[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Tetanus is an acute disease caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus immunization has been available since the late 1930s but sporadic cases still occur, usually in incompletely vaccinated or unvaccinated individuals. Case Report. An elderly previously vaccinated female contracted tetanus following foot injury. Clinically she presented with meningitis causing diagnostic and therapeutic delays. Why Should Physician Be Aware of This? Even in developed countries the differential diagnosis of meningitis, especially in the elderly, should include tetanus. Treatment in intensive care unit is required. General population might benefit from vaccine boosters and education on this potentially fatal disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: introduction. In a group of persons using the voice occupationally, the frequent symptoms are hoarseness, voice fatigability and aphonia. Pathological changes in the larynx may have organic or functional character which require different methods of treatment and rehabilitation. Visualization of vibrations of the vocal folds is an essential condition for an appropriate assessment of the causes of dysphonia. objective. The purpose of the study is assessment of the usefulness of a high-speed imaging (HSI) system in the diagnosis of functional and organic dysphonia of occupational character, compared with digital kymography (DKG) and digital stroboscopy (DS) with a high resolution module. material and methods. The study group consisted of 64 patients with voice quality disorders with features of occupational dysphonia. The control group consisted of 15 patients with euphonic voice. Analysis of the voice quality parameters during phonation of the 'e' vowel was performed using HSI, DKG and stroboscopy of high resolution, by means of a digital HS camera (HRES Endocam, Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen, Germany). Vocal folds vibrations were registered at the rate of 4,000 frames per second. results. HSI is the most reliable diagnostic tool giving the possibility of an analysis of the true vibrations of the vocal folds. It also enables an observation of the aperiodicity of vibrations of the vocal folds, while DS with high resolution allows diagnosis of the periodicity of the vibrations. conclusions. HSI is particularly useful in the diagnosis of neurologically-based pathology of the voice (paralytic dysphonia) and organic dysphonia. The quickest method of diagnosing the phonatory paresis of the glottis is DKG. The advantage of both HSI and DKG is the non-invasiveness of examinations; however, their limitations are time-consuming and the high cost of equipment.
Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine: AAEM 11/2014; 21(4):898-902. DOI:10.5604/12321966.1129955 · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) are the most abundant circulating steroid hormones in humans. In animal studies, their low levels have been associated with age-related involuntary changes, including reduced lifespan. Extrapolation of animal data to humans turned DHEA into a 'superhormone' and an 'anti-aging' panacea. It has been aggressively marketed and sold in large quantities as a dietary supplement. Recent double-blind, placebo-controlled human studies provided evidence to support some of these claims. In the elderly, DHEA exerts an immunomodulatory action, increasing the number of monocytes, T cells expressing T-cell receptor gamma/delta (TCRγδ) and natural killer (NK) cells. It improves physical and psychological well-being, muscle strength and bone density, and reduces body fat and age-related skin atrophy stimulating procollagen/sebum production. In adrenal insufficiency, DHEA restores DHEA/DHEAS and androstenedione levels, reduces total cholesterol, improves well-being, sexual satisfaction and insulin sensitivity, and prevents loss of bone mineral density. Normal levels of CD4+CD25(hi) and FoxP3 (forkhead box P3) are restored. In systemic lupus erythematosus, DHEA is steroid-sparing. In an unblinded study, it induced remission in the majority of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. DHEA modulates cardiovascular signalling pathways and exerts an anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxant and anti-remodelling effect. Its low levels correlate with increased cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. DHEA/DHEAS appear protective in asthma and allergy. It attenuates T helper 2 allergic inflammation, and reduces eosinophilia and airway hyperreactivity. Low levels of DHEAS accompany adrenal suppression. It could be used to screen for the side effects of steroids. In women, DHEA improves sexual satisfaction, fertility and age-related vaginal atrophy. Many factors are responsible for the inconsistent/negative results of some studies. Overreliance on animal models (DHEA is essentially a human molecule), different dosing protocols with non-pharmacological doses often unachievable in humans, rapid metabolism of DHEA, co-morbidities and organ-specific differences render data interpretation difficult. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence supports the notion that DHEA is not just an overrated dietary supplement but a useful drug for some, but not all, human diseases. Large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed to fine-tune the indications and optimal dosing protocols before DHEA enters routine clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atopic disorders are a major global health problem. The prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis has been increasing over the last four decades, both in the industrialized and developing countries. It seems to be related to changes in the social structure, increasing industrialization, pollution and dietary changes. Many hypotheses link the allergy epidemic to stringent hygiene, dominance of a westernized lifestyle and an accelerated pace of life. Dietary antioxidants, lipids, sodium, vitamin D seem also to be implicated. We endeavour to review the most relevant theories with a special emphasis on the hygiene, antioxidative, lipid and air pollution hypotheses. It is however important to note that none of them explains all the aspects of unprecedented rise in the prevalence of allergic disorders. A complex interplay between host's immune response, invading pathogens, diversity of environmental factors and genetic background seems to be of a particular importance. Current allergy epidemic is multifactorial and basic and epidemiologic studies are warranted to further our understanding of this phenomenon.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optical radiation extends between microwaves and X-rays of the electromagnetic radiation and includes ultraviolet (UV), visible light (VL) and infrared (IR) components. The dose of radiation that reaches the skin is influenced by the ozone layer, position of the Sun, latitude, altitude, cloud cover and ground reflections. The photobiological effects of UV, VL and IR bands depend on their wavelength, frequency and mechanism of action. They are modified by the thickness, structure, vasculature and pigmentation of skin's stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis. Following absorption, IR affects the body mainly through transfer of thermal energy to tissues. Visible light and skin interact either thermally or photochemically, whereas UV acts mainly photochemically. Optical radiation in the form of sunlight therapy had been used already in ancient times. Nowadays IR, VL and UV are widely applied in the therapy of allergic, dermatological, cardiovascular, respiratory, rheumatic, neonatal, pediatric and psychiatric disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe widespread application of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in modern medicine requires healthcare professionals and undergraduates to be familiar with its physical and biological properties.AimThe aim of this paper was to review current literature on EMR physical principles.Materials and methodsAvailable literature on EMR has been reviewed and grouped thematically.Results and discussionThe electromagnetic spectrum is divided into radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-, gamma- and cosmic rays. Electromagnetic waves (EMWs) are characterized by frequency, velocity, period of vibration and wavelength. Depending on the medium, EMR may decelerate, reflect, refract, diffract, interfere or polarize. These phenomena apply to EMWs (light waves), pressure and water waves. The wave-particle duality of radiation is widely accepted and explains its nature and mechanism of action. Principles of quantum mechanics help to predict the potential biological impact of EMR.Conclusions
From humble beginnings, more than 100 years ago, EMR has become an important component of modern medicine. Therefore, there exists an urgent need for education and better understanding with respect to its principles and applications.
Polish Annals of Medicine 08/2012; 19(2):139–142. DOI:10.1016/j.poamed.2012.07.002
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IntroductionElectromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been successfully employed in modern medicine for many years. The medical community, however, often lacks in-depth knowledge concerning different types of radiation, their mechanisms of action and clinical applications.AimOur review offers a comprehensive overview of the biological action of ionizing radiation (IR) and non-ionizing radiation (NIR) and their applications in modern medicine. Chronic exposure to a high frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) as a potential public health risk is also discussed.Materials and methodsCurrent literature on IR and NIR has been reviewed and grouped thematically.Results and discussionBiological effects of EMR depend on its physical properties. IR is a potentially lethal stream of high energy particles. NIR carries less energy. EMR can damage DNA directly or indirectly via reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. It has been, however, successfully used in oncology (radiotherapy), physiotherapy (microwaves), rheumatology and endocrinology. Effective communication and data transmission are possible thanks to radio-, micro- and infrared waves. Cybernetics and modern forms of communication have been instrumental in the development of telerehabilitation and telemedicine. Evidence for the detrimental effects of cell phones, the most common source of EMR, on the developing central nervous system is scarce, but concerns have been raised about their carcinogenicity.Conclusions
Modern medicine cannot function without IR and NIR. However, their potentially undesirable biological side effects need to be taken into account.
Polish Annals of Medicine 08/2012; 19(2):134–138. DOI:10.1016/j.poamed.2012.07.001
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin C (VC; ascorbic acid, AA) is synthesised from glucose in the liver of most mammals, but not in humans. Synthetic AA supplementation is often necessary to prevent vitamin C deficiency. Intracellularly AA is reversibly oxidized to an ascorbic radical which converts into dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). Ascorbic acid crosses cell membranes with SVCT1, SVCT2 or GLUT1, GLUT3 and GLUT4 transporters. Recommended daily allowance for VC is around 75 mg/day for women and 90 mg/day for men. This seems to be too low in relation to real human body needs and does not ensure true health protection. There are ongoing studies re-evaluating the role of VC in cancer treatment. Therefore, it would be also appropriate to reassess its use as a specific drug in the prevention and therapy of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the mechanisms for direct cell to cell signaling is mediated by gap junctions. These junctions are formed by connexins, transmembrane proteins. Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) plays a critical role in tissue development, differentiation of cells, and regulation of tissue homeostasis. Cancer cells are characterized by growth and/or differentiation disorders. Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in developed countries. In this study we discuss the putative role of GJIC and adhesion molecules in the development of endometrial cancer The relationships of GJIC to the process of apoptosis and function of some adhesion proteins have also been underlined.
Ginekologia polska 07/2011; 82(7):520-4. · 0.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cochlear Implant (CI) is the most advanced technical solution in the treatment of profound hearing loss and deafness in patients of all age groups. The aim of the study was to analyse the speech and linguistic disorders in adults with pre- and postlingual deafness rehabilitated with Cochlear implant (CI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 21 adults with pre- (I group) and postlingual (II group) deafness deriving no benefit from hearing aids participated in this study. Phonatory organ was examined by endoscopy (VLS) and stroboscopy (VLSS). Test of Auditory Perception (TSS) was conducted directly after the activation of speech processor and after rehabilitation. The logopedic assessment before and after CI was based on the examination of motoric activity of articulatory organs, type of respiration, loudness of speech and the assessment of articulation. The linguistic assessment of grammatical and lexical aspect was carried out. The prosodic elements of speech were also analysed. RESULTS: Stroboscopic examination pointed to hypofunction of larynx in patients with prelingual deafness and hyperfunction--in postlingual deafness. The values of TSS were improved after CI, especially in patients with postlingual deafness. The most severe disorders of the efficiency of articulatory organs were observed in patients with prelingual deafness before CI. In the group of prelingually deaf patients disorders of the articulation of vowels and consonants as well as the lexical and grammatical aspect of speech were improved after CI. The correctness of syntax and inflection, development of active vocabulary, improvement of prosodic elements of speech were noticed in patients with postlingual deafness after CI. CONCLUSIONS. Patients with postlingual deafness achieved better results of rehabilitation in auditory perception than prelingually deaf patients. The linguistic improvement of grammatical and lexical aspect was noticed especially in prelingually deaf patients after implantation. This group of patients achieved also the significant progress in prosodic elements of speech in comparison with the results before implantation.
Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 09/2010; 29(171):187-93.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During carcinogenesis, loss of intracellular cohesion is observed among cancer cells with altered expression of such adhesion molecules as E-cadherin and beta-catenin, and aberrant expression and cellular location of intercellular gap junction proteins-connexins. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunohistochemically the expression and relationship between E-cadherin and beta-catenin, and the connexins Cx26 and Cx43 in 86 endometrioid adenocarcinomas. The aberrant cytoplasmic translocation of the studied proteins was a predominant finding, whereas only a minority of cases showed normal, nuclear beta-catenin labeling or membranous distribution of the remaining molecules. E-cadherin was positively and significantly associated with beta-catenin (P=0.001, r=0.366), as was Cx26 with Cx43 (P<0.001, r=0.719), E-cadherin with Cx26 (P<0.001, r=0.413), and E-cadherin and Cx43 (P<0.001, r=0.434) in all cancers. A subgroup of endometrioid adenocarcinomas (FIGO IB+II) exclusively showed a positive significant association between the expression of beta-catenin and Cx26 (P=0.038, r=0.339). In addition, there were significantly more beta-catenin-positive carcinomas among superficially spreading cancers (FIGO IA) than among deeper invading neoplasms (FIGO IB+II) (P=0.056). The altered location of the studied proteins indicates impairment of their physiological functions. In particular, normal membranous distribution of E-cadherin and connexins is lost and replaced by abnormal cytoplasmic accumulation in most cancers, and thus intercellular ties are expected to be weakened and loosened as a consequence. In contrast, the lack of relationship between beta-catenin and connexins, E-cadherin seems to be closely associated with the expression of Cx26 and Cx43 in endometrioid adenocarcinomas.
International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 07/2010; 29(4):358-65. DOI:10.1097/PGP.0b013e3181c3c57f · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the rehabilitation in laryngectomized patients is to produce phonatory communication. It is important to choose the optimal method of rehabilitation. Most of the patients use the oesophageal or pharyngeal speech as an effect of natural rehabilitation with vocalistic method. Another group of larygectomized patients is rehabilitated with surgical method which leads to shunt speech. THE AIM OF STUDY was to compare the quality of oesophageal and shunt speech with euphonic voice to choose the optimal method of rehabilitation in laryngectomized patients.
The quality of vicarious phonation was examined in 30 patients with shunt speech and in 20 patients with oesophageal speech. Examination results of the subjective, objective and acoustic assessment were compared with values registered in physiological (euphonic) speech. The results of objective assessment were statistically analysed.
The shunt and oesophageal speech enabled effective verbal communication of laryngectomized patients. The parameters of clinical subjective and objective assessment of shunt speech pointed to its high quality which is similar to physiological phonation.
The acoustic analysis of voice confirmed the results of subjective and objective assessment of quality of shunt voice and speech in laryngectomized patients. In conclusion, the surgical rehabilitation of voice after total laryngectomy gave patients the great opportunity for a remarkable improvement in vicarious phonation.
Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 04/2010; 28(166):277-83.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Verbal communication depends on a good function of voice and speech organs. Cochlear implant system (CI) is the most advanced treatment method in receptive deafness in patients of all age groups.
To analyze the voice and speech before and after CI adjusted for time of onset of deafness (pre- and postlingual).
14 patients with postlingual (group I) and prelingual deafness (group II) deriving no benefit from hearing aids. In both groups laryngeal stroboscopy, voice, hearing and speech quality and quality of life were evaluated before and after CI. Results. Dysphonia was noted--hyperfunctional in group I and hypofunctional in group II. CI improved voice, speech and hearing quality in both groups, with the most significant amelioration of acoustic indices of voice in group II. Quality of life improved in both groups.
CI improves quality of voice, speech and hearing in adults with pre- and postlingual deafness. Patients in group I made faster progress following CI than group II. CI had significant positive impact on quality of life in both groups.
Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 10/2009; 27(160):305-10.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progression of numerous neoplasms could involve alterations of gap junction channels composed of connexins (Cxs). Disorders of expression and cellular displacement of Cxs were also found in endometrial cancer. Gap junctional intercellular communication can be regulated by wide array of agents, for instance, growth factors, oncogenes, and steroid hormones. Nevertheless, expressions of Cxs and progesterone receptor (PR) were not compared in human tissues. This study focused on assessment of expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and PRs in relation to the expression of Cx26 and Cx43 in 88 cases of endometrial cancer and analysis of these proteins' expression in comparison with anatomoclinical features. Positive ERalpha and PR nuclear staining was present in 66 (75%) and 60 (68.2%) of all studied tumors, respectively. Positive correlation was found between expression of PR and histopathologic type of tumor (P = 0.026), and negative correlation was drawn with grading (G) (P = 0.002). There were positive reactions to Cx26 and Cx43 of mainly cytoplasmic location in 60 (68.2%) and 66 (75%) of studied cancers, respectively. Progesterone receptor expression correlated negatively with Cx26 in endometrial cancers (P = 0.016, r = -0.256). Moreover, ERalpha expression positively correlated with PR expression (P < 0.001, r = 0.678). On the ground of our findings, disorders of Cx expression and altered distribution pattern occur during endometrial carcinogenesis, and it seems that PR could participate in this fact. Loss of functional gap junctions may occur because of the aberrant expression and localization of Cx26 and Cx43 in endometrial cancer.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 10/2009; 19(7):1253-7. DOI:10.1111/IGC.0b013e3181a40618 · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysosomal exoglycosidases participate in the destruction of the articular cartilage by cleaving glycoside bonds in glycoproteins and proteoglycans. The aim of the study was to determine the activity of exoglycosidases: hexosaminidase, beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alpha-mannosidase and alpha-fucosidase in serum and synovial fluid of patients with Lyme and rheumatoid arthritis. The study group consisted of 10 patients with chronic Lyme arthritis (age 18 - 74 y), 13 with rheumatoid arthritis (age 32 - 70 y) and 10 with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (age 8 - 17 y). The control group consisted of 9 healthy volunteers (age 24 - 62 y). The activity of the exoglycosidases was determined with the p-nitrophenyl derivatives of sugars as substrates. A significant increase of the activity of all the exoglycosidases in serum and in synovial fluid of the patients with different forms of arthritis was found. The ratio of synovial fluid/serum activity of exoglycosidases was above 2.0 in LA but not in JIA and RA patients. As the main source of exoglycosidases in the joint is the synovial membrane, this result supports the appropriateness of therapeutic synovectomy in chronic Lyme arthritis with knee effusion. The serum activity of hexosaminidase may be used in monitoring the course of Lyme arthritis and the efficiency of treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations of gap junctional intercellular communication appear to play a role in the development and progression of cancer. Gap junction channel is composed of two connexons - hexameric units formed of transmembrane proteins called connexins (Cxs). The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression and localization of Cx26 in 73 cases of endometrial cancers and to estimate the relationships between expression of this protein and selected anatomoclinical features. The control group consisted of 20 sections of normal endometrium in various menstrual cycle phases, obtained from premenopausal women. In the normal endometrium punctate, membrane-associated immunoreactivity for Cx26 was observed. 54 of 73 endometrial cancers showed Cx26 expression, but 46/54 (85%) immunopositive sections revealed cytoplasmic localization for Cx26 with granular or occasionally diffuse immunostaining pattern. In addition, part of Cx26-positive tumours showed mixed: cytoplasmic and membranous staining pattern and focally also nuclear or perinuclear immunostaining was present. In 21/54 (39%) of Cx26-positive cases weak staining pattern was seen, however in 33/54 (61%) cancers strong reaction was noted. We did not find relationship between Cx26 expression and patients' age, histological type of cancer and histological grade, nevertheless we observed positive association between Cx26 expression and tumour size (p=0.037). In conclusion, our results suggest that transformed malignant cells continue to produce Cx26, which are probably not assembled into functional gap junction channels, but could still play other roles in endometrial cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vocal cord paralysis, a complication after strumectomy, affects about 1% of treated patients. Patients with unilateral paralysis are usually treated with foniatric and conservative therapy. Bilateral vocal cord paralysis with the paramedial placement of vocal folds usually requires surgical treatment. Trachoetomy is often done because of dyspnoe. The surgical procedures widening of glottis are performed in case no improvement after conservative therapy.
In 1989 Denis and Kashima first described the method of CO2 laser posterior cordectomy This method seems to be an effective and reliable surgical procedure. 36 patients with bilateral vocal cord paralysis underwent CO2 laser posterior cordectomy The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 36 months. All patients were decannulated by the third day after surgery.
The subjective evaluation of patients concerning treatment was satisfied.
The operation resulted in significant improvement in the field of respiratory function of the larynx and a slight objective aggrevation in the quality of voice.
Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 05/2008; 24(143):385-91.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Connexins are integral transmembrane proteins which form specialized hemichannels (connexons) in the plasma membrane. These structures make up gap junctions in adjacent cells which allow for rapid propagation of action potential and slow diffusion of nonorganic ions, secondary messengers, and other small water-soluble molecules (<1.0-2.0 kDa). Connexin proteins are crucial for the formation of gap junctions. Twenty human and 21 murine connexin isoforms (23-64 kDa) have been described so far. Traditional nomenclature in the CxMW format takes into account only the molecular weight of a given connexin. A more recent classification is based on structural gene similarities, their homology and sequence, as well as the length of connexins' cytoplasmic domains. Connexins, as all proteins, have a unique amino-acid sequences and molecular weights and exhibit specific biochemical properties. However, all of them have a common 3-D structure with four hydrophobic transmembrane domains (TM1-TM4), one cytoplasmic (CL) and two extracellular (E1-2) loops, and C- and N-terminal cytoplasmic regions. The cytoplasmic loop and C-terminal regions bind other structural proteins, creating a protein complex crucial for synchronized intercellular communication.
Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej (Advances in Hygiene and Experimental Medicine) 02/2008; 62:632-41. · 0.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure of nasal mucosa to various allergic and/or non-allergic stimuli might result in rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis affects 10-25% of population making it the most prevalent allergic disorder. Seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis affect up to 30% and 10% of pediatric population, respectively. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis varies between studies: in Poland, Breborowicz et al. reported allergic rhinitis in 16.7% of children aged 6-7, whereas Emeryk et al. observed perennial allergic rhinitis in 3.6% and seasonal allergic rhinitis in 6.2% of 8-15 year olds. Allergic rhinitis similarly to other diseases results in direct, indirect and hidden costs. In the USA (2002) direct costs were estimated at $4.195 billions and indirect at $665 millions (total of $4.863 billions). Allergic rhinitis co-exists with multiple respiratory conditions, significantly increasing treatment costs incurred by patients' and places additional burden on public finances. It also has a detrimental effect on patients' and their families' quality of life. Allergic rhinitis--although non-life threatening--significantly worsens quality of daily life and as such should be perceived as a serious medical condition not only by patients but also by medical professionals who are in position to diagnose it and implement appropriate therapeutic interventions.
Pneumonologia i alergologia polska: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Ftyzjopneumonologicznego, Polskiego Towarzystwa Alergologicznego, i Instytutu Gruzlicy i Chorob Pluc 02/2008; 76(5):348-52.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in every cell during normal oxidation. The most important ROS include: superoxide anion (O2*-), hydroxyl radical (OH*), hydroperoxyl radical (HO2*), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2*-). Reactive oxygen species can react with key cellular structures and molecules altering their biological function. Similarly reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitric oxide (NO) or peroxinitrite anion (ONOO-) have physiological activity or reacts with different types of molecules to form toxic products. ROS and RNS are important in process of energy generation, lipids peroxidation, protein and DNA oxidation, nitration, nitrosation or nitrosylation and catecholamine response. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species are neutralized by enzymatic activity or natural antioxidants that stop the initial formation of radicals. Overproduction of ROS or RNS results in "oxidative" or "nitrosative" stress which contributes to variety of pathological processes typical for different cancer, neurodegenerative, viral, toxic or inflammatory diseases.
Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 09/2007; 23(134):131-6.