Rodney C G Franklin

Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, Harefield, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (71)248.38 Total impact

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    David J. Spiegelhalter, Rodney C. Franklin, Kate Bull
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    ABSTRACT: Three paediatric cardiologists assessed nearly 1000 imprecise subjective conditional probabilities for a simple belief network representing congenital heart disease, and the quality of the assessments has been measured using prospective data on 200 babies. Quality has been assessed by a Brier scoring rule, which decomposes into terms measuring lack of discrimination and reliability. The results are displayed for each of 27 diseases and 24 questions, and generally the assessments are reliable although there was a tendency for the probabilities to be too extreme. The imprecision allows the judgements to be converted to implicit samples, and by combining with the observed data the probabilities naturally adapt with experience. This appears to be a practical procedure even for reasonably large expert systems.
    03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Significant advances have been made in the care of children with cardiac disease. Most advances have been guided by anatomical and functional understanding of the changes from normal imposed by the cardiac malformations. As survival has increased, it has become rare to obtain untreated and unaltered hearts for morphologic examination. This limited availability of new specimens, coupled with the inevitable deterioration of currently available specimens, means that alternative methods of “preservation” become increasingly important. In this review, we propose and outline a format for the development of a Global Virtual Museum of Congenital Cardiac Pathology, based on established principles of anatomical analysis, classification based on an internationally accepted nomenclature (The International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code or IPCCC), and the use of digital methods of storage of images and videos. In this fashion, we hope to preserve, in a virtual sense, the currently available anatomical specimens.
    Progress in Pediatric Cardiology 01/2012; 33(1):91–97.
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    ABSTRACT: Interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease is a relatively young and rapidly evolving field. As the profession begins to establish multi-institutional databases, a universal system of nomenclature is necessary for the field of interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the efforts of The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to establish a system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, focusing both on procedural nomenclature and the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology. This system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease is a component of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This manuscript is the second part of the two-part series. Part 1 covered the procedural nomenclature associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. Part 2 will cover the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease.
    Cardiology in the Young 02/2011; 21(3):260-5. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease is a relatively young and rapidly evolving field. As the profession begins to establish multi-institutional databases, a universal system of nomenclature is necessary for the field of interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the efforts of The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to establish a system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, focusing both on procedural nomenclature and on the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology. This system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease is a component of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This manuscript is the first part of a two-part series. Part 1 will cover the procedural nomenclature associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. This procedural nomenclature of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code will be used in the IMPACT Registry™ (IMproving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment) of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry® of The American College of Cardiology. Part 2 will cover the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease.
    Cardiology in the Young 02/2011; 21(3):252-9. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tremendous progress has been made in the field of pediatric heart disease over the past 30 years. Although survival after heart surgery in children has improved dramatically, complications still occur, and optimization of outcomes for all patients remains a challenge. To improve outcomes, collaborative efforts are required and ultimately depend on the possibility of using a common language when discussing pediatric and congenital heart disease. Such a universal language has been developed and named the International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC). To make the IPCCC more universally understood, efforts are under way to link the IPCCC to pictures and videos. The Archiving Working Group is an organization composed of leaders within the international pediatric cardiac medical community and part of the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (www.ipccc.net). Its purpose is to illustrate, with representative images of all types and formats, the pertinent aspects of cardiac diseases that affect neonates, infants, children, and adults with congenital heart disease, using the codes and definitions associated with the IPCCC as the organizational backbone. The Archiving Working Group certifies and links images and videos to the appropriate term and definition in the IPCCC. These images and videos are then displayed in an electronic format on the Internet. The purpose of this publication is to report the recent progress made by the Archiving Working Group in establishing an Internet-based, image encyclopedia that is based on the standards of the IPCCC.
    World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery. 10/2010; 1(3):300-313.
  • Hema Mistry, Robin Dowie, Rodney C G Franklin, Bhavdeep R Jani
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate mean costs of neonatal care for babies with birthweights <or=1800 g in a regional Level 3 unit and three Level 2 units providing short-term intensive care. Babies <or=1800 g admitted to units in four hospitals in England over 15 months in 2001-2002 were audited until discharge. Unit costs (2005-2006 prices) were attributed to their resource items, including neonatal cot occupancy, pharmaceuticals, blood products and ambulance transfers. Bootstrapped mean costs were derived for the Level 3 unit and the Level 2 units combined. The mean gestation period for 199 Level 3 babies was 29.5 weeks compared with 30.4 weeks for 192 Level 2 babies (p = 0.003). Mean costs excluding ambulance journeys were pound17,861 per Level 3 baby and pound12,344 per Level 2 baby. Level 3 babies <1000 g averaged pound26,815, whereas Level 2 babies <1000 g were generally less costly than babies 1000-1499 g. Ambulances transported 76 Level 3 babies and 62 Level 2 babies; their adjusted mean costs were pound18,495 and pound12,881, respectively. By comprehensively costing resource components, the magnitude of total costs for low-birthweight babies has been revealed, thus demonstrating the importance of budgets for neonatal units being realistically determined by commissioners of neonatal services.
    Acta Paediatrica 04/2009; 98(7):1123-9. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review discusses the historical aspects, current state of the art, and potential future advances in the areas of nomenclature and databases for the analysis of outcomes of treatments for patients with congenitally malformed hearts. We will consider the current state of analysis of outcomes, lay out some principles which might make it possible to achieve life-long monitoring and follow-up using our databases, and describe the next steps those involved in the care of these patients need to take in order to achieve these objectives. In order to perform meaningful multi-institutional analyses, we suggest that any database must incorporate the following six essential elements: use of a common language and nomenclature, use of an established uniform core dataset for collection of information, incorporation of a mechanism of evaluating case complexity, availability of a mechanism to assure and verify the completeness and accuracy of the data collected, collaboration between medical and surgical subspecialties, and standardised protocols for life-long follow-up. During the 1990s, both The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons created databases to assess the outcomes of congenital cardiac surgery. Beginning in 1998, these two organizations collaborated to create the International Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project. By 2000, a common nomenclature, along with a common core minimal dataset, were adopted by The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and published in the Annals of Thoracic Surgery. In 2000, The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established. This committee eventually evolved into the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. The working component of this international nomenclature society has been The International Working Group for Mapping and Coding of Nomenclatures for Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease, also known as the Nomenclature Working Group. By 2005, the Nomenclature Working Group crossmapped the nomenclature of the International Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project of The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons with the European Paediatric Cardiac Code of the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology, and therefore created the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, which is available for free download from the internet at [http://www.IPCCC.NET]. This common nomenclature, the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, and the common minimum database data set created by the International Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project, are now utilized by both The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Between 1998 and 2007 inclusive, this nomenclature and database was used by both of these two organizations to analyze outcomes of over 150,000 operations involving patients undergoing surgical treatment for congenital cardiac disease. Two major multi-institutional efforts that have attempted to measure the complexity of congenital heart surgery are the Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery-1 system, and the Aristotle Complexity Score. Current efforts to unify the Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery-1 system and the Aristotle Complexity Score are in their early stages, but encouraging. Collaborative efforts involving The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons are under way to develop mechanisms to verify the completeness and accuracy of the data in the databases. Under the leadership of The MultiSocietal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease, further collaborative efforts are ongoing between congenital and paediatric cardiac surgeons and other subspecialties, including paediatric cardiac anaesthesiologists, via The Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society, paediatric cardiac intensivists, via The Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society, and paediatric cardiologists, via the Joint Council on Congenital Heart Disease and The Association for European Paediatric Cardiology. In finalizing our review, we emphasise that analysis of outcomes must move beyond mortality, and encompass longer term follow-up, including cardiac and non cardiac morbidities, and importantly, those morbidities impacting health related quality of life. Methodologies must be implemented in these databases to allow uniform, protocol driven, and meaningful, long term follow-up.
    Cardiology in the Young 12/2008; 18 Suppl 2:38-62. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A complication is an event or occurrence that is associated with a disease or a healthcare intervention, is a departure from the desired course of events, and may cause, or be associated with, suboptimal outcome. A complication does not necessarily represent a breech in the standard of care that constitutes medical negligence or medical malpractice. An operative or procedural complication is any complication, regardless of cause, occurring (1) within 30 days after surgery or intervention in or out of the hospital, or (2) after 30 days during the same hospitalization subsequent to the operation or intervention. Operative and procedural complications include both intraoperative/intraprocedural complications and postoperative/postprocedural complications in this time interval. The MultiSocietal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease has set forth a comprehensive list of complications associated with the treatment of patients with congenital cardiac disease, related to cardiac, pulmonary, renal, haematological, infectious, neurological, gastrointestinal, and endocrinal systems, as well as those related to the management of anaesthesia and perfusion, and the transplantation of thoracic organs. The objective of this manuscript is to examine the definitions of operative morbidity as they relate specifically to the cardiac system. These specific definitions and terms will be used to track morbidity associated with surgical and transcatheter interventions and other forms of therapy in a common language across many separate databases.The MultiSocietal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease has prepared and defined a near-exhaustive list of cardiac complications, including intraoperative complications and cardiopulmonary bypass-related complications. These cardiac complications are presented in the following subgroups: 1) Cardiac (general), 2) Cardiac--Metabolic, 3) Cardiac--Residual and Recurrent cardiac lesions, 4) Arrhythmia, 5) Cardiopulmonary bypass and mechanical circulatory support, and 6) Operative/Procedural. Within each subgroup, complications are presented in alphabetical order. Clinicians caring for patients with congenital cardiac disease will be able to use this list for databases, quality improvement initiatives, reporting of complications, and comparing strategies for treatment.
    Cardiology in the Young 12/2008; 18 Suppl 2:196-201. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate, complete data is now the expectation of patients, families, payers, government, and even media. It has become an obligation of those practising congenital cardiac surgery. Appropriately, major professional organizations worldwide are assuming responsibility for the data quality in their respective registry databases. The purpose of this article is to review the current strategies used for verification of the data in the congenital databases of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, and The United Kingdom Central Cardiac Audit Database. Because the results of the initial efforts to verify data in the congenital databases of the United Kingdom and Europe have been previously published, this article provides a more detailed look at the current efforts in North America, which prior to this article have not been published. The discussion and presentation of the strategy for the verification of data in the congenital heart surgery database of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons is then followed by a review of the strategies utilized in the United Kingdom and Europe. The ultimate goal of sharing the information in this article is to provide information to the participants in the databases that track the outcomes of patients with congenitally malformed hearts. This information should help to improve the quality of the data in all of our databases, and therefore increase the utility of these databases to function as a tool to optimise the management strategies provided to our patients. The need for accurate, complete and high quality Congenital Heart Surgery outcome data has never been more pressing. The public interest in medical outcomes is at an all time high and "pay for performance" is looming on the horizon. Information found in administrative databases is not risk or complexity adjusted, notoriously inaccurate, and far too imprecise to evaluate performance adequately in congenital cardiac surgery. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery databases contain the elements needed for assessment of quality of care provided that a mechanism exists within these organizations to guarantee the completeness and accuracy of the data. The Central Cardiac Audit Database in the United Kingdom has an advantage in this endeavour with the ability to track and verify mortality independently, through their National Health Service. A combination of site visits with "Source Data Verification", in other words, verification of the data at the primary source of the data, and external verification of the data from independent databases or registries, such as governmental death registries, may ultimately be required to allow for optimal verification of data. Further research in the area of verification of data is also necessary. Data must be verified for both completeness and accuracy.
    Cardiology in the Young 12/2008; 18 Suppl 2:177-87. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinicians working in the field of congenital and paediatric cardiology have long felt the need for a common diagnostic and therapeutic nomenclature and coding system with which to classify patients of all ages with congenital and acquired cardiac disease. A cohesive and comprehensive system of nomenclature, suitable for setting a global standard for multicentric analysis of outcomes and stratification of risk, has only recently emerged, namely, The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This review, will give an historical perspective on the development of systems of nomenclature in general, and specifically with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. Finally, current and future efforts to merge such systems into the paperless environment of the electronic health or patient record on a global scale are briefly explored. On October 6, 2000, The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established. In January, 2005, the International Nomenclature Committee was constituted in Canada as The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. This International Society now has three working groups. The Nomenclature Working Group developed The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code and will continue to maintain, expand, update, and preserve this International Code. It will also provide ready access to the International Code for the global paediatric and congenital cardiology and cardiac surgery communities, related disciplines, the healthcare industry, and governmental agencies, both electronically and in published form. The Definitions Working Group will write definitions for the terms in the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, building on the previously published definitions from the Nomenclature Working Group. The Archiving Working Group, also known as The Congenital Heart Archiving Research Team, will link images and videos to the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. The images and videos will be acquired from cardiac morphologic specimens and imaging modalities such as echocardiography, angiography, computerized axial tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as intraoperative images and videos. Efforts are ongoing to expand the usage of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code to other areas of global healthcare. Collaborative efforts are underway involving the leadership of The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease and the representatives of the steering group responsible for the creation of the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, administered by the World Health Organisation. Similar collaborative efforts are underway involving the leadership of The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease and the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation, who are the owners of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine or "SNOMED". The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code was created by specialists in the field to name and classify paediatric and congenital cardiac disease and its treatment. It is a comprehensive code that can be freely downloaded from the internet (http://www.IPCCC.net) and is already in use worldwide, particularly for international comparisons of outcomes. The goal of this effort is to create strategies for stratification of risk and to improve healthcare for the individual patient. The collaboration with the World Heath Organization, the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation, and the healthcare industry, will lead to further enhancement of the International Code, and to its more universal use.
    Cardiology in the Young 12/2008; 18 Suppl 2:70-80. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review includes a brief discussion, from the perspective of cardiac surgeons, of the rationale for creation and maintenance of multi-institutional databases of outcomes of congenital heart surgery, together with a history of the evolution of such databases, a description of the current state of the art, and a discussion of areas for improvement and future expansion of the concept. Five fundamental areas are reviewed: nomenclature, mechanism of data collection and storage, mechanisms for the evaluation and comparison of the complexity of operations and stratification of risk, mechanisms to ensure the completeness and accuracy of the data, and mechanisms for expansion of the current capabilities of databases to include comparison and sharing of data between medical subspecialties. This review briefly describes several European and North American initiatives related to databases for pediatric and congenital cardiac surgery the Congenital Database of The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, the Congenital Database of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium, and the Central Cardiac Audit Database in the United Kingdom. Potential means of approaching the ultimate goal of acquisition of long-term follow-up data, and input of this data over the life of the patient, are also considered.
    Cardiology in the Young 12/2008; 18 Suppl 2:101-15. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review includes a brief discussion, from the perspective of the pediatric cardiologist, of the rationale for creation and maintenance of multi-institutional databases of outcomes of the treatment of patients with congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, together with a history of the evolution of such databases, and a description of the current state of the art. A number of projects designed to have broad-based impact are currently in the design phase, or have already been implemented. Not surprisingly, most of the efforts thus far have focused on catheterization procedures and interventions, although some work examining other aspects of paediatric cardiology practice is also beginning. This review briefly describes several European and North American initiatives related to databases for pediatric and congenital cardiology including the Central Cardiac Audit Database of the United Kingdom, national database initiatives for pediatric cardiology in Switzerland and Germany, various database initiatives under the leadership of the Working Groups of The Association for European Paediatric Cardiology, the IMPACT Registry (IMproving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment) of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry of The American College of Cardiology Foundation and The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI), the Mid-Atlantic Group of Interventional Cardiology (MAGIC) Catheterization Outcomes Project, the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes (C3PO), the Congenital Cardiovascular Interventional Study Consortium (CCISC), and the Joint Council on Congenital Heart Disease (JCCHD) National Quality Improvement Initiative. These projects, each leveraging multicentre data and collaboration, demonstrate the enormous progress that has occurred over the last several years to improve the quality and consistency of information about nonsurgical treatment for congenital cardiac disease. The paediatric cardiology field is well-poised to move quickly beyond outcome assessment and benchmarking, to collaborative quality improvement.
    Cardiology in the Young 12/2008; 18 Suppl 2:116-23. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare caseloads of new patients assessed by paediatric cardiologists face-to-face or during teleconferences, and assess NHS costs for the alternative referral arrangements. Prospective cohort study over 15 months. Four district hospitals in south-east England and a London paediatric cardiology centre. Babies and children. A telecardiology service introduced alongside outreach clinics. Clinical outcomes and mean NHS costs per patient. 266 new patients were studied: 75 had teleconsultations (19 of 42 newborns and 56 of 224 infants and children). Teleconsultation patients generally were younger (49% being under 1 year compared with 32% seen personally (p = 0.025)) and their symptoms were not as severe. A cardiac intervention was undertaken immediately or planned for five telemedicine patients (7%) and 30 conventional patients (16%). However, similar proportions of patients were discharged after being assessed (32% telemedicine and 39% conventional). During scheduled teleconferences the mean duration of time per patient in sessions involving real-time echocardiography was 14.4 min, and 8.5 min in sessions where pre-recorded videos were transmitted. Mean cost comparisons for telemedicine and face-to-face patients over 14-day and 6-month follow-up showed the telecardiology service to be cost-neutral for the three hospitals with infrequently-held outreach clinics (1519 UK pounds vs 1724 UK pounds respectively after 14 days). Paediatric cardiology centres with small cadres of specialists are under pressure to cope with ever-expanding caseloads of new patients with suspected anomalies. Innovative use of telecardiology alongside conventional outreach services should suitably, and economically, enhance access to these specialists.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood 10/2008; 94(4):273-7. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the morphologic and physiological predictors of post-natal surgical pathway in a longitudinal series of fetuses with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS) and/or critical pulmonary stenosis with reversal of ductal flow (CPS) using statistical modeling. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum is rarely associated with chromosomal or extra cardiac malformations, so decisions about continuing a pregnancy are strongly influenced by the prediction of univentricular (UV) or biventricular (BV) circulation. Predictive scores were derived, using a combination of z-scores of fetal cardiac measurements (for femoral length) and tricuspid/mitral valve (TV/MV) ratios, to facilitate early prediction of UV or BV circulation in 21 fetuses with PAIVS (18 fetuses) or CPS (3 fetuses) between 1998 and 2004. We also assessed the predictive value of coronary fistulae and right atrial pressure (RAP) score (comprising the tricuspid valve, foramen ovale, and ductus venosus Doppler). One-half of the cohort was first assessed before 23 gestational weeks (range 15.7 to 33.7 weeks). The TV z-score was a good predictor at all gestations, but the best predictive scores for specific gestations were pulmonary valve (PV) z-score (<23 weeks), median TV z-score (<26 weeks), the combination of median PV z-score and the median TV/MV ratio (26 to 31 weeks), and the combination of median TV z-score and median TV/MV ratio (>31 weeks). The RAP score and coronary fistulae were good independent predictors: RAP score >3 predicted BV with area under the curve of 0.833, and detection of fistulae usually predicted a UV route. The best predictive scores for post-natal outcome in fetal PAIVS/CPS are a combination of morphologic and physiological variables, which predict a BV circulation with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 100% before 26 weeks.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2008; 51(13):1299-308. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A district hospital in south-east England used a telecardiology service for fetal cardiac diagnosis alongside an existing arrangement for referring pregnant women directly to perinatal cardiologists in London for detailed fetal echocardiography. Women were identified for referral according to local protocols when having a second trimester anomaly scan. For the telemedicine referrals, the sonographers video-recorded images from the anomaly scans for transmission during monthly videoconferences. The cost of the women's antenatal care was calculated from the specialist assessment until delivery, while family costs were collected in a postal survey. Over 15 months, telemedicine was used in 52 cases, while 24 women were seen in London. The London women were more likely to have had an ultrasound abnormality (29% v 10%, P = 0.047). A telemedicine assessment of 5 min duration was more costly than an examination in London (mean cost per referral of pound206 v pound74, P < 0.001). However, the telecardiology service was cost neutral after 14 days and for the extended period until delivery. Travel costs for London women averaged pound37 compared with pound5.50 for the telemedicine referrals. Telemedicine may be useful to support perinatal cardiologists in the UK whose workloads are expanding in response to improved standards in antenatal ultrasound screening.
    Journal of telemedicine and telecare 02/2008; 14(8):421-6. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2000, The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established. This committee eventually evolved into the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. The working component of this international nomenclature society has been The International Working Group for Mapping and Coding of Nomenclatures for Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease, also known as the Nomenclature Working Group. The Nomenclature Working Group created the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, which is available for free download from the internet at [http://www.IPCCC.NET]. In previous publications from the Nomenclature Working Group, unity has been produced by cross-mapping separate systems for coding, as for example in the treatment of the functionally univentricular heart, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, or congenitally corrected transposition. In this manuscript, we review the nomenclature, definition, and classification of heterotaxy, also known as the heterotaxy syndrome, placing special emphasis on the philosophical approach taken by both the Bostonian school of segmental notation developed from the teachings of Van Praagh, and the European school of sequential segmental analysis. The Nomenclature Working Group offers the following definition for the term "heterotaxy": "Heterotaxy is synonymous with 'visceral heterotaxy' and 'heterotaxy syndrome'. Heterotaxy is defined as an abnormality where the internal thoraco-abdominal organs demonstrate abnormal arrangement across the left-right axis of the body. By convention, heterotaxy does not include patients with either the expected usual or normal arrangement of the internal organs along the left-right axis, also known as 'situs solitus', nor patients with complete mirror-imaged arrangement of the internal organs along the left-right axis also known as 'situs inversus'." "Situs ambiguus is defined as an abnormality in which there are components of situs solitus and situs inversus in the same person. Situs ambiguus, therefore, can be considered to be present when the thoracic and abdominal organs are positioned in such a way with respect to each other as to be not clearly lateralised and thus have neither the usual, or normal, nor the mirror-imaged arrangements."The heterotaxy syndrome as thus defined is typically associated with complex cardiovascular malformations. Proper description of the heart in patients with this syndrome requires complete description of both the cardiac relations and the junctional connections of the cardiac segments, with documentation of the arrangement of the atrial appendages, the ventricular topology, the nature of the unions of the segments across the atrioventricular and the ventriculoarterial junctions, the infundibular morphologies, and the relationships of the arterial trunks in space. The position of the heart in the chest, and the orientation of the cardiac apex, must also be described separately. Particular attention is required for the venoatrial connections, since these are so often abnormal. The malformations within the heart are then analysed and described separately as for any patient with suspected congenital cardiac disease. The relationship and arrangement of the remaining thoraco-abdominal organs, including the spleen, the lungs, and the intestines, also must be described separately, because, although common patterns of association have been identified, there are frequent exceptions to these common patterns. One of the clinically important implications of heterotaxy syndrome is that splenic abnormalities are common. Investigation of any patient with the cardiac findings associated with heterotaxy, therefore, should include analysis of splenic morphology. The less than perfect association between the state of the spleen and the form of heart disease implies that splenic morphology should be investigated in all forms of heterotaxy, regardless of the type of cardiac disease. The splenic morphology should not be used to stratify the form of disease within the heart, and the form of cardiac disease should not be used to stratify the state of the spleen. Intestinal malrotation is another frequently associated lesion that must be considered. Some advocate that all patients with heterotaxy, especially those with isomerism of the right atrial appendages or asplenia syndrome, should have a barium study to evaluate for intestinal malrotation, given the associated potential morbidity. The cardiac anatomy and associated cardiac malformations, as well as the relationship and arrangement of the remaining thoraco-abdominal organs, must be described separately. It is only by utilizing this stepwise and logical progression of analysis that it becomes possible to describe correctly, and to classify properly, patients with heterotaxy.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2007; 17 Suppl 2:1-28. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric cardiology has an expanding role in fetal and pediatric screening. The aims of this study were to observe how district hospitals use a pediatric telecardiology service, and to compare the costs and outcomes of patients referred to specialists by means of this service or conventionally. A telemedicine service was set up between a pediatric cardiac center in London and four district hospitals for referrals of second trimester women, newborn babies, and older children. Clinicians in each hospital decided on the role for their service. Clinical events were audited prospectively and costed, and patient surveys were conducted. The hospitals differed in their selection of patient groups for the service. In all, 117 telemedicine patients were compared with 387 patients seen in London or in outreach clinics. Patients selected for telemedicine were generally healthier. For all patients, the mean cost for the initial consultation was 411 UK pounds for tele-referrals and 277 UK pounds for conventional referrals, a nonsignificant difference. Teleconsultations for women and children were significantly more expensive because of technology costs, whereas for babies, ambulance transfers were much more costly. After 6-months follow-up, the difference between referral methods for all patients was nonsignificant (telemedicine, 3,350 UK pounds; conventional referrals, 2,172 UK pounds), and nonsignificant within the patient groups. Telemedicine was perceived by cardiologists, district clinicians, and families as reliable and efficient. The equivocal 6-month cost results indicate that investment in the technology is warranted to enhance pediatric and perinatal cardiology services.
    International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 02/2007; 23(1):116-25. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the process of creation of a bidirectional crossmap between the system emerging, on the one hand, from the initiative sponsored by the Congenital Heart Committees of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and on the other hand, from that formulated by the Coding Committee of the European Association for Pediatric Cardiology, the Nomenclature Working Group has successfully created the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. As would be expected, during the process of crossmapping it became clear that, for most lesions, the European Pediatric Cardiac Code was more complete in its description of the diagnoses, while the International Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project was more complete in its description of the procedures. This process of crossmapping exemplifies the efforts of the Nomenclature Working Group to create a comprehensive and all-inclusive international system for the naming of paediatric and congenital cardiac disease, the International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. Although names and classification for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease will continue to evolve over time, we are now closer than ever to reaching uniform international agreement and standardization. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code can be downloaded from the Internet, free of charge, at www.ipccc. net.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2006; 16 Suppl 3:72-84. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hypoplastic left heart syndrome encompasses a spectrum of cardiac malformations that are characterized by significant underdevelopment of the components of the left heart and the aorta, including the left ventricular cavity and mass. At the severe end of the spectrum is found the combination of aortic and mitral atresia, when the left ventricle can be close to non-existent. At the mild end are the patients with hypoplasia of the aortic and mitral valves, but without intrinsic valvar stenosis or atresia, and milder degrees of left ventricular hypoplasia. Although the majority of the patients are suitable only for functionally univentricular repair, a small minority may be candidates for biventricular repair. The nature of the syndrome was a topic for discussion at the second meeting of the International Working Group for Mapping and Coding of Nomenclatures for Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease, the Nomenclature Working Group, held in Montreal, Canada, over the period January 17 through 19, 2003. Subsequent to these discussions, the Nomenclature Working Group was able to create a bidirectional crossmap between the nomenclature initially produced jointly on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the alternative nomenclature developed on behalf of the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology. This process is a part of the overall efforts of the Nomenclature Working Group to create a comprehensive and all-inclusive international system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease, the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. In this review, we discuss the evolution of nomenclature and surgical treatment for the spectrum of lesions making up the hypoplastic left heart syndrome and its related malformations. We also present the crossmap of the associated terms for diagnoses and procedures, as recently completed by the Nomenclature Working Group.
    Cardiology in the Young 09/2006; 16(4):339-68. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Rodney C G Franklin
    Cardiology in the Young 07/2006; 16(3):252-5. · 0.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

997 Citations
248.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2012
    • Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust
      Harefield, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007–2008
    • Brunel University
      • Health Economics Research Group
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2008
    • Imperial College London
      • Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • University of South Florida
      Tampa, Florida, United States
  • 2002
    • McGill University Health Centre
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1990–1996
    • Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1991–1994
    • SickKids
      • Division of Cardiology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1988
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics
      Nashville, MI, United States