John M Thorp

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (333)1625.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether the presence of condition-specific obstetric protocols within a hospital was associated with better maternal and neonatal outcomes. Cohort study of a random sample of deliveries performed at 25 hospitals over three years. Condition-specific protocols were collected from all hospitals and categorized independently by two authors. Data on maternal and neonatal outcomes, as well as data necessary for risk adjustment were collected. Risk-adjusted outcomes were compared according to whether the patient delivered in a hospital with condition-specific obstetric protocols at the time of delivery. Hemorrhage-specific protocols were not associated with a lower rate of postpartum hemorrhage or with fewer cases of EBL >1000cc. Similarly, in the presence of a shoulder dystocia protocol, there were no differences in the frequency of shoulder dystocia or number of shoulder dystocia maneuvers used. Conversely, preeclampsia-specific protocols were associated with fewer ICU admissions (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.18-0.44) and fewer cases of severe maternal hypertension (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77-0.96). The presence of condition-specific obstetric protocols was not consistently shown to be associated with improved risk-adjusted outcomes. Our study would suggest that the presence or absence of a protocol does not matter and regulations to require protocols are not fruitful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2015.01.055 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare neonatal abstinence syndrome prevalence and characteristics among neonates born to women prescribed buprenorphine and naloxone compared with methadone during pregnancy. Retrospective cohort analysis of mother-neonate dyads treated with either buprenorphine and naloxone or methadone during pregnancy. Primary neonatal outcomes included diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome, neonatal abstinence syndrome peak scores, total amount of morphine used to treat neonatal abstinence syndrome (mg), and duration of treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome (days). Secondary outcomes included head circumference, birth weight, length, preterm birth, neonatal intensive care unit admission, Apgar scores, and overall length of hospitalization. From January 1, 2011, to November 30, 2013, we identified 62 mother-neonate dyads, 31 treated with methadone and 31 treated with buprenorphine and naloxone. Sixteen neonates (51.6%) in the methadone group were diagnosed with neonatal abstinence syndrome compared with eight (25.1%) in the buprenorphine and naloxone group (adjusted odds ratio 2.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-4.98, P=.01). The buprenorphine and naloxone-exposed neonates had lower peak neonatal abstinence syndrome scores (9.0±4.4 compared with 10.7±3.7, multivariate-adjusted mean difference=-2.77, 95% CI -4.99 to -0.56, P=.02) and shorter overall hospitalization (5.6±5.0 compared with 9.8±7.4 days, multivariate-adjusted mean difference=-3.90, 95% CI, -7.13 to -0.67, P=.02). We found no other differences in primary or secondary outcomes. In a cohort of pregnant patients treated with either methadone or buprenorphine and naloxone in pregnancy, newborns exposed to maternal buprenorphine and naloxone had less frequent neonatal abstinence syndrome. Additionally, neonates exposed to buprenorphine and naloxone had shorter overall hospitalization lengths. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: II.
  • American Journal of Perinatology 12/2014; 32(01):093-100. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1374815 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the accuracy of sonographic classification of chorionicity in a large cohort of twins and investigate which factors may be associated with sonographic accuracy. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of preterm birth prevention in twins. Sonographic classification of chorionicity was compared with pathologic examination of the placenta. Maternal (age, body mass index, diabetes, and hypertension), obstetric (prior cesarean delivery, gestational age at the first sonographic examination, and antepartum bleeding), and sonographic (oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, and twin-twin transfusion syndrome) factors were assessed for their possible association with accuracy. A total of 545 twin sets in which chorionicity was classified by sonography before 20 weeks' gestation were included; 455 were dichorionic and 90 were monochorionic based on pathologic examination. Sonography misclassified 35 of 545 twin pregnancies (6.4%): 18 of 455 dichorionic twins (4.0%) and 17 of 90 monochorionic twins (19.0%). The sensitivity and specificity of sonographic diagnosis of monochorionicity were 81.1% and 96.0%, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, pregnancies with initial sonographic examinations before 14 weeks' gestation were less likely to have misclassified chorionicity than those with sonographic examinations at 15 to 20 weeks (odds ratio [OR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.96). For each week increase in gestational age, the odds of misclassification rose by 10% (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.2). In the multivariable analysis, maternal age, body mass index, parity, and prior cesarean delivery were not associated with sonographic accuracy. Sonography before 20 weeks incorrectly classified chorionicity in 6.4% of twin gestations. Those with first sonographic examinations performed at earlier gestational ages had improved chorionicity diagnosis. © 2013 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
    Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 12/2014; 33(12):2187-92. DOI:10.7863/ultra.33.12.2187 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Smoking and pre-eclampsia (PE) are associated with increases in preterm birth, placental abruption and low birthweight. We evaluated the relationship between prenatal vitamin C and E (C/E) supplementation and perinatal outcomes by maternal self-reported smoking status focusing on outcomes known to be impacted by maternal smoking.Design/Setting/PopulationA secondary analysis of a multi-centre trial of vitamin C/E supplementation starting at 9–16 weeks in low-risk nulliparous women with singleton gestations.Methods We examined the effect of vitamin C/E by smoking status at randomisation using the Breslow–Day test for interaction.Main outcome measuresThe trial's primary outcomes were PE and a composite outcome of pregnancy-associated hypertension (PAH) with serious adverse outcomes. Perinatal outcomes included preterm birth and abruption.ResultsThere were no differences in baseline characteristics within subgroups (smokers versus nonsmokers) by vitamin supplementation status. The effect of prenatal vitamin C/E on the risk of PE (P = 0.66) or PAH composite outcome (P = 0.86) did not differ by smoking status. Vitamin C/E was protective for placental abruption in smokers (relative risk [RR] 0.09; 95% CI 0.00–0.87], but not in nonsmokers (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.52–1.62) (P = 0.01), and for preterm birth in smokers (RR 0.76; 95% CI 0.58–0.99) but not in nonsmokers (RR 1.03; 95% CI 0.90–1.17) (P = 0.046).Conclusion In this cohort of women, smoking was not associated with a reduction in PE or the composite outcome of PAH. Vitamin C/E supplementation appears to be associated with a reduction in placental abruption and preterm birth among smokers.
    BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 12/2014; DOI:10.1111/1471-0528.13201 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether treatment of mild gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) confers sustained offspring health benefits, including a lower frequency of obesity. Follow-up study of children (ages 5-10) of women enrolled in a multicenter trial of treatment versus no treatment of mild GDM. Height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol were measured. Five hundred of 905 eligible offspring (55%) were enrolled. Maternal baseline characteristics were similar between the follow-up treated and untreated groups. The frequencies of BMI ≥95th (20.8% and 22.9%) and 85th (32.6% and 38.6%) percentiles were not significantly different in treated versus untreated offspring (P = 0.69 and P = 0.26). No associations were observed for BMI z score, log waist circumference, log triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, or log HOMA estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The effect of treatment was different by sex for fasting glucose and log HOMA-IR (P for interaction = 0.002 and 0.02, respectively) but not by age-group (5-6 and 7-10 years) for any outcomes. Female offspring of treated women had significantly lower fasting glucose levels. Although treatment for mild GDM has been associated with neonatal benefits, no reduction in childhood obesity or metabolic dysfunction in the offspring of treated women was found. However only female offspring of women treated for mild GDM had lower fasting glucose. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes Care 11/2014; DOI:10.2337/dc14-2159 · 8.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the frequency of abnormal laboratory test results in pregnancy-associated hypertension and the relationship with pregnancy outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter trial of vitamin C and E for prevention of pregnancy-associated hypertension in low-risk nulliparous women. Laboratory abnormalities included: platelets less than 100,000/mm, aspartate aminotransferase 100 units/L or greater, creatinine 1.5 mg/dL or greater, lactate dehydrogenase 600 units/L or greater, total bilirubin 1.2 mg/dL or greater, or evidence of hemolysis on peripheral smear. Mild pregnancy-associated hypertension was defined as blood pressure 140-159/90-109 mm Hg. Severe pregnancy-associated hypertension was defined as persistent blood pressure 160/110 mm Hg or greater, acute antihypertensive treatment, or any blood pressure elevation associated with clinical signs of end-organ dysfunction (one or more of headache, epigastric pain, blurred vision, pulmonary edema, eclampsia, or oliguria). Pregnancy outcomes were compared across four groups: I, mild hypertension alone; II, mild hypertension+abnormal laboratory values; III, severe pregnancy-associated hypertension alone; and IV, severe pregnancy-associated hypertension+abnormal laboratory values. Of 9,969 women, 2,752 (27.9%) developed pregnancy-associated hypertension and of these, laboratory abnormalities occurred in 7.3%. Laboratory abnormalities increased with severity of hypertension: mild hypertension alone (4.9%), severe hypertension alone (8.9%), and mild or severe hypertension with clinical signs of end-organ dysfunction (12.2%) (P for trend<.001). Compared with women with mild hypertension alone, the adjusted odds for the perinatal composite (2-fold to 4.8-fold in Category III-IV), preterm birth (2.1-fold to 7.8-fold in Category II-IV), and other adverse perinatal outcomes increase with disease severity, particularly with laboratory abnormalities and severe clinical signs. The frequency of abnormal laboratory values in women with pregnancy-associated hypertension increases with disease severity. Adverse perinatal outcomes increase in the presence of abnormal laboratory values, particularly in those with clinical signs, likely atttributable in part to the decision to deliver early. : II.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 11/2014; 124(5):933-40. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000509 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For many asthma medications, pregnancy safety data remains insufficient. The omalizumab pregnancy registry, EXPECT, evaluates maternal, pregnancy, and infant outcomes after exposure to omalizumab, including incidence of congenital anomalies. EXPECT is a prospective, observational study of pregnant women exposed to ≥1 dose of omalizumab within 8 weeks prior to conception or at any time during pregnancy. Primary outcome measures include rates of live births, elective terminations, stillbirths, and congenital anomalies. Data were collected at enrollment, each trimester, birth, and every 6 months up to 18 months post-delivery. As of November 2012, 188 of 191 pregnant women were exposed to omalizumab during their first trimester. Of 169 pregnancies with known outcomes (median exposure during pregnancy, 8.8 months), there were 156 live births of 160 infants (4 twin pairs), 1 fetal death/stillbirth, 11 spontaneous abortions, and 1 elective termination. Among 152 singleton infants, 22 (14.5%) were born prematurely. Of 147 singleton infants with weight data, 16 (10.9%) were small for gestational age. Among 125 singleton full-term infants, 4 (3.2%) had low birth weights. Overall, 20 infants had congenital anomalies confirmed, 7 (4.4%) of whom had 1 major defect. No pattern of anomalies was observed. To date, proportions of major congenital anomalies, prematurity, low birth weight, and small size for gestational age observed in the EXPECT registry are not inconsistent with findings from other studies in this asthma population. Recognizing the small sample size available, no apparent increased birth prevalence of major anomalies or patterns of major anomalies has been observed. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 10/2014; 135(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.08.025 · 11.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective This study aims to evaluate whether magnesium sulfate administration for neuroprotection prolongs latency in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) between 24 and 31(6/7) weeks' gestation. Study Design This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate for prevention of cerebral palsy. Gravid women with a singleton pregnancy between 24 and 31(6/7) weeks' gestation with PPROM without evidence of labor were randomized to receive magnesium sulfate, administered intravenously as a 6-g bolus followed by a constant infusion of 2 g per hour up to 12 hours, or placebo. Maternal outcomes for this analysis were delivery in less than 48 hours and in less than 7 days from randomization. Neonatal outcomes included a composite of respiratory distress syndrome, interventricular hemorrhage grades 3 or 4, periventricular leukomalacia, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, or death. Results A total of 1,259 women were included. The rate of delivery < 48 hours was not different in the magnesium sulfate and the placebo groups (22.2 and 20.7%, p = 0.51). Delivery < 7 days was similar between groups (55.4 and 51.4%, p = 0.16). Median latency was also similar between groups (median [interquartile range], 6.0 days [range, 2.4-13.8 days] and 6.6 days [range, 2.4-15.1 days], p = 0.29). Composite neonatal outcomes did not differ between groups. Conclusion Magnesium sulfate administration given for neuroprotection in women with a singleton gestation with PPROM and without labor before 32 weeks does not impact latency.
    American Journal of Perinatology 09/2014; DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1387930 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To test whether elevated umbilical cord serum inflammatory cytokine levels predicted subsequent cerebral palsy (CP) or neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). Study Design Nested case-control analysis within a clinical trial of antenatal magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) before anticipated preterm birth (PTB) for prevention of CP, with evaluation of surviving children at the age of 2. NDD was defined as a Bayley psychomotor developmental index (PDI) and/or mental developmental index (MDI) < 70. Controls, defined as surviving children without CP and with Bayley PDI and MDI ≥ 85, were matched by race and gestational age. Cord serum was analyzed for interleukin-8 (IL-8) interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels. Elevated cytokine levels were defined as ≥ 75th percentile in placebo-exposed controls. Analyses compared case/control cytokine levels, adjusting for MgSO4 exposure, gestational age, race/ethnicity, and sociodemographic differences. Results Logistic regression analysis with 339 cases and 276 controls showed that elevated IL-8 and IL-1β were more common in cord blood serum from infants with subsequent low MDI as compared with controls. After adjusting for additional confounders, the significant differences were no longer evident. Cytokine levels (IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α) were not elevated with CP or low PDI. Conclusion Cord serum IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels in preterm infants are not associated with subsequent CP or NDD.
    American Journal of Perinatology 06/2014; DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1376185 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 06/2014; 121(11). DOI:10.1111/1471-0528.12878 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The objective of the article is to describe latency for patients with preterm premature membrane rupture (PPROM) between 240/7 and 316/7 weeks' gestation. Study Design Secondary analysis of data collected prospectively in a multicenter clinical trial of magnesium sulfate for cerebral palsy prevention. Women with PPROM and fewer than six contractions per hour at enrollment who were candidates for expectant management (n = 1,377) were included in this analysis. Length of latency was calculated in days by subtracting the time of delivery from the time of membrane rupture. Results At each week of gestation, median latency between 24 and 28 weeks was similar at approximately 9 days, but it was significantly shorter with PPROM at 29, 30, and 31 weeks (p < 0.001). In addition, the percentage of patients remaining undelivered at 7 days and 14 days was similar for PPROM between 24 and 28 weeks, but it decreased significantly after that. For each gestational age, the proportion of patients remaining pregnant declined in a fashion similar to an exponential pattern. Conclusion Median latency after PPROM is similar from 24 to 28 weeks' gestation, but it shortens with PPROM at and after 29 weeks.
    American Journal of Perinatology 05/2014; DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1373846 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the frequency of severe maternal morbidity, assess its underlying etiologies, and develop a scoring system to predict its occurrence.Supplemental Digital Content is Available in the Text. This was a secondary analysis of a Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 hospitals across the United States over a 3-year period. Women were classified as having severe maternal morbidity according to a scoring system that takes into account the occurrence of red blood cell transfusion (more than three units), intubation, unanticipated surgical intervention, organ failure, and intensive care unit admission. The frequency of severe maternal morbidity was calculated and the underlying etiologies determined. Multivariable analysis identified patient factors present on admission that were independently associated with severe maternal morbidity; these were used to develop a prediction model for severe maternal morbidity. Among 115,502 women who delivered during the study period, 332 (2.9/1,000 births, 95% confidence interval 2.6-3.2) experienced severe maternal morbidity. Postpartum hemorrhage was responsible for approximately half of severe maternal morbidity. Multiple patient factors were found to be independently associated with severe maternal morbidity and were used to develop a predictive model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80. Severe maternal morbidity occurs in approximately 2.9 per 1,000 births, is most commonly the result of postpartum hemorrhage, and occurs more commonly in association with several identifiable patient characteristics. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: II.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 04/2014; 123(4):804-810. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000173 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The anti-oxidant and proangiogenic protein haptoglobin (Hp) is believed to be important for implantation and pregnancy, although its specific role is not known. The three phenotypes (1-1, 2-1 and 2-2) differ in structure and function. Hp 2-2 is associated with increased vascular stiffness in other populations. We examined whether Hp phenotype is associated with abnormal uterine artery Doppler (UAD) in pregnancy. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of a preeclampsia prediction cohort nested within a larger placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of antioxidants for prevention of preeclampsia. We determined Hp phenotype in 2184 women who completed UAD assessments at 17 weeks gestation. Women with notching were re-evaluated for persistent notching at 24 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess differences in UAD indices between phenotype groups. Results: Hp phenotype did not significantly influence the odds of having any notch (p = 0.32), bilateral notches (p = 0.72), or a resistance index (p = 0.28) or pulsatility index (p = 0.67) above the 90th percentile at 17 weeks' gestation. Hp phenotype also did not influence the odds of persistent notching at 24 weeks (p = 0.25). Conclusions: Hp phenotype is not associated with abnormal UAD at 17 weeks' gestation or with persistent notching at 24 weeks.
    The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 01/2014; 27(17). DOI:10.3109/14767058.2013.876622 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many behaviors and substances have been purported to induce labor. Using data from the Third Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition cohort, we focus on 663 women who experienced spontaneous labor. Of the women who reported a specific labor trigger, 32% reported physical activity (usually walking), 24% a clinician-mediated trigger, 19% a natural phenomenon, 14% some other physical trigger (including sexual activity), 12% reported ingesting something, 12% an emotional trigger, and 7% maternal illness. With the exceptions of walking and sexual intercourse, few women reported any one specific trigger, although various foods/substances were listed in the “ingesting something” category. Discussion of potential risks associated with “old wives’ tale” ways to induce labor may be warranted as women approach term.
    Journal of Perinatal Education 01/2014; 23(3). DOI:10.1891/1058-1243.23.3.155
  • American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2014; 210(1):S368-S369. DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2013.10.783 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of the article is to determine whether prior spontaneous abortion (SAB) or induced abortion (IAB), or the interpregnancy interval are associated with subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes in nulliparous women. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of data collected from nulliparous women enrolled in a completed trial of vitamins C and E or placebo for preeclampsia prevention. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for maternal and fetal outcomes were determined for nulliparous women with prior SABs and IABs as compared with primigravid participants. Results Compared with primigravidas, women with one prior SAB were at increased risk for perinatal death (adj. OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3) in subsequent pregnancies. Two or more SABs were associated with an increased risk for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) (adj. OR, 2.6, 95% CI, 1.7-4.0), preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (adj. OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.3), and perinatal death (adj. OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.3). Women with one previous IAB had higher rates of spontaneous PTB (adj. OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9) and preterm PROM (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-3.0). An interpregnancy interval less than 6 months after SAB was not associated with adverse outcomes. Conclusion Nulliparous women with a history of SAB or IAB, especially multiple SABs, are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes.
    American Journal of Perinatology 12/2013; 31(9). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1358771 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of the study is to determine if umbilical cord serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and myeloperoxidase (MPO), in pregnancies at risk for preterm birth (PTB), are associated with neonatal morbidities and/or altered neurodevelopmental outcomes in the children. Study Design Umbilical cord serum samples were collected at birth from 400 newborns delivered within a multicenter randomized controlled trial of repeated versus single course of antenatal corticosteroids (ACs), in women at increased risk for PTB. Newborns were followed through discharge and were evaluated between 36 and 42 months corrected age with neurological examination and Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Umbilical cord serum concentrations of IL-6, CRP, and MPO were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Multivariate logistic regression analyses explored the relationship between umbilical cord serum IL-6, CRP, and MPO levels, adverse newborn outcomes, and PTB < 32 weeks of gestational age (GA). Results Univariate analysis revealed that umbilical cord IL-6 above the 75th percentile was associated with increased respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and chronic lung disease (CLD), but not with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), or neonatal sepsis; however, this association was not significant after adjusting for GA at delivery and treatment group. No significant associations between CRP or MPO and RDS, CLD, NEC, sepsis, or IVH were evident. Regression analysis revealed that CRP above the 75th percentile was associated with a decreased risk of CLD (odds ratio, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.41). No associations between umbilical cord IL-6, CRP, or MPO and MDI < 70 or PDI < 70 were evident. Umbilical cord serum concentrations of IL-6, CRP, and MPO, above the 75th percentile, were associated with more frequent PTB < 32 weeks of GA. Conclusion Elevated umbilical cord serum concentration of CRP is associated with reduced risk for CLD even after adjusting for GA at delivery. Occurrence of levels > 75th percentile of IL-6, CRP, and MPO in umbilical cord serum was associated with PTB < 32 weeks of GA. Elevated umbilical cord serum concentrations of IL-6, CRP, and MPO at birth were not associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes.
    American Journal of Perinatology 12/2013; 31(8). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1359723 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Buprenorphine pharmacotherapy for opioid-dependent pregnant women is associated with maternal and neonatal outcomes superior to untreated opioid dependence. However, the literature is inconsistent regarding the possible existence of a dose-response relationship between maternal buprenorphine dose and neonatal clinical outcomes. The present secondary analysis study (1) examined the relationship between maternal buprenorphine dose at delivery and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) peak score, estimated gestational age at delivery, Apgar scores at 1 and 5min, neonatal head circumference, length, and weight at birth, amount of morphine needed to treat NAS, duration of NAS treatment, and duration of neonatal hospital stay and (2) compared neonates who required pharmacotherapy for NAS to neonates who did not require such pharmacotherapy on these same outcomes, in 58 opioid-dependent pregnant women receiving buprenorphine as participants in a randomized clinical trial. (1) Analyses failed to provide evidence of a relationship between maternal buprenorphine dose at delivery and any of the 10 outcomes (all p-values>.48) and (2) significant mean differences between the untreated (n=31) and treated (n=27) for NAS groups were found for duration of neonatal hospital stay and NAS peak score (both p-values<.001). (1) Findings failed to support the existence of a dose-response relationship between maternal buprenorphine dose at delivery and any of 10 neonatal clinical outcomes, including NAS severity and (2) that infants treated for NAS had a higher mean NAS peak score and, spent a longer time in the hospital than did the group not treated for NAS is unsurprising.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.11.006 · 3.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We review clinical care issues related to illicit and therapeutic opioid use among pregnant and postpartum women, and outline the major responsibilities of obstetric providers who care for these patients during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods.Selected patient management issues are highlighted, and case examples are provided. Securing a strong rapport and trust with these patients is crucial for success in delivering high quality obstetric care and in coordinating services with other specialists as needed. Obstetric providers have an ethical obligation to screen, assess, and provide brief interventions and referral to specialized treatment to patients with drug use disorders. Opioid-dependent pregnant women can often be effectively treated with methadone or buprenorphine. These medications are classified as pregnancy Category C medications by the Food and Drug Administration, and their use in the treatment of opioid-dependent pregnant patients should not be considered "off-label". Except in rare special circumstances, medication-assisted withdrawal during pregnancy should be discouraged due to a high relapse rate. Acute pain management in this population deserves special consideration because opioid-using patients can be hypersensitive to pain and use of mixed opioid-agonist/antagonists can precipitate opioid withdrawal. In the absence of other indications, opioid-using pregnant women do not require more intense medical care than other pregnant patients in order to ensure adequate management and best possible outcomes. Together with specialists in pain and addiction medicine, obstetricians can coordinate comprehensive care for opioid-using pregnant and postpartum women.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 10/2013; 210(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2013.10.010 · 3.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,625.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1989–2015
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Department of Maternal and Child Health
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2003–2014
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • George Washington University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • University of Tennessee
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Knoxville, Tennessee, United States
    • Brown University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Providence, RI, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Роквилл, Maryland, United States
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Wake Forest University
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Galveston, TX, United States
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology
      Portland, OR, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • Drexel University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2004–2011
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Columbus, OH, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Birmingham, AL, United States
  • 2003–2007
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2006
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Salt Lake City, UT, United States
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology
      Chicago, IL, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Charlotte
      Charlotte, North Carolina, United States
  • 2005
    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Maryland, United States
  • 2002
    • University of Florida Health Science Center-Jacksonville
      Jacksonville, Florida, United States
  • 1996
    • Penn State Hershey Medical Center and Penn State College of Medicine
      • Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States