Ryszard Rutkowski

Medical University of Bialystok, Belostok, Podlasie, Poland

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Publications (54)19.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) are the most abundant circulating steroid hormones in humans. In animal studies, their low levels have been associated with age-related involuntary changes, including reduced lifespan. Extrapolation of animal data to humans turned DHEA into a 'superhormone' and an 'anti-aging' panacea. It has been aggressively marketed and sold in large quantities as a dietary supplement. Recent double-blind, placebo-controlled human studies provided evidence to support some of these claims. In the elderly, DHEA exerts an immunomodulatory action, increasing the number of monocytes, T cells expressing T-cell receptor gamma/delta (TCRγδ) and natural killer (NK) cells. It improves physical and psychological well-being, muscle strength and bone density, and reduces body fat and age-related skin atrophy stimulating procollagen/sebum production. In adrenal insufficiency, DHEA restores DHEA/DHEAS and androstenedione levels, reduces total cholesterol, improves well-being, sexual satisfaction and insulin sensitivity, and prevents loss of bone mineral density. Normal levels of CD4+CD25(hi) and FoxP3 (forkhead box P3) are restored. In systemic lupus erythematosus, DHEA is steroid-sparing. In an unblinded study, it induced remission in the majority of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. DHEA modulates cardiovascular signalling pathways and exerts an anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxant and anti-remodelling effect. Its low levels correlate with increased cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. DHEA/DHEAS appear protective in asthma and allergy. It attenuates T helper 2 allergic inflammation, and reduces eosinophilia and airway hyperreactivity. Low levels of DHEAS accompany adrenal suppression. It could be used to screen for the side effects of steroids. In women, DHEA improves sexual satisfaction, fertility and age-related vaginal atrophy. Many factors are responsible for the inconsistent/negative results of some studies. Overreliance on animal models (DHEA is essentially a human molecule), different dosing protocols with non-pharmacological doses often unachievable in humans, rapid metabolism of DHEA, co-morbidities and organ-specific differences render data interpretation difficult. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence supports the notion that DHEA is not just an overrated dietary supplement but a useful drug for some, but not all, human diseases. Large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed to fine-tune the indications and optimal dosing protocols before DHEA enters routine clinical practice.
    Drugs. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Atopic disorders are a major global health problem. The prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis has been increasing over the last four decades, both in the industrialized and developing countries. It seems to be related to changes in the social structure, increasing industrialization, pollution and dietary changes. Many hypotheses link the allergy epidemic to stringent hygiene, dominance of a westernized lifestyle and an accelerated pace of life. Dietary antioxidants, lipids, sodium, vitamin D seem also to be implicated. We endeavour to review the most relevant theories with a special emphasis on the hygiene, antioxidative, lipid and air pollution hypotheses. It is however important to note that none of them explains all the aspects of unprecedented rise in the prevalence of allergic disorders. A complex interplay between host's immune response, invading pathogens, diversity of environmental factors and genetic background seems to be of a particular importance. Current allergy epidemic is multifactorial and basic and epidemiologic studies are warranted to further our understanding of this phenomenon.
    Postȩpy dermatologii i alergologii. 05/2014; 31(2):77-83.
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    ABSTRACT: Optical radiation extends between microwaves and X-rays of the electromagnetic radiation and includes ultraviolet (UV), visible light (VL) and infrared (IR) components. The dose of radiation that reaches the skin is influenced by the ozone layer, position of the Sun, latitude, altitude, cloud cover and ground reflections. The photobiological effects of UV, VL and IR bands depend on their wavelength, frequency and mechanism of action. They are modified by the thickness, structure, vasculature and pigmentation of skin's stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis. Following absorption, IR affects the body mainly through transfer of thermal energy to tissues. Visible light and skin interact either thermally or photochemically, whereas UV acts mainly photochemically. Optical radiation in the form of sunlight therapy had been used already in ancient times. Nowadays IR, VL and UV are widely applied in the therapy of allergic, dermatological, cardiovascular, respiratory, rheumatic, neonatal, pediatric and psychiatric disorders.
    Postepy Dermatologii I Alergologii 08/2013; 30(4):246-251. · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the mechanisms for direct cell to cell signaling is mediated by gap junctions. These junctions are formed by connexins, transmembrane proteins. Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) plays a critical role in tissue development, differentiation of cells, and regulation of tissue homeostasis. Cancer cells are characterized by growth and/or differentiation disorders. Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in developed countries. In this study we discuss the putative role of GJIC and adhesion molecules in the development of endometrial cancer The relationships of GJIC to the process of apoptosis and function of some adhesion proteins have also been underlined.
    Ginekologia polska 07/2011; 82(7):520-4. · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cochlear Implant (CI) is the most advanced technical solution in the treatment of profound hearing loss and deafness in patients of all age groups. The aim of the study was to analyse the speech and linguistic disorders in adults with pre- and postlingual deafness rehabilitated with Cochlear implant (CI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 21 adults with pre- (I group) and postlingual (II group) deafness deriving no benefit from hearing aids participated in this study. Phonatory organ was examined by endoscopy (VLS) and stroboscopy (VLSS). Test of Auditory Perception (TSS) was conducted directly after the activation of speech processor and after rehabilitation. The logopedic assessment before and after CI was based on the examination of motoric activity of articulatory organs, type of respiration, loudness of speech and the assessment of articulation. The linguistic assessment of grammatical and lexical aspect was carried out. The prosodic elements of speech were also analysed. RESULTS: Stroboscopic examination pointed to hypofunction of larynx in patients with prelingual deafness and hyperfunction--in postlingual deafness. The values of TSS were improved after CI, especially in patients with postlingual deafness. The most severe disorders of the efficiency of articulatory organs were observed in patients with prelingual deafness before CI. In the group of prelingually deaf patients disorders of the articulation of vowels and consonants as well as the lexical and grammatical aspect of speech were improved after CI. The correctness of syntax and inflection, development of active vocabulary, improvement of prosodic elements of speech were noticed in patients with postlingual deafness after CI. CONCLUSIONS. Patients with postlingual deafness achieved better results of rehabilitation in auditory perception than prelingually deaf patients. The linguistic improvement of grammatical and lexical aspect was noticed especially in prelingually deaf patients after implantation. This group of patients achieved also the significant progress in prosodic elements of speech in comparison with the results before implantation.
    Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 09/2010; 29(171):187-93.
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    ABSTRACT: During carcinogenesis, loss of intracellular cohesion is observed among cancer cells with altered expression of such adhesion molecules as E-cadherin and beta-catenin, and aberrant expression and cellular location of intercellular gap junction proteins-connexins. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunohistochemically the expression and relationship between E-cadherin and beta-catenin, and the connexins Cx26 and Cx43 in 86 endometrioid adenocarcinomas. The aberrant cytoplasmic translocation of the studied proteins was a predominant finding, whereas only a minority of cases showed normal, nuclear beta-catenin labeling or membranous distribution of the remaining molecules. E-cadherin was positively and significantly associated with beta-catenin (P=0.001, r=0.366), as was Cx26 with Cx43 (P<0.001, r=0.719), E-cadherin with Cx26 (P<0.001, r=0.413), and E-cadherin and Cx43 (P<0.001, r=0.434) in all cancers. A subgroup of endometrioid adenocarcinomas (FIGO IB+II) exclusively showed a positive significant association between the expression of beta-catenin and Cx26 (P=0.038, r=0.339). In addition, there were significantly more beta-catenin-positive carcinomas among superficially spreading cancers (FIGO IA) than among deeper invading neoplasms (FIGO IB+II) (P=0.056). The altered location of the studied proteins indicates impairment of their physiological functions. In particular, normal membranous distribution of E-cadherin and connexins is lost and replaced by abnormal cytoplasmic accumulation in most cancers, and thus intercellular ties are expected to be weakened and loosened as a consequence. In contrast, the lack of relationship between beta-catenin and connexins, E-cadherin seems to be closely associated with the expression of Cx26 and Cx43 in endometrioid adenocarcinomas.
    International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 07/2010; 29(4):358-65. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the rehabilitation in laryngectomized patients is to produce phonatory communication. It is important to choose the optimal method of rehabilitation. Most of the patients use the oesophageal or pharyngeal speech as an effect of natural rehabilitation with vocalistic method. Another group of larygectomized patients is rehabilitated with surgical method which leads to shunt speech. THE AIM OF STUDY was to compare the quality of oesophageal and shunt speech with euphonic voice to choose the optimal method of rehabilitation in laryngectomized patients. The quality of vicarious phonation was examined in 30 patients with shunt speech and in 20 patients with oesophageal speech. Examination results of the subjective, objective and acoustic assessment were compared with values registered in physiological (euphonic) speech. The results of objective assessment were statistically analysed. The shunt and oesophageal speech enabled effective verbal communication of laryngectomized patients. The parameters of clinical subjective and objective assessment of shunt speech pointed to its high quality which is similar to physiological phonation. The acoustic analysis of voice confirmed the results of subjective and objective assessment of quality of shunt voice and speech in laryngectomized patients. In conclusion, the surgical rehabilitation of voice after total laryngectomy gave patients the great opportunity for a remarkable improvement in vicarious phonation.
    Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 04/2010; 28(166):277-83.
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    ABSTRACT: Verbal communication depends on a good function of voice and speech organs. Cochlear implant system (CI) is the most advanced treatment method in receptive deafness in patients of all age groups. To analyze the voice and speech before and after CI adjusted for time of onset of deafness (pre- and postlingual). 14 patients with postlingual (group I) and prelingual deafness (group II) deriving no benefit from hearing aids. In both groups laryngeal stroboscopy, voice, hearing and speech quality and quality of life were evaluated before and after CI. Results. Dysphonia was noted--hyperfunctional in group I and hypofunctional in group II. CI improved voice, speech and hearing quality in both groups, with the most significant amelioration of acoustic indices of voice in group II. Quality of life improved in both groups. CI improves quality of voice, speech and hearing in adults with pre- and postlingual deafness. Patients in group I made faster progress following CI than group II. CI had significant positive impact on quality of life in both groups.
    Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 10/2009; 27(160):305-10.
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    ABSTRACT: Progression of numerous neoplasms could involve alterations of gap junction channels composed of connexins (Cxs). Disorders of expression and cellular displacement of Cxs were also found in endometrial cancer. Gap junctional intercellular communication can be regulated by wide array of agents, for instance, growth factors, oncogenes, and steroid hormones. Nevertheless, expressions of Cxs and progesterone receptor (PR) were not compared in human tissues. This study focused on assessment of expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and PRs in relation to the expression of Cx26 and Cx43 in 88 cases of endometrial cancer and analysis of these proteins' expression in comparison with anatomoclinical features. Positive ERalpha and PR nuclear staining was present in 66 (75%) and 60 (68.2%) of all studied tumors, respectively. Positive correlation was found between expression of PR and histopathologic type of tumor (P = 0.026), and negative correlation was drawn with grading (G) (P = 0.002). There were positive reactions to Cx26 and Cx43 of mainly cytoplasmic location in 60 (68.2%) and 66 (75%) of studied cancers, respectively. Progesterone receptor expression correlated negatively with Cx26 in endometrial cancers (P = 0.016, r = -0.256). Moreover, ERalpha expression positively correlated with PR expression (P < 0.001, r = 0.678). On the ground of our findings, disorders of Cx expression and altered distribution pattern occur during endometrial carcinogenesis, and it seems that PR could participate in this fact. Loss of functional gap junctions may occur because of the aberrant expression and localization of Cx26 and Cx43 in endometrial cancer.
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 10/2009; 19(7):1253-7. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lysosomal exoglycosidases participate in the destruction of the articular cartilage by cleaving glycoside bonds in glycoproteins and proteoglycans. The aim of the study was to determine the activity of exoglycosidases: hexosaminidase, beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alpha-mannosidase and alpha-fucosidase in serum and synovial fluid of patients with Lyme and rheumatoid arthritis. The study group consisted of 10 patients with chronic Lyme arthritis (age 18 - 74 y), 13 with rheumatoid arthritis (age 32 - 70 y) and 10 with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (age 8 - 17 y). The control group consisted of 9 healthy volunteers (age 24 - 62 y). The activity of the exoglycosidases was determined with the p-nitrophenyl derivatives of sugars as substrates. A significant increase of the activity of all the exoglycosidases in serum and in synovial fluid of the patients with different forms of arthritis was found. The ratio of synovial fluid/serum activity of exoglycosidases was above 2.0 in LA but not in JIA and RA patients. As the main source of exoglycosidases in the joint is the synovial membrane, this result supports the appropriateness of therapeutic synovectomy in chronic Lyme arthritis with knee effusion. The serum activity of hexosaminidase may be used in monitoring the course of Lyme arthritis and the efficiency of treatment.
    Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2009; 41(8):584-9. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vocal cord paralysis, a complication after strumectomy, affects about 1% of treated patients. Patients with unilateral paralysis are usually treated with foniatric and conservative therapy. Bilateral vocal cord paralysis with the paramedial placement of vocal folds usually requires surgical treatment. Trachoetomy is often done because of dyspnoe. The surgical procedures widening of glottis are performed in case no improvement after conservative therapy. In 1989 Denis and Kashima first described the method of CO2 laser posterior cordectomy This method seems to be an effective and reliable surgical procedure. 36 patients with bilateral vocal cord paralysis underwent CO2 laser posterior cordectomy The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 36 months. All patients were decannulated by the third day after surgery. The subjective evaluation of patients concerning treatment was satisfied. The operation resulted in significant improvement in the field of respiratory function of the larynx and a slight objective aggrevation in the quality of voice.
    Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 05/2008; 24(143):385-91.
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure of nasal mucosa to various allergic and/or non-allergic stimuli might result in rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis affects 10-25% of population making it the most prevalent allergic disorder. Seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis affect up to 30% and 10% of pediatric population, respectively. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis varies between studies: in Poland, Breborowicz et al. reported allergic rhinitis in 16.7% of children aged 6-7, whereas Emeryk et al. observed perennial allergic rhinitis in 3.6% and seasonal allergic rhinitis in 6.2% of 8-15 year olds. Allergic rhinitis similarly to other diseases results in direct, indirect and hidden costs. In the USA (2002) direct costs were estimated at $4.195 billions and indirect at $665 millions (total of $4.863 billions). Allergic rhinitis co-exists with multiple respiratory conditions, significantly increasing treatment costs incurred by patients' and places additional burden on public finances. It also has a detrimental effect on patients' and their families' quality of life. Allergic rhinitis--although non-life threatening--significantly worsens quality of daily life and as such should be perceived as a serious medical condition not only by patients but also by medical professionals who are in position to diagnose it and implement appropriate therapeutic interventions.
    Pneumonologia i alergologia polska: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Ftyzjopneumonologicznego, Polskiego Towarzystwa Alergologicznego, i Instytutu Gruzlicy i Chorob Pluc 02/2008; 76(5):348-52.
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    ABSTRACT: Connexins are integral transmembrane proteins which form specialized hemichannels (connexons) in the plasma membrane. These structures make up gap junctions in adjacent cells which allow for rapid propagation of action potential and slow diffusion of nonorganic ions, secondary messengers, and other small water-soluble molecules (<1.0-2.0 kDa). Connexin proteins are crucial for the formation of gap junctions. Twenty human and 21 murine connexin isoforms (23-64 kDa) have been described so far. Traditional nomenclature in the CxMW format takes into account only the molecular weight of a given connexin. A more recent classification is based on structural gene similarities, their homology and sequence, as well as the length of connexins' cytoplasmic domains. Connexins, as all proteins, have a unique amino-acid sequences and molecular weights and exhibit specific biochemical properties. However, all of them have a common 3-D structure with four hydrophobic transmembrane domains (TM1-TM4), one cytoplasmic (CL) and two extracellular (E1-2) loops, and C- and N-terminal cytoplasmic regions. The cytoplasmic loop and C-terminal regions bind other structural proteins, creating a protein complex crucial for synchronized intercellular communication.
    Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej (Advances in Hygiene and Experimental Medicine) 02/2008; 62:632-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Alterations of gap junctional intercellular communication appear to play a role in the development and progression of cancer. Gap junction channel is composed of two connexons - hexameric units formed of transmembrane proteins called connexins (Cxs). The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression and localization of Cx26 in 73 cases of endometrial cancers and to estimate the relationships between expression of this protein and selected anatomoclinical features. The control group consisted of 20 sections of normal endometrium in various menstrual cycle phases, obtained from premenopausal women. In the normal endometrium punctate, membrane-associated immunoreactivity for Cx26 was observed. 54 of 73 endometrial cancers showed Cx26 expression, but 46/54 (85%) immunopositive sections revealed cytoplasmic localization for Cx26 with granular or occasionally diffuse immunostaining pattern. In addition, part of Cx26-positive tumours showed mixed: cytoplasmic and membranous staining pattern and focally also nuclear or perinuclear immunostaining was present. In 21/54 (39%) of Cx26-positive cases weak staining pattern was seen, however in 33/54 (61%) cancers strong reaction was noted. We did not find relationship between Cx26 expression and patients' age, histological type of cancer and histological grade, nevertheless we observed positive association between Cx26 expression and tumour size (p=0.037). In conclusion, our results suggest that transformed malignant cells continue to produce Cx26, which are probably not assembled into functional gap junction channels, but could still play other roles in endometrial cancer cells.
    Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 01/2008; 46(2):171-6. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lyme borreliosis (Lyme disease) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia species complex. Arthritis is one of the common manifestations of B. burgdorferi infection. The pathomechanism of articular changes in Lyme arthritis has not yet been elucidated. Histopathological studies of synovia and immunological changes are similar to rheumatoid arthritis. In the early stage of inflammation B. burgdorferi interact with polynuclear granulocytes and epithelial cells, triggering production of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation products and other inflammatory mediators. The imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes in inflamed joints results in the progressive destruction of articular cartilage and disintegration of extracellular matrix. Molecular mimicry between OspA (outer surface protein A) and adhesion molecule LFA-1alpha seems to be responsible for chronic arthritis.
    Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 09/2007; 23(134):141-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in every cell during normal oxidation. The most important ROS include: superoxide anion (O2*-), hydroxyl radical (OH*), hydroperoxyl radical (HO2*), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2*-). Reactive oxygen species can react with key cellular structures and molecules altering their biological function. Similarly reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitric oxide (NO) or peroxinitrite anion (ONOO-) have physiological activity or reacts with different types of molecules to form toxic products. ROS and RNS are important in process of energy generation, lipids peroxidation, protein and DNA oxidation, nitration, nitrosation or nitrosylation and catecholamine response. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species are neutralized by enzymatic activity or natural antioxidants that stop the initial formation of radicals. Overproduction of ROS or RNS results in "oxidative" or "nitrosative" stress which contributes to variety of pathological processes typical for different cancer, neurodegenerative, viral, toxic or inflammatory diseases.
    Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 09/2007; 23(134):131-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The roles of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins are widely discussed in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. It is highly probable that STAT1 and STAT3 are activated during proliferation and inflammation inside atheromatous plaques. Luminal surfaces of endothelium become thrombogenic because of STAT1-dependent induction of MHC II and STAT3-regulated recruitment of phospholipase A2. As with STAT1, STAT3 seems to mediate stimulation of vascular wall cells by VEGF, HGF, and Ang II. STAT3 can contribute to counteracting apoptosis by eventual cooperation with c-fos and the bcl-xl gene. As pharmacological agents called statins are reported to regulate activities of STAT proteins, these signal messenger proteins could serve as targets for anti-atherogenic therapy. We attempted to review the role of STAT1 and STAT3 proteins in vascular remodeling.
    European Journal of Internal Medicine 08/2007; 18(4):267-71. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The voice quality in prebysphonia is conditioned by morphological changes in the vocal folds mucosa. The studies including light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed changes within the basal membrane epithelium and the stroma of the vocal folds mucosa. Age-related changes in thickness of the epithelium and direction of the basal membrane, increased number of collagenous fibres (C) and fibroblasts and chronic inflammatory process in the stroma were found. Vacuolated and keratinised epithelial cells, enlarged extracellular spaces and numerous blood vessels confirm the edematous form of prebysphonia. Thinned epithelium with signs of hyalinization, inflammatory infiltrations in the stroma with numerous collagenous fibres and small number of blood vessels indicate atrophy of the vocal folds mucosa. Edematous and atrophic changes in the vocal folds mucosa are most frequently reported form of prebysphonia.
    Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 02/2007; 45(3):221-7. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gap junctions are specialized cell membrane channels composed of connexins (Cxs), which mediate the direct passage of small molecules between adjacent cells. They are involved in the regulation of cell cycle, cell signaling and differentiation as well as probably invasion and metastasis. Up to now, Cx32 status in human breast cancer has not been studied. Consequently, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the expression of connexin 32 (Cx32) in primary breast tumors (PTs) and matched-paired metastases to lymph nodes (MLNs) in correlation with selected clinicopathological features. Tissue samples from 79 women were examined by immunohistochemistry, using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex technique for Cx32. Cytoplasmic expression of Cx32 was detected in 31 of 79 breast cancers (39.2%). Both epithelial and myoepithelial cells of normal ducts adjacent to the tumor did not express Cx32. Increased expression of studied Cx was observed in metastases to lymph nodes relative to primary tumors. Additionally, Cx32-negative primary tumors developed Cx32-positive metastases. Statistical comparisons of Cx32 expression in the matched pairs indicate that this protein significantly increased in lymph node metastases compared to primary tumors (p<0.001). The expression of Cx32 in primary breast cancer was not statistically associated with age of patients, tumor size, lymph node status, but we observed a tendency toward association between Cx32 expression and histological differentiation. In conclusion, transformed cells may have an ability to produce Cxs also atypical for normal cells. Increased expression of Cx32 in metastases to the lymph nodes might reflect alteration in connexin gene transcription during breast carcinogenesis and finally, it may be a sign of more malignant phenotype of cancerous cells.
    Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 01/2007; 45 Suppl 1:S175-80. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess the role of costimulatory molecules in pathogenesis of nonallergic bronchial asthma. The studied group consisted of 30 patients with nonallergic asthma, 24 with nonallergic asthma and recurrent respiratory tract infections and 20 healthy controls. In nonstimulated and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated cultures of control group the mean value of CD16+ + 56+ CD28+ subpopulation were significantly decreased compared to values in both types of asthma. Similar dependence was observed in cultures of asthmatic patients with infection and healthy person, stimulated with IL-15 and in CD4+CD28+, CD8 +CD28+ and NKCD28+ cultures from all studied groups, stimulated with LPS plus IL-15. In nonallergic asthma and infection asthma mean values of CD4 +CD152+ and CD16+ +CD56 +CD152+ from nonstimulated and IL-15 stimulated cultures were significantly increased compared to analogical values in control group. The results of our studies suggest that in nonallergic asthma the disturbed expression of costimulatory molecules may play an important role in pathomechanism of disease.
    Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 03/2006; 20(116):139-44.