Igor Nenadic

Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Jena, Thuringia, Germany

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Publications (95)424.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Early intervention research in schizophrenia has suggested that brain structural alterations might be present in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis. The heterogeneity of regional effects of these changes, which is established in schizophrenia, however, has not been explored in prodromal or high-risk populations. We used high-resolution MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM8) to analyze grey matter differences in 43 ultra high-risk subjects for psychosis (meeting ARMS criteria, identified through CAARMS interviews), 24 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and 49 healthy controls (groups matched for age and gender). Compared to healthy controls, resp., first-episode schizophrenia patients had reduced regional grey matter in left prefrontal, insula, right parietal and left temporal cortices, while the high-risk group showed reductions in right middle temporal and left anterior frontal cortices. When dividing the ultra-high-risk group in those with a genetic risk vs. those with attenuated psychotic symptoms, the former showed left anterior frontal, right caudate, as well as a smaller right hippocampus, and amygdala reduction, while the latter subgroup showed right middle temporal cortical reductions (each compared to healthy controls). Our findings in a clinical psychosis high-risk cohort demonstrate variability of brain structural changes according to subgroup and background of elevated risk, suggesting frontal and possibly also hippocampal/amygdala changes in individuals with genetic susceptibility. Heterogeneity of structural brain changes (as seen in schizophrenia) appears evident even at high-risk stage, prior to potential onset of psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Schizophrenia Research 12/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In aetiologically complex illnesses such as schizophrenia, there is no direct link between genotype and phenotype. Intermediate phenotypes could help clarify the underlying biology and assist in the hunt for genetic vulnerability variants. We have previously shown that cognition shares substantial genetic variance with schizophrenia; however, it is unknown if this reflects pleiotropic effects, direct causality or some shared third factor that links both, for example, brain volume (BV) changes. We quantified the degree of net genetic overlap and tested the direction of causation between schizophrenia liability, brain structure and cognition in a pan-European schizophrenia twin cohort consisting of 1243 members from 626 pairs. Cognitive deficits lie upstream of the liability for schizophrenia with about a quarter of the variance in liability to schizophrenia explained by variation in cognitive function. BV changes lay downstream of schizophrenia liability, with 4% of BV variation explained directly by variation in liability. However, our power to determine the nature of the relationship between BV deviation and schizophrenia liability was more limited. Thus, while there was strong evidence that cognitive impairment is causal to schizophrenia liability, we are not in a position to make a similar statement about the relationship between liability and BV. This is the first study to demonstrate that schizophrenia liability is expressed partially through cognitive deficits. One prediction of the finding that BV changes lie downstream of the disease liability is that the risk loci that influence schizophrenia liability will thereafter influence BV and to a lesser extent. By way of contrast, cognitive function lies upstream of schizophrenia, thus the relevant loci will actually have a larger effect size on cognitive function than on schizophrenia. These are testable predictions.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 2 December 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.152.
    Molecular Psychiatry 12/2014; · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: First combined grey and white matter analysis in narcissistic personality disorder•Narcissistic personality disorder is associated with frontal grey matter loss•NaPD is also associated with right frontal white matter alterations
    Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 11/2014; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Imaging genetics examines genetic influences on brain structure and function. This preliminary study tested a fundamental assumption of that approach by estimating the heritability of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal during antisaccades, a measure of response inhibition impaired in different psychiatric conditions. One hundred thirty-two healthy same-sex reared-together twins (90 monozygotic (MZ; 32 male) and 42 dizygotic (DZ; 24 male)) performed antisaccades in the laboratory. Of these, 96 twins (60 MZ, 28 male; 36 DZ, 22 male) subsequently underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during antisaccades. Variation in antisaccade direction errors in the laboratory showed significant heritability (47%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 22-65). In fMRI, the contrast of antisaccades with prosaccades yielded BOLD signal in fronto-parietal-subcortical networks. Twin modelling provided tentative evidence of significant heritability (50%, 95% CI: 18-72) of BOLD in the left thalamus only. However, due to the limited power to detect heritability in this study, replications in larger samples are needed.
    Biological psychology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that have important roles in immunity, providing support for the speculated link between the immune system and schizophrenia.
    Nature 07/2014; 511:421-427. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, an integrated hierarchical approach was applied to: (1) identify pathways associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia; (2) detect genes that may be potentially affected in these pathways since they contain an associated polymorphism; and (3) annotate the functional consequences of such single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the affected genes or their regulatory regions. The Global Test was applied to detect schizophrenia-associated pathways using discovery and replication datasets comprising 5,040 and 5,082 individuals of European ancestry, respectively. Information concerning functional gene-sets was retrieved from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Gene Ontology, and the Molecular Signatures Database. Fourteen of the gene-sets or pathways identified in the discovery dataset were confirmed in the replication dataset. These include functional processes involved in transcriptional regulation and gene expression, synapse organization, cell adhesion, and apoptosis. For two genes, i.e. CTCF and CACNB2, evidence for association with schizophrenia was available (at the gene-level) in both the discovery study and published data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium schizophrenia study. Furthermore, these genes mapped to four of the 14 presently identified pathways. Several of the SNPs assigned to CTCF and CACNB2 have potential functional consequences, and a gene in close proximity to CACNB2, i.e. ARL5B, was identified as a potential gene of interest. Application of the present hierarchical approach thus allowed: (1) identification of novel biological gene-sets or pathways with potential involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia, as well as replication of these findings in an independent cohort; (2) detection of genes of interest for future follow-up studies; and (3) the highlighting of novel genes in previously reported candidate regions for schizophrenia.
    PLoS Genetics 06/2014; · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Season of birth has been shown to influence risk for several neuropsychiatric diseases. Furthermore, it has been suggested that season of birth modifies a number of brain morphological traits. Since cortical thickness alterations have been reported across some levels of the psychosis-spectrum, this study was aimed at i) assessing the scarcely explored relationship between cortical thickness and severity of subclinical psychotic experiences (PEs) in healthy subjects, and ii) evaluating the potential impact of season of birth in the preceding thickness-PEs relationship. As both PEs and brain cortical features are heritable, the current work used monozygotic twins to separately evaluate familial and unique environmental factors. High-resolution structural MRI scans of 48 twins (24 monozygotic pairs) were analyzed to estimate cortical thickness using FreeSurfer. They were then examined in relation to PEs, accounting for the effects of birth season; putative differential relationships between PEs and cortical thickness depending on season of birth were also tested. Current results support previous findings indicative of cortical thickening in healthy individuals with high psychometrically assessed psychosis scores, probably in line with theories of compensatory aspects of brain features in non-clinical populations. Additionally, they suggest distinct patterns of cortical thickness-PEs relationships depending on birth seasonality. Familial factors underlying the presence of PEs may drive these effects.
    Journal of psychiatric research. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic variation in the gene encoding ZNF804A, a risk gene for schizophrenia, has been shown to affect brain functional endophenotypes of the disorder, while studies of white matter structure have been inconclusive.
    Psychological Medicine 05/2014; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test whether firstly, different parental rearing components were associated with different dimensions of psychiatric symptoms in adulthood, secondly BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism moderated this association and thirdly, this association was due to genetic confounding. Perceived parental rearing according to Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), psychiatric symptoms evaluated with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism were analyzed in a sample of 232 adult twins from the general population. In the whole sample, paternal care was negatively associated with depression. Maternal overprotection was positively associated with paranoid ideation, obsession-compulsion and somatization. Gene-environment interaction effects were detected between the BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism and maternal care on phobic anxiety, paternal care on hostility, maternal overprotection on somatization and paternal overprotection also in somatization. In the subsample of MZ twins, intrapair differences in maternal care were associated with anxiety, paranoid ideation and somatization. Met carriers were, in general, more sensitive to the effects of parental rearing compared to Val/Val carriers in relation to anxiety and somatization. Contra-intuitively, our findings suggest that high rates of maternal care might be of risk for Met carriers regarding anxiety. Results from analyses controlling for genetic confounding were in line with this finding.
    European Psychiatry 04/2014; · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurodevelopmental disruptions caused by obstetric complications play a role in the etiology of several phenotypes associated with neuropsychiatric diseases and cognitive dysfunctions. Importantly, it has been noticed that epigenetic processes occurring early in life may mediate these associations. Here, DNA methylation signatures at IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) and IGF2BP1-3 (IGF2-binding proteins 1-3) were examined in a sample consisting of 34 adult monozygotic (MZ) twins informative for obstetric complications and cognitive performance. Multivariate linear regression analysis of twin data was implemented to test for associations between methylation levels and both birth weight (BW) and adult working memory (WM) performance. Familial and unique environmental factors underlying these potential relationships were evaluated. A link was detected between DNA methylation levels of two CpG sites in the IGF2BP1 gene and both BW and adult WM performance. The BW-IGF2BP1 methylation association seemed due to non-shared environmental factors influencing BW, whereas the WM-IGF2BP1 methylation relationship seemed mediated by both genes and environment. Our data is in agreement with previous evidence indicating that DNA methylation status may be related to prenatal stress and later neurocognitive phenotypes. While former reports independently detected associations between DNA methylation and either BW or WM, current results suggest that these relationships are not confounded by each other.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e103639. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To test whether firstly, different parental rearing components were associated with different dimensions of psychiatric symptoms in adulthood, secondly BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism moderated this association and thirdly, this association was due to genetic confounding. Method Perceived parental rearing according to Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), psychiatric symptoms evaluated with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism were analyzed in a sample of 232 adult twins from the general population. Results In the whole sample, paternal care was negatively associated with depression. Maternal overprotection was positively associated with paranoid ideation, obsession-compulsion and somatization. Gene-environment interaction effects were detected between the BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism and maternal care on phobic anxiety, paternal care on hostility, maternal overprotection on somatization and paternal overprotection also in somatization. In the subsample of MZ twins, intrapair differences in maternal care were associated with anxiety, paranoid ideation and somatization. Conclusions Met carriers were, in general, more sensitive to the effects of parental rearing compared to Val/Val carriers in relation to anxiety and somatization. Contra-intuitively, our findings suggest that high rates of maternal care might be of risk for Met carriers regarding anxiety. Results from analyses controlling for genetic confounding were in line with this finding.
    European Psychiatry. 01/2014;
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    Clinical EEG and neuroscience; 12/2013
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    Clinical EEG and neuroscience: official journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) 12/2013; 44(4):E1-121. · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • Psychological Medicine 11/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe and debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder with an estimated heritability of ~80%. Recently, de novo mutations, identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, have been suggested to contribute to the risk of developing SCZ. Although these studies show an overall excess of de novo mutations among patients compared with controls, it is not easy to pinpoint specific genes hit by de novo mutations as actually involved in the disease process. Importantly, support for a specific gene can be provided by the identification of additional alterations in several independent patients. We took advantage of existing genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data sets to screen for deletions or duplications (copy number variations, CNVs) in genes previously implicated by NGS studies. Our approach was based on the observation that CNVs constitute part of the mutational spectrum in many human disease-associated genes. In a discovery step, we investigated whether CNVs in 55 candidate genes, suggested from NGS studies, were more frequent among 1637 patients compared with 1627 controls. Duplications in RB1CC1 were overrepresented among patients. This finding was followed-up in large, independent European sample sets. In the combined analysis, totaling 8461 patients and 112 871 controls, duplications in RB1CC1 were found to be associated with SCZ (P=1.29 × 10−5; odds ratio=8.58). Our study provides evidence for rare duplications in RB1CC1 as a risk factor for SCZ.
    Translational Psychiatry. 11/2013; 3(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence indicated that the ZNF804A (rs1344706) risk allele A is associated with better cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that ZNF804A may also be related to relatively intact gray matter volume in patients. To further explore these putatively protective effects, the impact of ZNF804A on cortical thickness and folding was examined in this study. To elucidate potential molecular mechanisms, an allelic-specific gene expression study was also carried out. Magnetic resonance imaging cortical thickness and folding were computed in 55 genotyped patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls. Homozygous risk allele carriers (AA) were compared with AC/CC carriers. ZNF804A gene expression was analyzed in a prefrontal region using postmortem tissue from another cohort of 35 patients. In patients, AA carriers exhibited significantly thicker cortex in prefrontal and temporal regions and less disturbed superior temporal cortical folding, whereas the opposite effect was observed in controls, ie, AA carrier status was associated with thinner cortex and more severe altered cortical folding. Along with this, our expression analysis revealed that the risk allele is associated with lower prefrontal ZNF804A expression in patients, whereas the opposite effect in controls has been observed by prior analyses. In conclusion, our analyses provide convergent support for the hypothesis that the schizophrenia-associated ZNF804A variant mediates protective effects on cortex structure in patients. In particular, the allele-specific expression profile in patients might constitute a molecular mechanism for the observed protective influence of ZNF804A on cortical thickness and folding and potentially other intermediate phenotypes.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 09/2013; · 8.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Probabilistic independent component analysis was applied to identify the default mode network (DMN) in resting state data obtained with functional magnetic resonance imaging from 25 DSM-IV schizophrenia and 25 matched healthy subjects. Power spectrum analysis showed a significant diagnosis×frequency interaction and higher power in one frequency band, indicating an alteration of DMN frequency spectrum in schizophrenia.
    Psychiatry research. 07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia has been linked to disturbed connectivity between large-scale brain networks. Altered thalamocortical connectivity might be a major mechanism mediating regionally distributed dysfunction, yet it is only incompletely understood. We analysed functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained during resting state from 22 DSM-IV schizophrenia patients and 22 matched healthy controls to directly assess the differences in thalamocortical functional connectivity. We identified significantly higher overall thalamocortical functional connectivity in patients, which was mostly accounted for by difference in thalamic connections to right ventrolateral prefrontal and bilateral secondary motor and sensory (superior temporal and lateral occipital) cortical areas. Voxelwise analysis showed group differences at the thalamic level to be mostly in medial and anterior thalamic nuclei and arising thalamocortical changes to be mostly due to higher positive correlations in prefrontal and superior temporal correlations, as well as absent negative correlations to sensory areas in patients. Our findings demonstrate that different types of thalamocortical dysfunction contribute to network alterations, including lack of inhibitory interaction attributed to the lack of significant negative thalamic/sensory cortical connections. These results emphasize the functional importance of the thalamus in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
    European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 07/2013; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Structural deficits in the superior temporal cortex and transverse temporal gyri appear to be related to auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia, which are a key symptom of this disorder. However, the cellular and neurochemical underpinnings are poorly understood and hardly studied in vivo. We used (31)P-MRS (magnetic resonance spectroscopy) with chemical shift imaging to assess the association between left superior temporal cortex metabolism and severity of auditory hallucinations in 29 schizophrenia patients off antipsychotics. Hallucinations scores derived from the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms showed significant positive correlations with both measures of phospholipids (phosphomonoesters and phosphodiesters), and energy (inorganic phosphate and phosphocreatine, but not adenosine tri-phosphate) metabolism in left superior temporal gyrus/Heschl gyrus voxels. There was no correlation of metabolites in these regions with formal thought disorder, a symptom also linked to superior temporal pathology, thus suggesting symptom specificity. Our findings provide a link between established structural deficits and neurochemical pathology related to membrane pathology and markers of general metabolic turnover.
    Brain Structure and Function 07/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is assumed to be a neurodevelopmental disorder, which might involve disturbed development of the cerebral cortex, especially in frontal and medial temporal areas. Based on a novel spherical harmonics approach to measuring complexity of cortical folding, we applied a measure based on fractal dimension (FD) to investigate the heterogeneity of regional cortical surface abnormalities across subgroups of schizophrenia defined by symptom profiles. A sample of 87 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia was divided into three subgroups (based on symptom profiles) with predominantly negative (n = 31), disorganized (n = 23), and paranoid (n = 33) symptoms and each compared to 108 matched healthy controls. While global FD measures were reduced in the right hemisphere of the negative and paranoid subgroups, regional analysis revealed marked heterogeneity of regional FD alterations. The negative subgroup showed most prominent reductions in left anterior cingulate, superior frontal, frontopolar, as well as right superior frontal and superior parietal cortices. The disorganized subgroup showed reductions in bilateral ventrolateral/orbitofrontal cortices, and several increases in the left hemisphere, including inferior parietal, middle temporal, and midcingulate areas. The paranoid subgroup showed only few changes, including decreases in the right superior parietal and left fusiform region, and increase in the left posterior cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest regional heterogeneity of cortical folding complexity, which might be related to biological subgroups of schizophrenia with differing degrees of altered cortical developmental pathology. Hum Brain Mapp, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 06/2013; · 6.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
424.08 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena
      • Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany
  • 2013
    • University of Barcelona
      • Departament de Biologia Animal
      Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    • RWTH Aachen University
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Psychiatry
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Instituto de Salud Carlos III
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Bonn
      • Institute of Human Genetics
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2009–2010
    • Universitätsklinikum Jena
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany