[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on studies in mice and humans, cohesin loss from chromosomes during the period of protracted meiotic arrest appears to play a major role in chromosome segregation errors during female meiosis. In mice, mutations in meiosis-specific cohesin genes cause meiotic disturbances and infertility. However, the more clinically relevant situation, heterozygosity for mutations in these genes, has not been evaluated. We report here evidence from the mouse that partial loss of gene function for either Smc1b or Rec8 causes perturbations in the formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC) and affects both synapsis and recombination between homologs during meiotic prophase. Importantly, these defects increase the frequency of chromosomally abnormal eggs in the adult female. These findings have important implications for humans: they suggest that women who carry mutations or variants that affect cohesin function have an elevated risk of aneuploid pregnancies and may even be at increased risk of transmitting structural chromosome abnormalities.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Follistatin is a potent regulator of the inflammatory response and binds to and inhibits activin A action. Activin A is a member of the TGFβ protein superfamily which has regulatory roles in the inflammatory response and in the fibrotic process. Fibrosis can occur following cell injury and cell death induced by agents such as ionizing radiation (IR). IR is used to treat cancer and marked fibrotic response is a normal tissue (non-tumour) consequence in a fraction of patients under the current dose regimes. The discovery and development of a therapeutic to abate fibrosis in these radiosensitive patients would be a major advance for cancer radiotherapy. Likewise, prediction of which patients are susceptible to fibrosis would enable individualization of treatment and provide an opportunity for pre-emptive fibrosis control and better tumour treatment outcomes. The levels of activin A and follistatin were measured in fibroblasts derived from patients who developed severe radiation-induced fibrosis following radiotherapy and compared to fibroblasts from patients who did not. Both follistatin and activin A gene expression levels were increased following IR and the follistatin gene expression level was lower in the fibroblasts from fibrosis patients compared to controls at both basal levels and after IR. The major follistatin transcript variants were found to have a similar response to IR and both were reduced in fibrosis patients. Levels of follistatin and activin A secreted in the fibroblast culture medium also increased in response to IR and the relative follistatin protein levels were significantly lower in the samples derived from fibrosis patients. The decrease in the follistatin levels can lead to an increased bioactivity of activin A and hence may provide a useful measurement to identify patients at risk of a severe fibrotic response to IR. Additionally, follistatin, by its ability to neutralise the actions of activin A may be of value as an anti-fibrotic for radiation induced fibrosis.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77119. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evolutionarily conserved cohesin complex was originally described for its role in regulating sister-chromatid cohesion during mitosis and meiosis. Cohesin and its regulatory proteins have been implicated in several human developmental disorders, including Cornelia de Lange (CdLS) and Roberts syndromes. Here we show that human mutations in the integral cohesin structural protein RAD21 result in a congenital phenotype consistent with a "cohesinopathy." Children with RAD21 mutations display growth retardation, minor skeletal anomalies, and facial features that overlap findings in individuals with CdLS. Notably, unlike children with mutations in NIPBL, SMC1A, or SMC3, these individuals have much milder cognitive impairment than those with classical CdLS. Mechanistically, these mutations act at the RAD21 interface with the other cohesin proteins STAG2 and SMC1A, impair cellular DNA damage response, and disrupt transcription in a zebrafish model. Our data suggest that, compared to loss-of-function mutations, dominant missense mutations result in more severe functional defects and cause worse structural and cognitive clinical findings. These results underscore the essential role of RAD21 in eukaryotes and emphasize the need for further understanding of the role of cohesin in human development.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 05/2012; 90(6):1014-27. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The RAD21 gene encodes a key component of the cohesin complex, which is essential for chromosome segregation, and together with BRCA1 and BRCA2, for high-fidelity DNA repair by homologous recombination. Although its expression correlates with early relapse and treatment resistance in sporadic breast cancers, it is unclear whether familial breast cancers behave in a similar manner.
We performed an immunohistochemical analysis of RAD21 expression in a cohort of 94 familial breast cancers (28 BRCA1, 27 BRCA2, and 39 BRCAX) and correlated these data with genotype and clinicopathologic parameters, including survival. In these cancers, we also correlated RAD21 expression with genomic expression profiling and gene copy-number changes and miRNAs predicted to target RAD21.
No significant differences in nuclear RAD21 expression were observed between BRCA1 (12 (43%) of 28), BRCA2 (12 (44%) of 27), and BRCAX cancers (12 (33%) of 39 (p = 0.598). No correlation was found between RAD21 expression and grade, size, or lymph node, ER, or HER2 status (all P > 0.05). As for sporadic breast cancers, RAD21 expression correlated with shorter survival in grade 3 (P = 0.009) and but not in grade 1 (P = 0.065) or 2 cancers (P = 0.090). Expression of RAD21 correlated with poorer survival in patients treated with chemotherapy (P = 0.036) but not with hormonal therapy (P = 0.881). RAD21 expression correlated with shorter survival in BRCA2 (P = 0.006) and BRCAX (P = 0.008), but not BRCA1 cancers (P = 0.713). Changes in RAD21 mRNA were reflected by genomic changes in DNA copy number (P < 0.001) and by RAD21 protein expression, as assessed with immunohistochemistry (P = 0.047). High RAD21 expression was associated with genomic instability, as assessed by the total number of base pairs affected by genomic change (P = 0.048). Of 15 miRNAs predicted to target RAD21, mir-299-5p inversely correlated with RAD21 expression (P = 0.002).
Potential use of RAD21 as a predictive and prognostic marker in familial breast cancers is hence feasible and may therefore take into account the patient's BRCA1/2 mutation status.
Breast cancer research: BCR 04/2012; 14(2):R69. · 5.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cohesin is a conserved multisubunit protein complex with diverse cellular roles, making key contributions to the coordination of chromosome segregation, the DNA damage response and chromatin regulation by epigenetic mechanisms. Much has been learned in recent years about the roles of cohesin in a physiological context, whereas its potential and emerging role in tumour initiation and/or progression has received relatively little attention. In this Opinion article we examine how cohesin deregulation could contribute to cancer development on the basis of its physiological roles.
Nature Reviews Cancer 03/2011; 11(3):199-210. · 29.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation therapy (RT) is used in the treatment of approximately half of all cancer patients. Although there have been great improvements in tumor localization and the technical accuracy of RT delivery, some RT patients still have idiosyncratic hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR) in their normal tissues. Although much effort has been expended in the search for assays that could detect radiosensitive individuals prior to treatment and facilitate tailored therapy; a suitable and clinically practical predictive assay has yet to be realized. Since DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) are a major lesion caused by IR, we hypothesized that radiation hypersensitive individuals might be deficient in the repair of such lesions.
To test this hypothesis we quantitatively and functionally characterized DSB repair of the two major non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) sub-pathways in a pilot study using a plasmid repair reconstitution assay in lymphoblastoid and fibroblast cell lines from radiosensitive cancer patients and controls. Experiments using well-characterized mammalian DSB repair mutants demonstrated the ability of the assay to distinguish NHEJ sub-pathways. The proportion of direct end-joining repair compared with that of microhomology-directed repair was used as a functional end-point of DSB repair competence in the different cell lines.
We found that the overall level of NHEJ sub-pathway repair competency was similar in cell lines from radiosensitive patients and controls.
These data suggest that this assay in these cell lineages has limited usefulness as a predictive screen for the endogenous DNA DSB repair competency of radiosensitive cancer patients' cells but can usefully characterize major cellular DSB repair phenotypes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Humans are exposed to the DNA damaging agent, ionizing radiation (IR), from background radiation, medical treatments, occupational and accidental exposures. IR causes changes in transcription, but little is known about alternative transcription in response to IR on a genome-wide basis. These investigations examine the response to IR at the exon level in human cells, using exon arrays to comprehensively characterize radiation-induced transcriptional expression products. Previously uncharacterized alternative transcripts that preferentially occur following IR exposure have been discovered. A large number of genes showed alternative transcription initiation as a response to IR. Dose-response and time course kinetics have also been characterized. Interestingly, most genes showing alternative transcript induction maintained these isoforms over the dose range and times tested. Finally, clusters of co-ordinately up- and down-regulated radiation response genes were identified at specific chromosomal loci. These data provide the first genome-wide view of the transcriptional response to ionizing radiation at the exon level. This study provides novel insights into alternative transcripts as a mechanism for response to DNA damage and cell stress responses in general.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e25758. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RAD21 is a component of the cohesin complex, which is essential for chromosome segregation and error-free DNA repair. We assessed its prognostic and predictive power in a cohort of in situ and invasive breast cancers, and its effect on chemosensitivity in vitro.
RAD21 immunohistochemistry was performed on 345 invasive and 60 pure in situ carcinomas. Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analyses were performed on a further 48 grade 3 invasive cancers. Chemosensitivity was assessed in breast cancer cell lines with an engineered spectrum of RAD21 expression.
RAD21 expression correlated with early relapse in all patients (hazard ratio (HR) 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 2.86, P = 0.029). This was due to the effect of grade 3 tumors (but not grade 1 or 2) in which RAD21 expression correlated with early relapse in luminal (P = 0.040), basal (P = 0.018) and HER2 (P = 0.039) groups. In patients treated with chemotherapy, RAD21 expression was associated with shorter overall survival (P = 0.020). RAD21 mRNA expression correlated with DNA copy number, with amplification present in 32% (7/22) of luminal, 31% (4/13) of basal and 22% (2/9) of HER2 grade 3 cancers. Variations in RAD21 mRNA expression in the clinical samples were reflected in the gene expression data from 36 breast cancer cell lines. Knockdown of RAD21 in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line significantly enhanced sensitivity to cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil and etoposide. The findings for the former two drugs recapitulated the clinical findings.
RAD21 expression confers poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy in high grade luminal, basal and HER2 breast cancers. RAD21 may be a novel therapeutic target.
Breast cancer research: BCR 01/2011; 13(1):R9. · 5.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The therapeutic ratio for ionising radiation treatment of tumour is a trade-off between normal tissue side-effects and tumour control. Application of a radioprotector to normal tissue can reduce side-effects. Here we study the effects of a new radioprotector on the cellular response to radiation. Methylproamine is a DNA-binding radioprotector which, on the basis of published pulse radiolysis studies, acts by repair of transient radiation-induced oxidative species on DNA. To substantiate this hypothesis, we studied protection by methylproamine at both clonogenic survival and radiation-induced DNA damage, assessed by γH2AX (histone 2AX phosphorylation at serine 139) focus formation endpoints.
The human keratinocyte cell line FEP1811 was used to study clonogenic survival and yield of γH2AX foci following irradiation (¹³⁷Cs γ-rays) of cells exposed to various concentrations of methylproamine. Uptake of methylproamine into cell nuclei was measured in parallel.
The extent of radioprotection at the clonogenic survival endpoint increased with methylproamine concentration up to a maximum dose modification factor (DMF) of 2.0 at 10 μM. At least 0.1 fmole/nucleus of methylproamine is required to achieve a substantial level of radioprotection (DMF of 1.3) with maximum protection (DMF of 2.0) achieved at 0.23 fmole/nucleus. The γH2AX focus yield per cell nucleus 45 min after irradiation decreased with drug concentration with a DMF of 2.5 at 10 μM.
These results are consistent with the hypothesis that radioprotection by methylproamine is mediated by attenuation of the extent of initial DNA damage.
International Journal of Radiation Biology 11/2010; 87(3):274-83. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of cancer patients will receive radiotherapy (RT), therefore, investigations into advances of this modality are important. Conventional RT dose intensities are limited by adverse responses in normal tissues and a primary goal is to ameliorate adverse normal tissue effects. The aim of these experiments is to further our understanding regarding the mechanism of radioprotection by the DNA minor groove binder, methylproamine, in a cellular context at the DNA level.
We used immunocytochemical methods to measure the accumulation of phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) foci following ionizing radiation (IR) in patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells exposed to methylproamine. Furthermore, we performed pulsed field gel electrophoresis DNA damage and repair assays to directly interrogate the action of methylproamine on DNA in irradiated cells.
We found that methylproamine-treated cells had fewer γH2AX foci after IR compared to untreated cells. Also, the presence of methylproamine decreased the amount of lower molecular weight DNA entering the gel as shown by the pulsed field gel electrophoresis assay.
These results suggest that methylproamine acts by preventing the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) and support the hypothesis that radioprotection by methylproamine is mediated, at least in part, by decreasing initial DNA damage.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 10/2010; 692(1-2):49-52. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are common in glioma. The most frequent mutation, de2-7 EGFR/EGFRvIII, occurs in approximately 40% of high-grade gliomas and confers resistance to ionizing radiation (IR). We have previously shown that mAb 806, a novel EGFR-specific antibody, is able to inhibit the growth of U87MG.Δ2-7 glioma xenografts expressing the de2-7 EGFR and may have potential as a therapeutic.
Nude mice bearing U87MG.Δ2-7 xenografts were treated with mAb 806 and/or IR. Comparison of tumor volumes, the effect of treatment on angiogenesis as determined by mean vessel density, and expression changes in prosurvival protein pAkt between treatment groups were undertaken.
Treatment of mice bearing U87MG.Δ2-7 xenografts with mAb 806 and IR resulted in schedule-dependent radiosensitization. Maximal benefit was obtained when antibody treatment was given before irradiation, with the greatest inhibition of both tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. Combination treatment mediated radiosensitization by selectively blocking the phosphorylation of the prosurvival protein Akt at serine 473, a process that is independent of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit.
Our results provide a rationale for the use of mAb 806 in combination with IR for the treatment of glioma and potentially other solid tumors bearing the de2-7 EGFR.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 10/2010; 78(2):572-8. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 1-5% of cancer patients suffer from significant normal tissue reactions as a result of radiotherapy (RT). It is not possible at this time to predict how most patients' normal tissues will respond to RT. DNA repair dysfunction is implicated in sensitivity to RT particularly in genes that mediate the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Phosphorylation of histone H2AX (phosphorylated molecules are known as gammaH2AX) occurs rapidly in response to DNA DSBs, and, among its other roles, contributes to repair protein recruitment to these damaged sites. Mammalian cell lines have also been crucial in facilitating the successful cloning of many DNA DSB repair genes; yet, very few mutant cell lines exist for non-syndromic clinical radiosensitivity (RS).
Here, we survey DNA DSB induction and repair in whole cells from RS patients, as revealed by gammaH2AX foci assays, as potential predictive markers of clinical radiation response.
With one exception, both DNA focus induction and repair in cell lines from RS patients were comparable with controls. Using gammaH2AX foci assays, we identified a RS cancer patient cell line with a novel ionising radiation-induced DNA DSB repair defect; these data were confirmed by an independent DNA DSB repair assay.
gammaH2AX focus measurement has limited scope as a pre-RT predictive assay in lymphoblast cell lines from RT patients; however, the assay can successfully identify novel DNA DSB repair-defective patient cell lines, thus potentially facilitating the discovery of novel constitutional contributions to clinical RS.
British Journal of Cancer 05/2010; 102(10):1511-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately half of cancer-affected patients receive radiotherapy (RT). The doses delivered have been determined upon empirical experience based upon average radiation responses. Ideally higher curative radiation doses might be employed in patients with genuinely normal radiation responses and importantly radiation hypersensitive patients would be spared the consequences of excessive tissue damage if they were identified before treatment. Rad21 is an integral subunit of the cohesin complex, which regulates chromosome segregation and DNA damage responses in eukaryotes. We show here, by targeted inactivation of this key cohesin component in mice, that Rad21 is a DNA-damage response gene that markedly affects animal and cell survival. Biallelic deletion of Rad21 results in early embryonic death. Rad21 heterozygous mutant cells are defective in homologous recombination (HR)-mediated gene targeting and sister chromatid exchanges. Rad21+/- animals exhibited sensitivity considerably greater than control littermates when challenged with whole body irradiation (WBI). Importantly, Rad21+/- animals are significantly more sensitive to WBI than Atm heterozygous mutant mice. Since supralethal WBI of mammals most typically leads to death via damage to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or the haematopoietic system, we determined the functional status of these organs in the irradiated animals. We found evidence for GIT hypersensitivity of the Rad21 mutants and impaired bone marrow stem cell clonogenic regeneration. These data indicate that Rad21 gene dosage is critical for the ionising radiation (IR) response. Rad21 mutant mice thus represent a new mammalian model for understanding the molecular basis of irradiation effects on normal tissues and have important implications in the understanding of acute radiation toxicity in normal tissues.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(8):e12112. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adjuvant radiotherapy for cancer can result in severe adverse side effects for normal tissues. In this respect, individuals with anomalies of the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia) protein/gene are of particular interest as they may be at risk of both breast cancer and clinical radiosensitivity. The association of specific ATM gene mutations with these pathologies has been well documented, however, there is uncertainty regarding pathological thresholds for the ATM protein.
Semi-quantitative immuno-blotting provided a reliable and reproducible method to compare levels of the ATM protein for a rare cohort of 20 cancer patients selected on the basis of their severe adverse normal tissue reactions to radiotherapy. We found that 4/12 (33%) of the breast cancer patients with severe adverse normal tissue reactions following radiotherapy had ATM protein levels < 55% compared to the mean for non-reactor controls.
ATM mutations are generally considered low risk alleles for breast cancer and clinical radiosensitivity. From results reported here we propose a tentative ATM protein threshold of ~55% for high-risk of clinical radiosensitivity for breast cancer patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) regulates melanin biogenesis. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequence variants in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MC1R affect melanin expression and are linked to skin phenotype. We aimed to determine whether SNPs of MC1R were associated with unexpectedly severe ionizing radiation reactions.
The MC1R genotype of a cohort of Australians with unexpectedly severe acute and/or late reactions (Common Terminology Criteria Version 3 (CTCv3) Grade 3 or 4) to radiotherapy (RT) for cancer (n = 30) was analyzed. The findings were compared with control data from our previous study of MC1R representative of the general Australian population (n = 1,787).
The difference in frequency of alleles encoding a "red hair color" phenotype in the cohort of patients with unexpectedly severe acute radiation reactions (n = 12) was significantly increased compared with the control population (p = 0.003). Acute radiosensitivity was especially associated with the R160W variant allele (odds ratio, 3.64 [95% confidence interval, 1.3-10.27]). The corresponding comparison of MC1R controls with unexpectedly severe late radiation reactions (n = 18) was not significant. It was also found that R160W as a part of the genotype in the patients with unexpectedly severe acute RT side effects as compared with the control group was also significant (p = 0.043).
In this small cohort of cancer patients, deoxyribonucleic acid sequence variants of the MC1R gene, especially the R160W variant, have been associated with unexpectedly severe acute reactions to RT. This result needs to be verified in a larger cohort of patients.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 11/2009; 77(5):1486-92. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meiotic crossovers are produced when programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by recombination from homologous chromosomes (homologues). In a wide variety of organisms, meiotic HORMA-domain proteins are required to direct DSB repair towards homologues. This inter-homologue bias is required for efficient homology search, homologue alignment, and crossover formation. HORMA-domain proteins are also implicated in other processes related to crossover formation, including DSB formation, inhibition of promiscuous formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC), and the meiotic prophase checkpoint that monitors both DSB processing and SCs. We examined the behavior of two previously uncharacterized meiosis-specific mouse HORMA-domain proteins--HORMAD1 and HORMAD2--in wild-type mice and in mutants defective in DSB processing or SC formation. HORMADs are preferentially associated with unsynapsed chromosome axes throughout meiotic prophase. We observe a strong negative correlation between SC formation and presence of HORMADs on axes, and a positive correlation between the presumptive sites of high checkpoint-kinase ATR activity and hyper-accumulation of HORMADs on axes. HORMADs are not depleted from chromosomes in mutants that lack SCs. In contrast, DSB formation and DSB repair are not absolutely required for depletion of HORMADs from synapsed axes. A simple interpretation of these findings is that SC formation directly or indirectly promotes depletion of HORMADs from chromosome axes. We also find that TRIP13 protein is required for reciprocal distribution of HORMADs and the SYCP1/SC-component along chromosome axes. Similarities in mouse and budding yeast meiosis suggest that TRIP13/Pch2 proteins have a conserved role in establishing mutually exclusive HORMAD-rich and synapsed chromatin domains in both mouse and yeast. Taken together, our observations raise the possibility that involvement of meiotic HORMA-domain proteins in the regulation of homologue interactions is conserved in mammals.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 1-5 percent of cancer patients suffer from significant side effects in normal tissue after radiotherapy (RT). Although RT is an effective cancer therapy, treatment dose intensities are restricted to minimize the incidence of such normal tissue reactions. Therefore, most patients receive lower dose intensities than can be tolerated in normal tissue. A primary aim for radiation oncology is to identify radiosensitive (RS) individuals prior to treatment. Such predictive ability should result in an improvement in tumor control rates and/or a reduction in the incidence of RT side effects. Recent evidence suggests a link between RS and telomere length. A positive correlation between cellular RS and telomere length in a cohort of breast cancer patients has been reported. Furthermore,individuals with cancer-prone recessive RS syndromes, such as ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) and Nijmegen breakage syndrome(NBS), have shortened telomeres. To determine whether the association between telomere length and RS could be used as a predictive assay to prospectively identify RS cancer patients, we utilized a bank of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from 33 RS patients, along with 18 LCL samples from RT patients who did not have severe reactions, to assess the link between RS and telomere length. We found a subset of RS patient LCLs had abnormally long telomere lengths, so these data suggest that RS could potentially be predicted for a subset of RS patients based on telomere length in LCLs, and contribute to therapy individualization.
Cancer biology & therapy 03/2008; 7(5):638-44. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assays to determine the pathogenicity of unclassified sequence variants in disease-associated genes include the analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). We assessed the ability of several assays of LCLs to distinguish carriers of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations from mutation-negative controls to determine their utility for use in a diagnostic setting.
Post-ionising radiation cell viability and micronucleus formation, and telomere length were assayed in LCLs carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, and in unaffected mutation-negative controls.
Post-irradiation cell viability and micronucleus induction assays of LCLs from individuals carrying pathogenic BRCA1 mutations, unclassified BRCA1 sequence variants or wildtype BRCA1 sequence showed significant phenotypic heterogeneity within each group. Responses were not consistent with predicted functional consequences of known pathogenic or normal sequences. Telomere length was also highly heterogeneous within groups of LCLs carrying pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, and normal BRCA1 sequences, and was not predictive of mutation status.
Given the significant degree of phenotypic heterogeneity of LCLs after gamma-irradiation, and the lack of association with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation status, we conclude that the assays evaluated in this study should not be used as a means of differentiating pathogenic and non-pathogenic sequence variants for clinical application. We suggest that a range of normal controls must be included in any functional assays of LCLs to ensure that any observed differences between samples reflect the genotype under investigation rather than generic inter-individual variation.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 10/2007; 104(3):257-66. · 4.47 Impact Factor