[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The main objective of our study was to assess the impact of a board game on smoking status and smoking-related variables in current smokers. To accomplish this objective, we conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the game group with a psychoeducation group and a waiting-list control group. METHODS: The following measures were performed at participant inclusion, as well as after a 2-week and a 3-month follow-up period: "Attitudes Towards Smoking Scale" (ATS-18), "Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire" (SEQ-12), "Attitudes Towards Nicotine Replacement Therapy" scale (ANRT-12), number of cigarettes smoked per day, stages of change, quit attempts, and smoking status. Furthermore, participants were assessed for concurrent psychiatric disorders and for the severity of nicotine dependence with the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). RESULTS: A time x group effect was observed for subscales of the ANRT-12, ATS-18 and SEQ-12, as well as for the number of cigarettes smoked per day. At three months follow-up, compared to the participants allocated to the waiting list group, those on Pick-Klop group were less likely to remain smoker.Outcomes at 3 months were not predicted by gender, age, FTND, stage of change, or psychiatric disorders at inclusion. CONCLUSIONS: The board game seems to be a good option for smokers. The game led to improvements in variables known to predict quitting in smokers. Furthermore, it increased smoking-cessation rates at 3-months follow-up. The game is also an interesting alternative for smokers in the precontemplation stage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Internet is increasingly used as a source of information for mental health issues. The burden of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) may lead persons with diagnosed or undiagnosed OCD, and their relatives, to search for good quality information on the Web. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of Web-based information on English-language sites dealing with OCD and to compare the quality of websites found through a general and a medically specialized search engine.
Keywords related to OCD were entered into Google and OmniMedicalSearch. Websites were assessed on the basis of accountability, interactivity, readability, and content quality. The "Health on the Net" (HON) quality label and the Brief DISCERN scale score were used as possible content quality indicators. Of the 235 links identified, 53 websites were analyzed.
The content quality of the OCD websites examined was relatively good. The use of a specialized search engine did not offer an advantage in finding websites with better content quality. A score ≥16 on the Brief DISCERN scale is associated with better content quality.
This study shows the acceptability of the content quality of OCD websites. There is no advantage in searching for information with a specialized search engine rather than a general one. Practical implications: The Internet offers a number of high quality OCD websites. It remains critical, however, to have a provider-patient talk about the information found on the Web.
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2013; 9:1717-23. · 2.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of quetiapine for treatment of bipolar disorders at a higher dosage than the licensed range is not unusual in clinical practice. Quetiapine is predominantly metabolised by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and to a lesser extent by CYP2D6. The large interindividual variability of those isozyme activities could contribute to the variability observed in quetiapine dosage. The aim of the present study is to evaluate if the use of high dosages of quetiapine in some patients, as compared to patients treated with a dosage in the licensed range (up to 800 mg/day), could be explained by a high activity of CYP3A4 and/or of CYP2D6. CYP3A4 activities were determined using the midazolam metabolic ratio in 21 bipolar and schizoaffective bipolar patients genotyped for CYP2D6. 9 patients were treated with a high quetiapine dosage (mean ± SD, median; range: 1467 ± 625, 1200; 1000-3000 mg/day) and 11 with a normal quetiapine dosage (433 ± 274, 350; 100-800 mg/day). One patient in the high dose and one patient in the normal dose groups were genotyped as CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers. CYP3A4 activities were not significantly different between the two groups (midazolam metabolic ratio: 9.4 ± 8.2; 6.2; 1.7-26.8 vs 3.9 ± 2.3; 3.8; 1.5-7.6, in the normal dose group as compared to the high dose group, respectively, NS). The use of high quetiapine dosage for the patients included in the present study cannot be explained by variations in pharmacokinetics parameters such as a high activity of CYP3A4 and/or of CYP2D6.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite efforts to reduce coercion in psychiatry, involuntary hospitalizations remain frequent, representing more than half of all admissions in some European regions. Since October 2006, only certified psychiatrists are authorized to require a compulsory admission to our facility, while before all physicians were, including residents. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of this change of procedure on the proportion compulsory admissions. All medical records of patients admitted respectively 4 months before and 4 month after the implementation of the procedure were retrospectively analyzed. This search retrieved a total of 2,227 hospitalizations for 1,584 patients. The overall proportions of compulsory and voluntary admissions were 63.9 % and 36.1 % respectively. The average length of stay was 32 days (SD ± 64.4). During the study period, 25 % of patients experienced two hospitalizations or more. The most frequent patients' diagnoses were affective disorders (30 %), psychotic disorders (18.4 %) and substance abuse disorders (15.7 %). Compared with the period before October 2006, patients hospitalized from October 2006 up were less likely to be hospitalized on a compulsory basis (OR = 0.745, 95 % CI: 0.596-0.930). Factors associated with involuntary admission were young age (20 years or less), female gender, a diagnosis of psychotic disorder and being hospitalized for the first time. Our results strongly suggest that limiting the right to require compulsory admissions to fully certified psychiatrists can reduce the rate of compulsory versus voluntary admissions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Football (soccer game) is one of the most popular sports in the World, including in Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills on the matches' outcomes. If mistaken, this belief should be considered as a form of "illusion of control".The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts; 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football), and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the Euro-Foot 2008. A logistic regression was carried out to assess the correlation between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise, age, and gender of the participants. RESULTS: The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognostics (R2 = 5%). CONCLUSIONS: Expertise, age, and gender did not have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognostics. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the "illusion of control." Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may have to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Substance use disorders seem to be an under considered health problem amongst the elderly. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), was developed by the World Health Organization to detect substance use disorders. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in a sample of elderly people attending geriatric outpatient facilities (primary care or psychiatric facilities).
One hundred persons older than 65 years were recruited from clients attending a geriatric policlinic day care centre and from geriatric psychiatric facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire-Smoking (RTQ) and MiniMental State(MMS).
Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between ASSIST scores, scores from ASI, AUDIT, RTQ, and significantly higher ASSIST scores for patients with a MINI-Plus diagnosis of abuse or dependence. The ASSIST questionnaire was found to have high internal consistency for the total substance involvement along with specific substance involvement as assessed by Cronbach's α, ranging from 0.66, to 0.89 .
The findings demonstrate that ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying substance use disorders in elderly.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in European countries in the last two decades. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals and social systems, the use of the Internet may be associated with excessive use and possible Internet addiction. The goals of the current study were to validate a French version of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) and to assess its links with common psychiatric symptoms such as depression (assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory: BDI), anxiety (assessed with the Trait Anxiety Inventory: STAI) and alcohol misuse (assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test: AUDIT). The French versions of the CIUS, BDI, STAI and AUDIT were administered to a sample of Internet users. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses, correlation analysis and logistic regression were performed. As previously found with the original version, a one-factor model of the CIUS had good psychometric properties and fit the data well. Excessive use of the Internet was associated with depressive symptoms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the widespread increase in online poker playing and the risk related to excessive poker playing, research on online poker websites is still lacking with regard to pathological gambling prevention strategies offered by the websites. The aim of the present study was to assess the pathological gambling-related prevention strategies of online poker websites. Two keywords ("poker" and "poker help") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. The first 20 links related to French and English online poker websites were assessed. Seventy-four websites were assessed with a standardized tool designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, interactivity, prevention strategies, marketing, and messages related to poker strategies. Prevention strategies appeared to be lacking. Whereas a substantial proportion of the websites offered incitation to gambling such as betting "tips," few sites offered strategies to prevent or address problem gambling. Furthermore, strategies related to poker, such as probability estimation, were mostly reported without acknowledging their limitations. Results of this study suggest that more adequate prevention strategies for risky gambling should be developed for online poker.
Journal of Gambling Behavior 12/2011; · 1.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in Arabic countries in recent years. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals and social systems, the use of the Internet may in certain cases become problematic and engender negative consequences in daily life. As no instrument in the Arabic language is available, however, to measure excessive Internet use, the goal of the current study was to validate an Arabic version of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS).
The Arabic version of the CIUS was administered to a sample of 185 Internet users and exploratory and confirmatory analyses performed.
As found previously for the original version, a one-factor model of the CIUS had good psychometric properties and fit the data well. The total score on the CIUS was positively associated with time spent online.
The Arabic version of the CIUS seems to be a valid self-report to measure problematic Internet use.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of heavy drinking and alcohol dependence among patients with opiate and cocaine dependence, few studies have evaluated specific interventions within this group. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of screening with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and of brief intervention (BI) on alcohol use in a sample of patients treated for opioid or cocaine dependence in a specialized outpatient clinic.
Adult outpatients treated for opioid or cocaine dependence in Switzerland were screened for excessive alcohol drinking and dependence with the AUDIT. Patients with AUDIT scores that indicated excessive drinking or dependence were randomized into two groups--treatment as usual or treatment as usual together with BI--and assessed at 3 months and 9 months.
Findings revealed a high rate (44%) of problematic alcohol use (excessive drinking and dependence) among patients with opiate and cocaine dependence. The number of drinks per week decreased significantly between T0 (inclusion) and T3 (month 3). A decrease in average AUDIT scores was observed between T0 and T3 and between T0 and T9 (month 9). No statistically significant difference between treatment groups was observed.
In a substance abuse specialized setting, screening for alcohol use with the AUDIT, followed by feedback on the score, and use of alcohol BI are both possibly useful strategies to induce changes in problematic alcohol use. Definitive conclusions cannot, however, be drawn from the study because of limitations such as lack of a naturalistic group. An important result of the study is the excellent internal consistency of AUDIT in a population treated for opiate or cocaine dependence.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Content quality indicators are warranted in order to help patients and consumers to judge the content quality of health-related on-line information. The aim of the present study is to evaluate web-based information on health topics and to assess particular content quality indicators like HON (Health on the Net) and DISCERN. The present study is based on the analysis of data issued from six previous studies which assessed with a standardized tool the general and content quality (evidence-based health information) of health-related websites. Keywords related to Social phobia, bipolar disorders, pathological gambling as well as cannabis, alcohol and cocaine addiction were entered into popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, presentation, interactivity, readability and content quality (evidence-based information). "Health on the Net" (HON) quality label, and DISCERN scale scores were used to verify their efficiency as quality indicators. Of 874 websites identified, 388 were included. Despite an observed association with higher content quality scores, the HON label fails to predict good content quality websites when used in a multiple regression. Sensibility and specificity of a DISCERN score >40 in the detection of good content quality websites were, respectively, 0.45 and 0.96. The DISCERN is a potential quality indicator with a relatively high specificity. Further developments in this domain are warranted in order to facilitate the identification of high-quality information on the web by patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was developed to detect substance use disorders. Aims: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in various clinical groups with different levels of substance use. Methods: 150 subjects were recruited from clients attending primary health care, psychiatric and addiction treatment facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire-Smoking (RTQ). Results and Conclusion: Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and scores from ASI, AUDIT and RTQ, as well as significantly greater ASSIST scores for patients with a MINI-Plus diagnosis of abuse or dependence. The ASSIST questionnaire was found to have high internal consistency for the total substance involvement as well as for specific substance involvement as assessed with Cronbach's α, ranging from 0.74 to 0.93. When possibly computed, ASSIST cutoff scores have interesting sensitivity and specificity for discrimination between use and abuse and between abuse and dependence. The findings demonstrated that the French version of ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying substance use disorders in various health care settings, including psychiatric settings.
European Addiction Research 01/2011; 17(4):190-7. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although some studies have already been done on the quality of websites on depression, they have mainly focused on content quality, and were mostly carried out about a decade ago. The main aim of this work was thus to examine the quality of current websites on depression through the use of several indicators.
Three keywords on depression were entered into a popular search engine. Websites were evaluated on accountability, interactivity, esthetics, readability, and content quality. Moreover, the presence of the "Health on the Net" (HON) quality label and the website's affiliation were checked, and the Brief DISCERN was used as a potential content quality indicator for general consumers.
A total of 45 websites were analyzed. The content quality of the depression-related websites was good. Websites with the HON label had significantly higher accountability, content quality, and Brief DISCERN scores. Moreover, websites with a high score on the Brief DISCERN scored significantly higher for accountability and content quality. Finally, the content quality of websites was significantly and positively correlated with the Brief DISCERN score, the presence of the HON label, and affiliation of the websites.
The overall quality of websites on depression seems to be rather good.
Depression and Anxiety 09/2010; 27(9):852-8. · 4.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: To evaluate the quality of web-based information on alcohol dependence and to assess particular content quality indicators. Methods: Three keywords, ‘alcohol addiction’, ‘alcohol dependence’ and ‘alcohol abuse’ were entered into three popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, presentation, interactivity, readability and content quality. ‘Health on the Net’ (HON) quality label, and DISCERN scale scores aimed to assist persons without content expertise to assess quality of written health publication and were used to verify their efficiency as quality indicators. Results: Of the 180 websites identified, 104 were included. Based on outcome measures, the overall quality of the sites turned-out to be poor. The global scores appeared as good content quality indicators. Conclusions: While alcohol education web sites for patients are widespread, their educational material highly varies in quality and content.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess the feasibility and impact of a game called “Pick-Klop” in 61 current smokers. Assessments covered the “Attitude Towards Smoking Scale” (ATS-18), the “Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire” (SEQ-12), the “Attitude Towards Nicotine Replacement Therapy” scale (ANRT-12), the number of cigarettes smoked per day, intention to quit smoking, and stages of change. We observed significant improvements on the SEQ-12, the ANRT-12, and the ATS-18. An increase in intention to stop smoking and a reduction of the number of cigarettes smoked per day were also observed, as was a significant improvement of the stages of change.
Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery 01/2010; 5:183-193.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study explores sweet stimuli effects on hunger and negative alliesthesia in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs and controls. Those phenomena were examined in relation to previous weight gain, eating and weight-related cognitions and type of sweet stimuli: aspartame or sucrose. Alliesthesia is delayed in participants who gained weight regardless of cross group differences. A similar reduction of hunger was observed after the intake of two kinds of sweet stimuli (aspartame or sucrose) whereas alliesthesia measures were not affected. Whereas atypical antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain is linked to delayed satiety, the phenomenon is similar in magnitude in non-psychiatric controls who gained weight.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Internet is increasingly used as a source of information on health issues and is probably a major source of patients' empowerment. This process is however limited by the frequently poor quality of web-based health information designed for consumers. A better diffusion of information about criteria defining the quality of the content of websites, and about useful methods designed for searching such needed information, could be particularly useful to patients and their relatives. A brief, six-items DISCERN version, characterized by a high specificity for detecting websites with good or very good content quality was recently developed. This tool could facilitate the identification of high-quality information on the web by patients and may improve the empowerment process initiated by the development of the health-related web.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES) is an instrument designed to measure motivation to change behavioural and psychological problems. While the original that described a three-factor structure of the scale has been replicated by some studies, some others found rather a two-factor structure. The factor structure may vary if used in different care settings, as there tends to be considerable differences in the severity of substance abuse problems and in the perception of these problems between individuals. All previously published validation studies have used the scale to assess the motivational status with regard to alcohol consumption. The scale has, however, been used for other drugs, often in mixed samples using different drugs. No study has reported on the utility of SOCRATES for this. Notably, no study has tested whether the factor structure was maintained when using the scale addressing different drugs. The objective of the present study is to address this concern and to establish the factor-structure of a French version of the SOCRATES in different groups of patients presenting different substance-abuse problems. Methods: The study was realised in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. The SOCRATES scores of four groups of patients were included in the present analyses: 90 hospitalised multi-drug dependent patients, 11 cannabis-abusing schizophrenic patients, and 24 tobacco smokers. The terms used in addressing patients’ motivation were “drugs”, “cannabis” or “smoking”. Results: A PCA followed by a varimax rotation revealed a three-factor solution. Only one item was clearly classified as being part of another than the original factor (item 14 in Recognition instead of Taking steps). Cronbach's alpha were 0.90 for Recognition, 0.73 for Ambivalence, and 0.91 for Taking Steps. Conclusions: The factor-structure of the French language version of the SOCRATES applied to different groups of patients presenting different substance abuse problems corresponded almost exactly to that originally proposed by Miller and Tonigan (Miller WR, Tonigan JS. 1996. Assessing drinkers’ motivations for change: The stages of change readiness and treatment eagerness scale (SOCRATES). Psychology of Addictive Behaviours 10:81–89) supporting the internal validity of the SOCRATES. The present data suggest that the type of drug can be changed without changing internal consistency and construct validity of the French version of the SOCRATES.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To extract and to validate a brief version of the DISCERN which could identify mental health-related websites with good content quality.
The present study is based on the analysis of data issued from six previous studies which used DISCERN and a standardized tool for the evaluation of content quality (evidence-based health information) of 388 mental health-related websites. After extracting the Brief DISCERN, several psychometric properties (content validity through a Factor analysis, internal consistency by the Cronbach's alpha index, predictive validity through the diagnostic tests, concurrent validity by the strength of association between the Brief DISCERN and the original DISCERN scores) were investigated to ascertain its general applicability.
A Brief DISCERN composed of two factors and six items was extracted from the original 16 items version of the DISCERN. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were more than acceptable for the complete questionnaire (alpha=0.74) and for the two distinct domains: treatments information (alpha=0.87) and reliability (alpha=0.83). Sensibility and specificity of the Brief DISCERN cut-off score > or =16 in the detection of good content quality websites were 0.357 and 0.945, respectively. Its predictive positive and negative values were 0.98 and 0.83, respectively. A statistically significant linear correlation was found between the total scores of the Brief DISCERN and those of the original DISCERN (r=0.84 and p<0.0005).
The Brief DISCERN seems to be a reliable and valid instrument able to discriminate between websites with good and poor content quality.
The Brief DISCERN is a simple tool which could facilitate the identification of good information on the web by patients and general consumers.
Patient Education and Counseling 04/2009; 77(1):33-7. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to evaluate quetiapine doses used across diagnosis categories in a sample of psychiatric inpatients.
Discharge letters of all adult inpatients who had received quetiapine between 1999 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Logistic regressions were carried-out to assess links between quetiapine discharge dosage (> or =800 mg/day vs. <800 mg/day), diagnostic categories, substance abuse or dependence, benzodiazepine discharge doses, age and sex.
The data of 231 patients were included. Five hundred and for discharge documents were analyzed: 113 for psychotic disorders, 190 for personality disorders, 134 for bipolar and schizoaffective bipolar disorders, 29 for unipolar depression or anxiety disorders, and 35 for mental retardation. Considering psychotic disorders as a reference group, patients with personality disorders were statistically significantly less likely to be in the high quetiapine dosage group at discharge (P = 0.007, OR = 0.1 and CI [0.03; 0.6]).
Quetiapine seems to be used in a variety of clinical situations, with a wide range of doses and a lower dosage in patients treated for personality disorders.