tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genes represented in this data set were subsequently ranked using a gene-level test based on results for germline SNPs from a serous EOC GWAS meta-analysis (2,196 cases/4,396 controls). Gene set enrichment analysis identified six networks centered on TF genes (HOXB2, HOXB5, HOXB6, HOXB7 at 17q21.32 and HOXD1, HOXD3 at 2q31) that were significantly enriched for genes from the risk-associated end of the ranked list (P<0.05 and FDR<0.05). These results were replicated (P<0.05) using an independent association study (7,035 cases/21,693 controls). Genes underlying enrichment in the six networks were pooled into a combined network. We identified a HOX-centric network associated with serous EOC risk containing several genes with known or emerging roles in serous EOC development. Network analysis integrating large, context-specific data sets has the potential to offer mechanistic insights into cancer susceptibility and prioritize genes for experimental characterization. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 07/2015; DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-1270 · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer is caused by rare pathogenic mutations and common genetic variants that contribute to familial risk. Here we report the results of a two-stage association study with 18,299 cases of colorectal cancer and 19,656 controls, with follow-up of the most statistically significant genetic loci in 4,725 cases and 9,969 controls from two Asian consortia. We describe six new susceptibility loci reaching a genome-wide threshold of P<5.0E-08. These findings provide additional insight into the underlying biological mechanisms of colorectal cancer and demonstrate the scientific value of large consortia-based genetic epidemiology studies.
    Nature Communications 07/2015; 6:7138. DOI:10.1038/ncomms8138 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of gastric cancer have reported differences in single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations for tumour subtypes, particularly when divided by location into the gastric cardia versus the non-cardia. Here we present results for a GWAS using 2350 East Asian gastric cancer cases divided as 1189 gastric cardia and 1027 gastric non-cardia cases and 2708 controls. We also included up to 3042 cardia cases, 4359 non-cardia cases and 7548 controls for replication from two Chinese studies and one Korean study. From the GWAS, we selected 12 top SNPs for each gastric cancer subtype, 4 top SNPs for total gastric cancer and 1 SNP in MUC1 for replication testing. We observed genome-wide significant associations for rs10074991 in PRKAA1 at 5p13.1 for cardia (p=7.36×10(-12)) and non-cardia cancers (p=2.42×10(-23)) with per allele OR (95% CI) for the combined endpoint of 0.80 (0.77 to 0.83). At 6p21.1, rs2294693 near UNC5CL was significantly associated with gastric non-cardia cancer risk (p=2.50×10(-8)), with OR (95% CI) of 1.18 (1.12 to 1.26), but there was only a nominal association for cardia cancer (p=1.47×10(-2)). We also confirmed a previously reported association for rs4072037 in MUC1 with p=6.59×10(-8) for total gastric cancer and similar estimates for cardia and non-cardia cancers. Three SNPs in PSCA previously reported to be associated with gastric non-cardia cancer showed no apparent association for cardia cancer. Our results suggest that associations for SNPs with gastric cancer show some different results by tumour location in the stomach. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Gut 06/2015; DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309340 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Defective cellular transport processes can lead to aberrant accumulation of trace elements, iron, small molecules and hormones in the cell, which in turn may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species, promoting DNA damage and aberrant expression of key regulatory cancer genes. As DNA damage and uncontrolled proliferation are hallmarks of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we hypothesized that inherited variation in the cellular transport genes contributes to EOC risk. In total, DNA samples were obtained from 14,525 case subjects with invasive EOC and from 23,447 controls from 43 sites in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Two hundred seventy nine SNPs, representing 131 genes, were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium iSelect BeadChip as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNP analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression under a log-additive model, and the FDR q<0.2 was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. The most significant evidence of an association for all invasive cancers combined and for the serous subtype was observed for SNP rs17216603 in the iron transporter gene HEPH (invasive: OR = 0.85, P = 0.00026; serous: OR = 0.81, P = 0.00020); this SNP was also associated with the borderline/low malignant potential (LMP) tumors (P = 0.021). Other genes significantly associated with EOC histological subtypes (p<0.05) included the UGT1A (endometrioid), SLC25A45 (mucinous), SLC39A11 (low malignant potential), and SERPINA7 (clear cell carcinoma). In addition, 1785 SNPs in six genes (HEPH, MGST1, SERPINA, SLC25A45, SLC39A11 and UGT1A) were imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project and examined for association with INV EOC in white-European subjects. The most significant imputed SNP was rs117729793 in SLC39A11 (per allele, OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.5-4.35, p = 5.66x10-4). These results, generated on a large cohort of women, revealed associations between inherited cellular transport gene variants and risk of EOC histologic subtypes.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0128106. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0128106 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies of occupational lead exposure have suggested increased risks of cancers of the stomach, lung, kidney, brain, and meninges; however, the totality of the evidence is inconsistent. We investigated the relationship between occupational lead exposure and cancer incidence of these five sites in two prospective cohorts in Shanghai, China. Annual job/industry-specific estimates of lead fume and lead dust exposure, derived from a statistical model combining expert lead intensity ratings with inspection measurements, were applied to the lifetime work histories of participants from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS; n=73,363) and the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS; n=61,379) to estimate cumulative exposure to lead fume and lead dust. These metrics were then combined into an overall occupational lead exposure variable. Cohort-specific relative hazard rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing exposed to unexposed participants were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression and combined by meta-analysis. The proportion of SWHS and SMHS participants with estimated occupational lead exposure was 8.9% and 6.9%, respectively. Lead exposure was positively associated with meningioma risk in women only (n= 38 unexposed and 9 exposed cases, RR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.0), particularly with above-median cumulative exposure (RR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.3, 7.4). However, all 12 meningioma cases among men were classified as unexposed to lead. We also observed non-significant associations with lead exposure for cancers of the kidney (n= 157 unexposed and 17 ever exposed cases; RR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.9, 2.3) and brain (n= 67 unexposed and 10 ever exposed cases; RR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.7, 4.8) overall. Our findings, though limited by small numbers of cases, suggest that lead is associated with risk of several cancers in women and men.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2015; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408171 · 7.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Consistently reported associations between hypertension and obesity and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk have largely come from studies in Western populations. These associations were examined in a case-control study nested in the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS, 1996-2000) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS, 2001-2006). Overall, 271 incident RCC cases (124 women, 147 men) were identified through 31 December 2011, and 2,693 controls were individually matched by sex, age, and calendar time at cohort enrollment, and menopausal status (for women). Participants completed a structured questionnaire by in-person interview at baseline, and conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Self-reported hypertension was associated with a significant 40 % increased risk of RCC among women and men (95 % CI 1.1, 1.9). Body mass index (BMI), modeled continuously, was associated with an elevated risk of RCC among men, with an OR of 1.5 (95 % CI 1.1, 2.0) per 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI, but not among women. Hypertension is independently associated with risk of RCC among both women and men in Shanghai, while overweight and obesity appear to be associated with risk of RCC in Chinese men only.
    Cancer Causes and Control 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10552-015-0611-7 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to provide data on the impact of known risk factors on endometrial cancer burden. Using data on 1199 endometrial cancer cases and 1212 frequency matched controls from a population-based case-control study carried out in urban Shanghai, China from 1997 to 2003, multivariable adjusted odds ratios were obtained from unconditional logistic regression analyses. Partial population-attributable risks were calculated and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a bootstrap method. An estimated 16.94% of endometrial cancer cases were attributed to overweight or obesity; 8.39% to meat intake; 5.45% to nonregular tea drinking; 5.23% to physical inactivity; and 1.77% to family history of endometrial, breast, or colorectal cancers. Overall, these risk factors accounted for 36.01% (95% confidence interval: 28.55-43.11%) of total endometrial cancer cases. Similar results were observed when analysis was restricted to postmenopausal women. Among modifiable lifestyle factors, overweight and obesity accounted for the largest proportion of endometrial cancer in the study population. Lifestyle alterations, such as maintenance of healthy weight, regular exercise, consumption of less meat, and tea drinking, could potentially reduce endometrial cancer by more than one-third.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 06/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000178 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated suggested metastasis-related microRNAs (miRNAs) for their associations with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In a cohort of 456 TNBC cases, we systematically evaluated 57 previously reported metastasis-related miRNAs in tumor tissue using the NanoString nCounter assay. Cox regression was applied to evaluate miRNA expression in association with DFS and OS. In vitro assays using the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231 were also conducted to validate epidemiological study findings. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 112 deaths and 97 recurrences were documented. High levels of miR-374b-5p, miR-218-5p, or miR-126-3p, or low levels of miR-27b-3p were independently associated with a favorable TNBC outcome (P < 0.01 for all). A composite score based on the levels of these four miRNAs was associated with DFS, with hazard ratios (95 % confidence interval) of 0.70 (0.43-1.15), 0.51 (0.29-0.90), and 0.18 (0.09-0.37) for the second, third, and fourth compared to the lowest quartile. Incorporating the miRNA score with known TNBC outcome predictors, i.e., age at diagnosis, tumor stage, and basal-like subtype, increased the C-index for predicting DFS from 0.68 to 0.74. Additionally, miR-126-3p was correlated with basal-like breast cancer, and miR-374b-5p modified the therapeutic effects of 5-Fluorouracil and Cyclophosphamide treatments in basal-like breast cancer patients. Restoring miR-126-3p, miR-218-5p, or miR-374b-5p, or inhibiting miR-27b-3p in MDA-MB-231 cells reduced cell proliferation. miR-374b-5p suppressed cell invasion and miR-218-5p inhibited colonization. This study provides strong evidence that the expression levels of miR-374b-5p, miR-27b-3p, miR-126-3p, and miR-218-5p in tumor tissues predict TNBC outcomes.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2015; 152(1). DOI:10.1007/s10549-015-3460-x · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prospective studies conducted in Western populations have suggested that alterations in soluble CD27 (sCD27) and soluble CD30 (sCD30), two markers indicative of B-cell activation, are associated with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Given that the characteristics of NHL in East Asia differ from the West, and mechanistic commonalities between these populations with respect to the role of intermediate endpoint biomarkers in lymphomagenesis have not been explored, we conducted a pooled nested case-control study from three prospective studies of Chinese men and women including 218 NHL cases and 218 individually matched controls. Compared to the lowest quartile, ORs (95% CIs) for the 2(nd) , 3(rd) , and 4(th) quartiles of sCD27 were 1.60 (0.83-3.09), 1.94 (0.98-3.83), and 4.45 (2.25-8.81), respectively (ptrend = 0.000005). The corresponding ORs for sCD30 were 1.74 (0.85-3.58), 1.86 (0.94-3.67), and 5.15 (2.62-10.12) (ptrend = 0.0000002). These associations remained statistically significant in individuals diagnosed with NHL 10 or more years after blood draw. Notably, the magnitude of the associations with NHL risk was very similar to those in Western populations in previous studies. These findings of the similar association between sCD27 or sCD30 and NHL risk across different populations support an important underlying mechanism of B-cell activation in lymphomagenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 UICC.
    International Journal of Cancer 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/ijc.29637 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified SNPs near ZNF365 at 10q21.2 that are associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density. To identify the most likely causal SNPs, we fine mapped the association signal by genotyping 428 SNPs across the region in 89,050 European and 12,893 Asian case and control subjects from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified four independent sets of correlated, highly trait-associated variants (iCHAVs), three of which were located within ZNF365. The most strongly risk-associated SNP, rs10995201 in iCHAV1, showed clear evidence of association with both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (OR = 0.85 [0.82-0.88]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.87 [0.82-0.91]) disease, and was also the SNP most strongly associated with percent mammographic density. iCHAV2 (lead SNP, chr10: 64,258,684:D) and iCHAV3 (lead SNP, rs7922449) were also associated with ER-positive (OR = 0.93 [0.91-0.95] and OR = 1.06 [1.03-1.09]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.95 [0.91-0.98] and OR = 1.08 [1.04-1.13]) disease. There was weaker evidence for iCHAV4, located 5' of ADO, associated only with ER-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.93 [0.90-0.96]). We found 12, 17, 18, and 2 candidate causal SNPs for breast cancer in iCHAVs 1-4, respectively. Chromosome conformation capture analysis showed that iCHAV2 interacts with the ZNF365 and NRBF2 (more than 600 kb away) promoters in normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells. Luciferase assays did not identify SNPs that affect transactivation of ZNF365, but identified a protective haplotype in iCHAV2, associated with silencing of the NRBF2 promoter, implicating this gene in the etiology of breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 06/2015; 97(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.05.002 · 10.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117574.].
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0129983. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0129983 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: No study to date has prospectively evaluated the association between pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake and lung cancer survival among women. This analysis included 547 incident lung cancer cases identified from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) during the follow-up period of 1997-2011. Dietary intake was assessed for all SWHS participants at enrollment and reassessed 2-3 years later. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Of the 547 lung cancer patients, 412 patients died during the follow-up. A total of 393 (95.4%) deaths from lung cancer were documented with median survival time of 10.3 months (interquartile range, 3.6-21.1 months). High cruciferous vegetables intake was significantly associated with improved lung cancer-specific survival after adjusting for all nonclinical prognostic factors (n = 547, HR = 0.69; 95%CI = 0.49-0.95; P trend = 0.02) for the highest versus lowest quartile. A slightly stronger association of cruciferous vegetables intake with lung cancer-specific survival was observed in analyses restricted to patients with known clinical prognostic factors (n = 331, HR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.41-0.97; P trend = 0.03) or never smokers (n = 308, HR = 0.58; 95%CI = 0.37-0.91; P trend = 0.02). In conclusion, pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake is associated with better survival of lung cancer in Chinese women.
    Scientific Reports 05/2015; 5:10306. DOI:10.1038/srep10306 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A healthy diet, as defined by the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), has been associated with lower morbidity and mortality from major chronic diseases in studies conducted in predominantly non-Hispanic white individuals. It is unknown whether this association can be extrapolated to African-Americans and low-income populations. We examined the associations of adherence to the DGA with total and cause-specific mortality in the Southern Community Cohort Study, a prospective study that recruited 84,735 American adults, aged 40-79 y, from 12 southeastern US states during 2002-2009, mostly through community health centers that serve low-income populations. The present analysis included 50,434 African-Americans, 24,054 white individuals, and 3,084 individuals of other racial/ethnic groups, among whom 42,759 participants had an annual household income less than US$15,000. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Adherence to the DGA was measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), 2010 and 2005 editions (HEI-2010 and HEI-2005, respectively). During a mean follow-up of 6.2 y, 6,906 deaths were identified, including 2,244 from cardiovascular disease, 1,794 from cancer, and 2,550 from other diseases. A higher HEI-2010 score was associated with lower risks of disease death, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73-0.86) for all-disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.94) for cardiovascular disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.95) for cancer mortality, and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88) for other disease mortality, when comparing the highest quintile with the lowest (all p-values for trend < 0.05). Similar inverse associations between HEI-2010 score and mortality were observed regardless of sex, race, and income (all p-values for interaction > 0.50). Several component scores in the HEI-2010, including whole grains, dairy, seafood and plant proteins, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, showed significant inverse associations with total mortality. HEI-2005 score was also associated with lower disease mortality, with a HR of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.79-0.93) when comparing extreme quintiles. Given the observational study design, however, residual confounding cannot be completely ruled out. In addition, future studies are needed to evaluate the generalizability of these findings to African-Americans of other socioeconomic status. Our results showed, to our knowledge for the first time, that adherence to the DGA was associated with lower total and cause-specific mortality in a low-income population, including a large proportion of African-Americans, living in the southeastern US.
    PLoS Medicine 05/2015; 12(5):e1001830. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001830 · 14.00 Impact Factor
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    Sleep 04/2015; DOI:10.5665/sleep.4564 · 5.06 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
2,745.14 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2015
    • Gateway-Vanderbilt Cancer Treatment Center
      Clarksville, Tennessee, United States
  • 2002–2015
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Epidemiology
      • • Vanderbilt Center for Evidence-based Medicine
      • • Center for Health Services Research
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
    • Yale University
      • School of Medicine
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2014
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Division of Cancer Prevention & Population Sciences
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2013
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Pathology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Genetics
      North Carolina, United States
    • University of California, Irvine
      Irvine, California, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Institute of Cancer Research
      • Division of Breast Cancer Research
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Science and Technology of China
      • Department of Astronomy
      Luchow, Anhui Sheng, China
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Clinical Oncology
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2012
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1998–2012
    • Shanghai Cancer Institute
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2010
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
      Maryland, United States
    • Center For Foodborne Illness Research & Prevention
      Grove City, Pennsylvania, United States
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2009
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 2004
    • Northern Inyo Hospital
      BIH, California, United States